The descent with modification


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A Powerpoint presentation about a brief introduction to Plant Evolution and Evolution as a whole. It's definition and how it came to be.

Includes basic apomorphies from the ViridiPlantae up to the Angiosperms...

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The descent with modification

  1. 1. The Descent with Modification
  2. 2. Evolution <ul><li>Life first originated some 3.8 billion years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms come to exist by the Transfer of Genetic Material, within a surrounding cell, from one or more parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Descent may occur through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple clonal reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Lineage <ul><li>Results from “Descent through Time” </li></ul><ul><li>A set of organisms interconnected through time and space by the transfer of genetic material from parents to offspring. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modification <ul><li>A component of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to a change in Genetic Material that is transferred from parent/s to offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Such Genetic Material of the offspring is different from the parent/s. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Recombination </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Population and Species <ul><li>The General Units of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of Populations that are related to one another by various criteria and have evolutionarily diverged from such other groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of individuals of the same species that is usually geographically delimited. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Phylogeny <ul><li>The evolutionary History or pattern of descent of a group of organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly represented in a “Cladogram” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cladogram <ul><li>A hypothesis about the lineages and their evolutionary relationships. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conditions of the Species <ul><li>Pleisomorphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ancestral condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apomorphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The evolutionary novelty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synapomorphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An apomorphy that unites two or more lineages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autopomorphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An apomorphy that occurs within a single lineage </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. History of Evolution <ul><li>Plato </li></ul><ul><li>“ The observable world is no more than a shadowy reflection of underlying “ideals” that are true and eternal for all time.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Great Chain of Being <ul><li>“The Deity wishing to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of intelligible beings, framed one visible living being containing within itself all other living beings of like nature” </li></ul><ul><li>-Plato- </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scale of Nature <ul><li>Formed by Aristotle from Plato’s ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a link in the progressions from the least, to the most perfect of creatures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Charles Darwin <ul><li>Described as a man who defied his own social and religious background, not only by espousing a radical concept, but by becoming the instrument that made it acceptable to many of his compatriots. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Galapagos Islands <ul><li>Where Darwin had a great impact on his thinking about Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly Struck by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of insect eating warblers and woodpeckers, but finchers taking their place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The observation that each island contained its own constellation of species. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Jean-Baptiste de Lamrack <ul><li>Proposed the Continuity of Species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations among organisms originate because of response to the needs of the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to respond in a particular direction accounts for the adaptation of new features. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Macroevolution <ul><li>The evolutionary changes at the species level and above. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Microevolution <ul><li>Evolution within the population of a species </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Evolution <ul><li>Divergent Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Evolution </li></ul>
  18. 18. Divergent Evolution <ul><li>  the evolutionary pattern in which two species gradually become increasingly different. </li></ul><ul><li>often occurs when closely related species diversify to new habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Large Scale: Responsible for the creation of the current diversity of life on earth from the first living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>  Small Scale: Responsible for the evolution of two species from a common ancestor. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Convergent Evolution <ul><li>  Takes place when species of different ancestry begin to share analogous traits because of a shared environment or other selection pressure. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Parallel Evolution <ul><li>Occurs when two species evolve independently of each other, maintaining the same level of similarity.  </li></ul><ul><li>Between unrelated species that do not occupy the same or similar niches in a given habitat. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Plant Evolution
  22. 22. The Green Plants <ul><li>Cellulosic Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Apomorphy of the Viridiplantae: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thylakoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stacked Grana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Streptophyte <ul><li>Gave rise to the Land Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Apomorphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charophyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clade within the Streptophytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apomorphy: Plasmodesmata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coleochaete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Embryophyta – Land Plants <ul><li>First colonization of Plants on Land during the Silurian Period (400 mya) </li></ul><ul><li>Under Streptophytes/Charophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Apomorphy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo/Sporophyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antheridium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archegonium </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. NonVascular Land Plants <ul><li>Hepaticae (Liverworts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the monophyletic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendents of some of the first land plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mosses </li></ul><ul><li>Apomorphy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial Sporophyte Axis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anthocerotae (Hormworts) </li></ul><ul><li>Apomorphy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-lived Photosynthetic Sporophyte </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Tracheophyta Vascular Land Plants
  27. 27. Apomorphies <ul><li>Independent, long-lived sporophyte </li></ul><ul><li>Branched sporophyte </li></ul><ul><li>Lignified secondary walls </li></ul><ul><li>Sclerenchyma </li></ul><ul><li>Tracheary Elements (xylem) </li></ul><ul><li>Sieve Elements (phloem) </li></ul><ul><li>Endodermis </li></ul><ul><li>Roots </li></ul>
  28. 28. Lignophytes Woody Plants
  29. 29. Apomorphy <ul><li>Possesses the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular Cambium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cork Cambium </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Spermatophytes <ul><li>Seed Plants, a lineage within the lignophytes </li></ul><ul><li>Apomorphy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Angiosperms Pretty Flower Plants
  32. 32. Origin of Angiosperms <ul><li>Earliest definitive fossils of Angiosperms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersed Pollen Grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest Cretaceous Period (140mya) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower Fossil Record (130mya) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once Angiosperms arose, they rapidly radiated into several, distinct lineages, replacing gymnosperms as the dominant plant life form on earth. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Amborella trichopoda <ul><li>The Best hypothesis for the most basal angiosperm lineage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possesses unisexual flowers with a spiral perianth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminar stamens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate carpels </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Thank You!
  35. 37. Credits (Pictures) <ul><li>Slide 1: http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 6: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 17: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 21: http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Other Slides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either found through Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Pictured by me… ^_^ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ahehehhehehhe…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Luck sa Finals! :D </li></ul></ul>