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Berk Chapter 25: Leasing
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Berk Chapter 25: Leasing

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  • A RELIABLE AND A GENUINE PROVIDER THAT CAN DELIVER BANK GUARANTEE AND OTHER FORM OF BANKING INSTRUMENTS FOR LEASE WHICH ARE MAINLY FRESH CUT.

    Bank instruments which are cash backed can be used as thus; clients looking for loans to finance their businesses also serve as a collateral to get loans from banks in other to engage into any project at hand further details will be emailed upon request.

    Email: mklease.broker@gmail.com
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  • 1. Chapter 25 Leasing
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • 25.1 The Basics of Leasing
    • 25.2 Accounting, Tax, and Legal Consequences of Leasing
    • 25.3 The Leasing Decision
    • 25.4 Reasons for Leasing
  • 3. Learning Objectives
    • Define a lease and specify the rights and obligations of each party to the lease.
    • Distinguish between a sales-type lease, a direct lease, and a sale and lease-back.
    • Compute the cost of leasing in a perfect market.
    • Define the four types of options available for the lessee to obtain ownership of the asset at the end of the lease.
    • Distinguish between the two types of leases recognized by FASB.
  • 4. Learning Objectives (cont'd)
    • Distinguish between the two broad categories of leases recognized by the IRS.
    • Describe the treatment of leases in bankruptcy.
    • Given necessary inputs, compare the cost of leasing with the cost of financing.
    • Identify good reasons for leasing, including for a non-tax lease.
    • Identify suspect reasons for leasing.
  • 5. 25.1 The Basics of Leasing
    • Lessee
      • The party in a lease liable for periodic payments in exchange for the right to use the asset
    • Lessor
      • The party in a lease who is entitled to the lease payments in exchange for lending the asset
  • 6. 25.1 The Basics of Leasing (cont'd)
    • Most leases involve little or no upfront payment.
      • The lessee commits to make regular lease payments for the term of the contract.
      • At the end of the contract term, the lease specifies who will retain ownership of the asset and at what terms.
  • 7. Examples of Lease Transactions
    • Sales-Type Lease
      • A type of lease in which the lessor is the manufacturer (or primary dealer) of the asset
    • Direct Lease
      • A type of lease in which the lessor is not the manufacturer, but is often an independent company that specializes in purchasing assets and leasing them to customers
  • 8. Examples of Lease Transactions (cont'd)
    • Sale and Lease-Back
      • Describes a type of lease in which a firm already owns an asset it would prefer to lease
      • The firm receives cash from the sale of the asset and then makes lease payments to retain the use of the asset.
  • 9. Examples of Lease Transactions (cont'd)
    • Leveraged Leases
      • A lease in which the lessor borrows from a bank or other lender to obtain the initial capital to purchase an asset, using the lease payments to pay interest and principal on the loan
  • 10. Examples of Lease Transactions (cont'd)
    • Special-Purpose Entity (SPE)
      • A separate business partnership created by a lessee for the sole purpose of obtaining a lease
    • Synthetic Lease
      • A lease commonly uses a SPE and is designed to obtain specific accounting and tax treatments.
  • 11. Lease Payments and Residual Values
    • Residual Value
      • An asset’s market value at the end of a lease
        • The cost of a lease will depend on the asset’s residual value.
  • 12. Lease Payments and Residual Values (cont'd)
    • Assume your business needs a new $20,000 forklift and you are considering leasing the forklift for four years.
      • The estimated residual value of the forklift in four years is $6000.
  • 13. Lease Payments and Residual Values (cont'd)
    • If lease payments of amount L are made monthly, then the lessor’s cash flows from the transaction are as follows:
      • Note that lease payments are typically made at the beginning of each payment period.
  • 14. Lease Payments and Residual Values (cont'd)
    • In a perfect market, the cost of leasing is equivalent to the cost of purchasing and reselling the asset .
  • 15. Textbook Example 25.1
  • 16. Textbook Example 25.1 (cont'd)
  • 17. Alternative Example 25.1
    • Problem
      • Assume:
        • The purchase price of an industrial lathe is $50,000.
        • Its residual value in five years will be (with certainty) $10,000.
        • There is no risk that the lessee will default on the lease.
      • If the risk-free interest rate is a 4.8% APR with monthly compounding, what would be the monthly lease payment for a five-year lease in a perfect capital market?
  • 18. Alternative Example 25.1
    • Solution
      • PV (Lease Payments):
        • $50,000 − $10,000 ÷ [1 + (.048 ÷ 12)] 60 = $42,130
      • Put the calculator on BEG mode:
      • Put the calculator on 12 periods per year:
  • 19. Alternative Example 25.1
    • Solution (continued)
      • The monthly payment is:
  • 20. Leases Versus Loans
    • As an alternative, you could obtain a four-year loan for the purchase price and buy the forklift outright. If M is the monthly payment for a fully amortizing loan, the lender’s cash flows will be as follows:
  • 21. Leases Versus Loans (cont'd)
    • If the loan is fairly priced, the loan payments would be such that:
      • With a standard loan, the entire cost of the asset is financed.
      • With a lease, only the cost of the economic depreciation of the asset during the term of the lease is financed.
        • This causes the loan payments to be higher than the lease payments.
  • 22. Textbook Example 25.2
  • 23. Textbook Example 25.2 (cont'd)
  • 24. Alternative Example 25.2
    • Problem
      • Extending Alternative Example 25.1, assume:
        • The lathe can be financed with a $50,000 five-year loan.
      • What would the monthly loan payment be in a perfect capital market where the risk-free interest rate is a 4.8% APR with monthly compounding, assuming no risk of default?
  • 25. Alternative Example 25.2
    • Solution
      • Make sure the calculator is on END mode:
      • Put the calculator on 12 periods per year:
  • 26. Alternative Example 25.2
    • Solution (continued)
      • The monthly payment is:
  • 27. Leases Versus Loans (cont'd)
    • By the Law of One Price, in a perfect market, the cost of leasing and then purchasing the asset is equivalent to the cost of borrowing to purchase the asset .
  • 28. End-of-Term Lease Options
    • Fair Market Value (FMV) Lease
      • A type of lease that gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at its fair market value at the termination of the lease
        • With perfect capital markets, there is no difference between an FMV lease and a lease in which the assets are retained by the lessor.
  • 29. End-of-Term Lease Options (cont'd)
    • $1 Out Lease
      • A type of lease in which ownership of the asset transfers to the lessee at the end of the lease for a nominal cost of $1
      • Since the lessee has effectively purchased the asset by making the lease payments, this type of lease is in many ways equivalent to financing the asset with a standard loan.
      • Also known as Finance Lease
  • 30. End-of-Term Lease Options (cont'd)
    • Fixed Price Lease
      • A type of lease in which the lessee has the option to purchase the asset at the end of the lease for a fixed price that is set upfront in the lease contract
        • This type of lease is very common for consumer leases.
        • Since the lessee has an option to purchase, the lessor will set a higher lease rate to compensate for the value of this option.
  • 31. End-of-Term Lease Options (cont'd)
    • Fair Market Value Cap Lease
      • A type of lease in which the lessee can purchase the asset at the minimum of its fair market value and a fixed price or “cap”
        • Similar to a fixed price lease, although the option is easier to exercise because the lessee does not have to find a similar asset elsewhere to buy when the fixed price exceeds the market value
  • 32. Textbook Example 25.3
  • 33. Textbook Example 25.3 (cont'd)
  • 34. Alternative Example 25.3
    • Problem
      • Assume:
        • The purchase price of an industrial lathe is $50,000.
        • Its residual value in five years will be (with certainty) $10,000.
        • There is no risk that the lessee will default on the lease.
      • If the risk-free interest rate is a 4.8% APR with monthly compounding, what would be the monthly lease payment for a five-year lease if the lease is a $1 out lease?
  • 35. Alternative Example 25.3
    • Solution
      • Put the calculator on BEG mode:
      • Put the calculator on 12 periods per year:
  • 36. Alternative Example 25.3
    • Solution (continued)
      • The monthly payment is:
  • 37. Other Lease Provisions
    • Leases may have many other provisions.
      • Provisions that give valuable options to the lessee raise the amount of the lease payments, while provisions that restrict these options will lower them.
  • 38. Other Lease Provisions (cont'd)
    • Examples of other lease provisions
      • Early cancellation options that allow the lessee to end the lease early (perhaps for a fee)
      • Buyout options that allow the lessee to purchase the asset before the end of the lease term
      • Clauses may allow the lessee to trade in and upgrade the equipment to a newer model at certain points in the lease
  • 39. 25.2 Accounting, Tax, and Legal Consequences of Leasing
    • Lease Accounting
      • For lessees, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), distinguishes two types of leases based on the lease terms, and this classification determines the lease’s accounting treatment:
  • 40. 25.2 Accounting, Tax, and Legal Consequences of Leasing (cont'd)
    • Lease Accounting
      • Operating Lease
        • A type of lease, viewed as a rental for accounting purposes, in which the lessee reports the entire lease payment as an operating expense
          • The lessee does not deduct a depreciation expense for the asset and does not report the asset or the lease payment liability on its balance sheet.
          • Operating leases are disclosed in the footnotes of the lessee’s financial statements.
  • 41. 25.2 Accounting, Tax, and Legal Consequences of Leasing (cont'd)
    • Lease Accounting
      • Capital Lease
        • Long-term lease contract that obligates a firm to make regular lease payments in exchange for the use of an asset
          • Viewed as an acquisition for accounting purposes; the lessee lists the asset on its balance sheet and incurs depreciation expenses.
          • The lessee also lists the present value of the future lease payments as a liability and deducts the interest portion of the lease payments as an interest expense.
        • Also know as Finance Lease
  • 42. Textbook Example 25.4
  • 43. Textbook Example 25.4 (cont'd)
  • 44. 25.2 Accounting, Tax, and Legal Consequences of Leasing (cont'd)
    • Lease Accounting
      • A lease is treated as a capital lease for the lessee and must be listed on the firm’s balance sheet if it satisfies any of the following conditions.
        • Title to the property transfers to the lessee at the end of the lease term
        • The lease contains an option to purchase the asset at a bargain price that is substantially less than its fair market value
  • 45. 25.2 Accounting, Tax, and Legal Consequences of Leasing (cont'd)
    • Lease Accounting
        • The lease term is 75% or more of the estimated economic life of the asset
        • The present value of the minimum lease payments at the start of the lease is 90% or more of the asset’s fair market value
  • 46. Textbook Example 25.5
  • 47. Textbook Example 25.5 (cont'd)
  • 48. The Tax Treatment of Leases
    • The IRS has its own classification rules that determine the tax treatment of a lease.
      • True Tax Lease
        • A type of lease in which the lessor receives the depreciation deduction associated with the ownership of the asset
          • The lessee can deduct the full amount of the lease payments as an operating expense and the lease payments are treated as revenue for the lessor.
  • 49. The Tax Treatment of Leases (cont'd)
    • The IRS has its own classification rules that determine the tax treatment of a lease.
      • Non-Tax Lease
        • A type of lease in which the lessee receives the depreciation deductions for tax purposes and can also deduct the interest portion of the lease payments as an interest expense
          • The interest portion of the lease payment is interest income to the lessor.
  • 50. The Tax Treatment of Leases (cont'd)
    • If the lease satisfies any of these conditions, it is treated as a non-tax lease:
      • The lessee obtains equity in the leased asset
      • The lessee receives ownership of the asset on completion of all lease payments
      • The total amount that the lessee is required to pay for a relatively short period of use constitutes an inordinately large proportion of the total value of the asset
  • 51. The Tax Treatment of Leases (cont'd)
      • The lease payments greatly exceed the current fair rental value of the asset
      • The property may be acquired at a bargain price in relation to the fair market value of the asset at the time when the option may be exercised
      • Some portion of the lease payments is specifically designated as interest or its equivalent
  • 52. Leases and Bankruptcy
    • The treatment of leased property in bankruptcy will depend on whether the lease is classified as a security interest or a true lease by the bankruptcy judge.
  • 53. Leases and Bankruptcy (cont'd)
    • Security Interest
      • A classification of a lease in bankruptcy proceedings that assumes a firm has effective ownership of an asset and the asset is protected against seizure
        • The lessor is treated as any other secured creditor and must await the firm’s reorganization or ultimate liquidation.
  • 54. Leases and Bankruptcy (cont'd)
    • True Lease
      • A classification of a lease in bankruptcy proceedings in which the lessor retains ownership rights over an asset
        • Within 120 days of filing Chapter 11, the bankrupt firm must choose whether to assume or reject the lease.
          • If it assumes the lease, it must settle all pending claims and continue to make all promised lease payments.
          • If it rejects the lease, the asset must be returned to the lessor.
  • 55. 25.3 The Leasing Decision
    • Cash Flows for a True Tax Lease
      • Assume Emory Printing needs a printing press.
        • It can purchase one for $50,000 in cash.
        • The machine will last five years and it will be depreciated for tax purposes using straight-line depreciation over that period.
          • Emory can deduct $10,000 per year for depreciation.
        • Emory’s tax rate is 35%.
          • Thus, Emory will save $3500 per year in taxes from the depreciation deduction.
  • 56. 25.3 The Leasing Decision (cont'd)
    • Cash Flows for a True Tax Lease
      • As an alternative, Emory can lease the machine instead of purchasing it.
        • A five-year lease contract will cost $12,500 per year.
          • Emory must make these payments at the beginning of each year.
        • Since the lease is a true tax lease, Emory deducts the lease payments as an operating expense when they are paid.
          • The after-tax cost of each lease payment is $6125.
            • (1 – 35%) × $12,500 = $8125.
  • 57. 25.3 The Leasing Decision (cont'd)
    • Cash Flows for a True Tax Lease
      • As shown on the following slide, the cash flows of leasing differ from buying.
        • A purchase requires a large initial outlay followed by a series of depreciation tax credits.
        • The cost of a leased machine is more evenly spread over time.
          • Note: It is also assumed that the machine has no residual value after five years if it is purchased.
  • 58. Table 25.1 Spreadsheet Cash Flow ($) Consequences from Leasing Versus Buying
  • 59. Lease Versus Buy (An Unfair Comparison)
    • To decide if it is to lease or buy, the present value of the cash flows in each transaction must be computed.
      • The risk of the lease payments is no greater than the risk of secured debt , so it is reasonable to discount the lease payments at the firm’s secured borrowing rate.
  • 60. Lease Versus Buy (An Unfair Comparison) (cont'd)
    • Assuming Emory’s borrowing rate is 8%, the cost of buying the machine has a present value of:
  • 61. Lease Versus Buy (An Unfair Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The cost of leasing the machine has a present value of:
    • Leasing is cheaper than buying, with a net savings of $990.
      • $36,026 – $35,036 = $990
  • 62. Lease Versus Buy (An Unfair Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The preceding analysis ignores an important point.
      • When a firm enters into a lease, it is committing to lease payments that are a fixed future obligation of the firm that effectively adds leverage to its capital structure.
  • 63. Lease Versus Buy (An Unfair Comparison) (cont'd)
    • Because leasing is a form of financing, it should be compared to other financing options.
      • For example, rather than buy the asset outright, Emory could borrow funds to finance the purchase of the machine, thus matching the leverage of the lease.
        • If Emory does borrow, it will also benefit from the interest tax shield provided by the additional leverage.
  • 64. Lease Versus Buy (An Unfair Comparison) (cont'd)
    • To correctly evaluate a lease, it should be compared to purchasing the asset using an equivalent amount of leverage.
      • The appropriate comparison is not lease versus buy, but rather lease versus borrow.
  • 65. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • Lease-Equivalent Loan
        • A loan that is required for the purchase of an asset that leaves the purchaser with the same net future obligations as a lease would entail
  • 66. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • In the Emory example, to compute the lease-equivalent loan, the difference between the cash flows from leasing versus buying must first be computed (as shown on the following slide).
        • Relative to buying, leasing saves cash upfront but results in lower future cash flows.
  • 67. Table 25.2 Spreadsheet Incremental Free Cash Flows of Leasing Versus Buying
  • 68. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • The initial balance on the lease-equivalent loan is the present value of the incremental cash flows discounted at the after-tax cost of debt.
  • 69. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • In the Emory example, the after-tax cost of debt is:
        • 8% (1 – 35%) = 5.2%
      • So the initial lease-equivalent loan balance should be:
  • 70. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • Instead of leasing, Emory could instead buy the printing press and borrow $43,747.
        • By buying and borrowing using the lease-equivalent loan, Emory saves an additional $1872 at time period 0. Leasing the machine is unattractive relative to this alternative.
          • $43,747 – $41,875 = $1872
  • 71. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • As shown on the following slide, the same result can be obtained by computing the cash flows that result from buying the machine and borrowing using the lease-equivalent loan.
  • 72. Table 25.3 Spreadsheet Cash Flows from Buying and Borrowing Using the Lease-Equivalent Loan
  • 73. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • Comparing the cash flows from buying the printing press and financing it with the lease-equivalent loan with the cash flows of the lease, Emory has a net future obligation of $8125 per year for four years in both cases.
  • 74. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Lease-Equivalent Loan
      • While the leverage is the same for the two strategies, the initial cash flow is not.
        • With the lease, Emory will pay $8125 initially.
        • With the loan, Emory will pay $6253.
          • The purchase price of the printing press minus the amount borrowed
          • $50,000 – $43,747 = $6253
      • Again, borrowing to buy the machine is cheaper than the lease with a savings of $1872.
        • $8125 – $6253 = $1872
  • 75. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • A Direct Method
      • Leasing can be compared to buying the asset using equivalent leverage by discounting the incremental cash flows of leasing versus buying using the after-tax borrowing rate .
  • 76. Lease Versus Borrow (The Right Comparison) (cont'd)
    • The Effective After-Tax Lease Borrowing Rate
      • Leasing and buying can be compared in terms of an effective after-tax borrowing rate associated with the lease. This is given by the IRR of the incremental lease cash flows
        • In Emory’s case, the IRR is 7.0%. This option is not attractive compared to the after-tax rate of 5.2% that Emory pays on its debt.
  • 77. Evaluating a True Tax Lease
    • In summary, when evaluating a true-tax lease, compare the leasing to a purchase that is financed with equivalent leverage.
      • First, compute the incremental cash flows for leasing versus buying, including the depreciation tax shield (if buying) and the tax deductibility of the lease payments if leasing.
      • Then compute the NPV of leasing versus buying using equivalent leverage by discounting the incremental cash flows at the after-tax borrowing rate.
  • 78. Evaluating a True Tax Lease (cont'd)
    • If the NPV is negative, then leasing is unattractive compared to traditional debt financing.
    • If the NPV is positive, then leasing does provide an advantage over traditional debt financing and should be considered.
  • 79. Textbook Example 25.6
  • 80. Textbook Example 25.6 (cont'd)
  • 81. Evaluating a Non-tax Lease
    • Evaluating a non-tax lease is much more straightforward than evaluating a true tax lease.
      • The lessee still receives the depreciation deductions, however, only the interest portion of the lease payment is deductible.
  • 82. Evaluating a Non-tax Lease (cont'd)
    • In terms of cash flows, a non-tax lease is directly comparable to a traditional loan and is attractive only if it offers a better interest rate than would be available with a loan.
      • To determine whether it offers a better rate, discount the lease payments at the firm’s pretax borrowing rate and compare it to the purchase price of the asset.
  • 83. Evaluating a Non-tax Lease (cont'd)
    • If there is a residual value, differences in the maintenance arrangements with a lease versus a purchase, or any cancellation or other lease options, they should also be included when comparing leasing versus a debt-financed purchase.
  • 84. Textbook Example 25.7
  • 85. Textbook Example 25.7 (cont'd)
  • 86. 25.4 Reasons for Leasing
    • Valid Arguments for Leasing
      • Tax Differences
      • Reduced Resale Costs
      • Efficiency Gains from Specialization
      • Reduced Distress Costs and Increased Debt Capacity
      • Transferring Risk
      • Improved Incentives
  • 87. Textbook Example 25.8
  • 88. Textbook Example 25.8 (cont'd)
  • 89. 25.4 Reasons for Leasing (cont'd)
    • Suspect Arguments for Leasing
      • Avoiding Capital Expenditure Controls
      • Preserving Capital
      • Reducing Leverage Through Off-Balance- Sheet Financing
  • 90. Chapter Quiz
    • In a perfect capital market, how is the amount of a lease payment determined?
    • Is it possible for a lease to be treated as an operating lease for accounting purposes and as a non-tax lease for tax purposes?
    • What discount rate should be used for the incremental lease cash flows to compare a true tax lease to borrowing?
    • What are some of the potential benefits form leasing if the lessee plans to hold the asset for only a small part of its useful life?

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