• Save
Biology - Cell Organization & Function
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Biology - Cell Organization & Function






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 4

http://heppeard.wikispaces.com 4



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Biology - Cell Organization & Function Biology - Cell Organization & Function Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 3 Cell Structure & FunctionPicture by Molecular Expressions Picture by Cell II: Cellular Organizationhttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html http://ridge.icu.ac.jp/biobk/BioBookCELL2.html
  • 3.1: Microscopes & Cells Objectives  1. Define the cell theory  2. Identify the magnification powers of different types of microscopes  3. Observe how the compound microscope changes an image
  • Early Microscopes Anton von Leeuwenhoek  (1600s / Dutch) Picture by Answers.com http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-van-leeuwenhoek  Used glass lenses to create instrument that magnified images of very small objects  Light rays bend to make larger image  Earliest light microscope Picture by Mr. Cantor’s Biology Blog http://cantorsbiologyblog.blogspot.com/2012/01/second-semester-begins-with-cells.html
  • Discovery of Cells Leeuwenhoek used microscope to look at drops of pond water  Filled with tiny living things  Called them “animalcules” Picture by Lens On Leeuwenhoek http://lensonleeuwenhoek.net/lenses.htm
  • Robert Hooke English physicist Used microscope to observe Picture by History of the Microscope http://www.history-of-the-microscope.org/robert-hooke-m  Flowers  Insects  Spider webs  Slices of cork Picture by Dare To Unravel http://daretounravel.blogspot.com/2011/01/mi Concluded  Wood parts of plants had rectangular chambers  Called them cells
  • Theodor Schwann 1839, German Biologist Picture by Biographical Outlines http://www.merke.ch/biografien/biologen_en/schwann.php Found some animal tissues resemble cellular tissue of plants Eventually concluded  Animals are made up of cells Picture by Biographical Outlines http://www.merke.ch/biografien/biologen_en/schwann.php
  • The Cell Theory Robert Brown (Scottish Biologist)  Found object in center of cell (nucleus) Picture by Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Brown_(botanist) Matthias Schleiden (German Biologist)  Suggested nucleus plays role in cell reproduction Picture by Biographical Outlines http://www.merke.ch/biografien/biologen_en/schleiden.php
  • The Cell Theory Rudolf Virchow  1855 German Physician Picture by Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Virchow Proposed that animal and plant cells are produced only by the division of cells that already exist Picture by The Encyclopedia of Science http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/plant_cell.html
  • The Cell Theory  1. All living things are composed of cells  2. Cells are the smallest working units of living things  3. All cells come from preexisting cellsPicture by Mrs. Olsen’s 5th Grade Class Pagehttp://www.ruediger.leon.k12.fl.us/olsonmd/Class%20Pictures/Forms/DispForm.aspx?ID=2&RootFolder=%2Folsonmd%2FClass%20Pictures%2Fclip%20art
  • Modern Microscopes 1) Compound Light Microscope  Contains more than 1 lens  Magnifies up to 1000 times Parts of Microscope Handout Picture by Wikipedia http://wiki.district87.org/index.php/Compound_Light_Microscopes
  • Modern Microscopes 2. Electron Microscope  Uses magnets to focus beam of electrons to examine sample  Magnifies 1000 times more than light microscope Picture by Ego TV http://egotvonline.com/2012/03/13/25-everyday-objects-under-an-electron-microscope/Picture by UK Electron Microscope Facilityhttp://www.engr.uky.edu/~bjhinds/facil/emf
  • Types of Electron Microscopes Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)  Sends electrons through sample  Puts image on fluorescent screen Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)  Electron scans sample’s surface  Puts image on TV screen Picture by Electron Microscope http://egotvonline.com/2012/03/13/25-everyday-objects-under-an-electron-microscope/
  • Electron Microscope Limitations  Sample must be in vacuum  Be nonliving  Samples for TEM need to be thin slices  SEM doesn’t show internal structurePicture by Electron Microscopehttp://egotvonline.com/2012/03/13/25-everyday-objects-under-an-electron-microscope/
  • Scanning Probe Microscope Trace surface of sample with tiny tip (probe)  Very tiny objects like atoms and molecules Picture by Principles of Scanning Probe Microscopy http://www.physics.leidenuniv.nl/sections/cm/ip/group/Principle_of_SPM.htm
  • 3.2: Cell Boundaries Objectives  1. Discuss the roles of the cell membrane and cell wall  2. Describe passive transport and active transport
  • Cell Membrane Outer boundary that separates and protects cell from its surroundings  Must allow certain substances to come in  Must allow waste to exit Descried as selectively permeable  “The bouncer” or “Main gate” Picture by The Biology Corner http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/cell.html
  • Lipid Bilayer Cell membrane is made up of lipid molecules  Known as phospholipids Polar end = head (attract water) Nonpolar end = tail (repel water) Picture by TutorVista.com http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/membrane-lipid-bilayer
  • Lipid Bilayer Line up in double-layer pattern  Known as lipid bilayer Lipid Bilayer  Provides cell membrane with tough flexible barrier  Protects cells Picture by TutorVista.com http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/membrane-lipid-bilayer
  • Other Cell Membrane Components Most cell membranes have proteins in lipid bilayer  Have carbohydrates attached Protein purpose  Move material across cell membrane Picture by Cell Membrane Wiki  Protect membrane http://torresbioclan.pbworks.com/w/page/22377072/cell%20m  Carbohydrates act as “ID” cards
  • Cell Wall Porous membrane located outside cell membrane  Found in plant cells, algae, and bacteria  NOT found in animal cells Supports and protects cells  Allow substance to pass in and out Made of:  Carbohydrates called cellulose  Give plants their strength  Proteins Picture by Molecular Expressions http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plantcell.html
  • Passive Transport Process of moving substances in and out of a cell  Does NOT use energy Picture by Cell Organization & Functions http://www.williamsclass.com/SeventhScienceWork/CellsOrganization.htm
  • Diffusion Process by which substances spread through a liquid or gas  Move from region of high concentration to area of low concentration  Example: food coloring in water In cells…  Liquids and small lipids diffuse directly across cell membrane Picture by Biology Corner http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/diffusion.html
  • Facilitated Diffusion  Cell membrane also contains protein channels  Allows larger substance to pass through  Facilitated Diffusion  Diffusion that occurs with the aided help of a protein channel  Each protein channel is specified for a certain substancePicture by Our Virtual Classroomhttp://ccaoscience.wordpress.com/notes/transport-protein/
  • Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane Water diffuses from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Picture by Free Drinking Water http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/resource-a-complete-resource-guide-to-osmosis.htm
  • Osmotic Pressure When water moves by osmosis, it produces pressure  Enough to destroy cell Three ways to control:  1) cell wall  2) pump out water  3) bathe cells in blood Picture by Non Ideal Solutions http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/4411/colligative/lec_i.html
  • Osmotic Pressure Cell Wall  Strong tough wall prevents cell from expanding  Counter acts osmotic pressure Pump Out  Cells use contractile vacuole to pump out water Picture by Non Ideal Solutions http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/4411/colligative/lec_i.html
  • Osmotic Pressure Bathe Cells in Blood  Mostly in large animals  Blood cells have same concentration of dissolved substances  Help absorb excess water Picture by A Sweet Life http://asweetlife.org/a-sweet-life-staff/articles/interview-dr-zachary-bloomgarden-on-the-hba1c-assay/8020/
  • Active Transport Movement of a substance against a concentration difference Requires A LOT of energy  Transports:  Large molecules  Food  Whole cells Picture by G11-BioA -2011 http://g11-bioa-2011-12.wikispaces.com/(d)+Active+transport
  • 3.3: Inside The Cell Objectives  1. Describe the composition and function of the nucleus  2. List and describe the organelles of the cytoplasm  3. Interpret the changes observed when a paramecium takes in food
  • Nucleus  Large, dense structure contained in cells  Known as control center  “Main office of factory”Picture by Plant Cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/01942/plcells/nuclues.htm
  • Nucleus Organisms can be classified into 2 categories  1. Eukaryotes  Organisms cells HAVE nuclei  Include unicellular and multicellular  2. Prokaryotes  Organisms that do NOT contain nuclei  Small single celled organisms Picture by Bacterial/Prokaryotic Phylogeny http://www.bacterialphylogeny.info/eukaryotes.html
  • Role of Nucleus Contains nearly all of cell’s DNA  Has instructions to make proteins / molecules  Form material called chromatin  Spreads through nucleus When cell divides  Chromatin condense into chromosomes  Acts as “blueprint of factory” Picture by Animal Port http://www.animalport.com/animal-cells.html
  • Structures In The Nucleus Nucleolus  Small dense region inside nucleus  Where ribosomes are made Picture by Molecular Expressions http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/nucleus/nucleolus.html Nuclear Envelope  Membrane that surrounds the nucleus  Has pores to transport materials in and out
  • Cytoplasm Fluid outside nucleus held in by cell membrane  Holds all other cell organelles  These are small structures that perform specialized functions in the cell  Allows for movement Known as the “factory floor” Picture by Daylilies http://www.daylilies.org/ahs_dictionary/cytoplasm.html
  • Ribosomes  Tiny particles made of RNA and protein  Site for protein synthesis  Gets instructions from nucleus  Known as “the workers”Picture by Cellupediahttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)  Processing and transporting of proteins and other macromolecules  Network of membranes  2 types  1. Smooth ER… NO ribosomes attached to surface  2. Rough ER… ribosomes attached to surface  Act as the subwayPicture by Molecular Expressionshttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/endoplasmicreticulum/endoplasmicreticulum.html
  • Golgi Apparatus  Act as packaging center  Modify and add components to proteins  Attach carbohydrates or lipidsPicture by Molecular Expressionshttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/golgi/golgiapparatus.html
  • Lysosomes  Sac-like membrane that gets rid of waste  Filled with chemicals and enzymes  Can also break down and gets rid of damaged organelles  Known as the “garbage man”Picture by Molecular Expressionshttp://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/images/ch1_lysosome.jpg
  • Cytoskeleton Act as a supporting framework for cell  Found in eukaryotic cells Components  Microtubules  Mircofillaments Picture by Cellupedia http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/cytoskeleton.html  These are hollow tubes of protein that provide framework to support cell
  • Vacuoles Sac-like structure used for storage  Animals  Store proteins, fats, and carbohydrates  Plants  Store water and dissolved salts  Provide support  Known as “the warehouse” Picture by Molecular Expressions http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/vacuole.html
  • Mitochondria Produces energy from a chemical fuel  Organic molecules like glucose or other sugars Found in eukaryotic cells  Plants and animals Contain own DNA Picture by Molecular Expressions http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html Known as “powerhouse of cell”
  • Chloroplasts Organelle that produces energy from sunlight  Found in plants ONLY and some algae Aids in the process of photosynthesis Green due to chlorophyll pigment Also contains own DNA Picture by eTeaching Program https://www.etap.org/demo/grade7_science/instruction2tutor.html
  • 3.4: The Origin of the Eukaryotic Cell Objectives  1. Define the endosymbiont hypothesis
  • Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic  Eukaryotes  Prokaryotes  Nuclues  Have NONE of these  Mitochondria  Chloroplasts  Other organelles  WHY???Picture by BioCoach Activityhttp://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cells/common.html
  • The Work of Lynn Margulis Focused on mitochondria and chloroplasts  Used on DNA to make compounds  Both surrounded by two membranes  Both reproduced separately from rest of cell  Mitochondria from mitochondria  Chloroplasts from chloroplasts  Why did this happen??? Picture by The Alien Next Door Blog http://sfgirl-thealiennextdoor.blogspot.com/2010/06/celebrating-womanhood-i-am-woman-i-am.html
  • The Endosymbiont Hypothesis Billions of years ago…  Eukaryotic cells arose as a combination of different prokaryotic cells  Cells consumed other cells but still each survivedPicture by Molecular Expressionshttp://www.tokresource.org/tok_classes/biobiobio/biomenu/options_folder/D1_life_origins/index.htm
  • Margulis’s Model  Stated mitochondria and chloroplasts had ancestors that were free-living organisms  Were consumed by larger cells  Became organelles in larger cellsPicture by The Endosymbiotic Hypothesishttp://endosymbiotichypothesis.wordpress.com/
  • Further Evidence Chloroplast DNA  Similar to DNA in prokaryotic cells In Mitochondria & Chloroplasts  Contain own ribosomes to make own proteins  Ribosomes similar to prokaryotic ribosomes Picture by Molecular Expressions http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/mitochondria.html