Hepatitis A, B, C & HIV presentation (2011)

13,332 views

Published on

General information about hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

Published in: Health & Medicine
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
13,332
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
150
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
803
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Personal hygiene equipment
  • Hepatitis A, B, C & HIV presentation (2011)

    1. 1. Hepatitis A, B, C and HIV The Hepatitis Education Project Seattle, Washington
    2. 2. Topics of Discussion <ul><li>What is hepatitis? </li></ul><ul><li>How are the hepatitis viruses different? </li></ul><ul><li>How is HIV/AIDS similar to the hepatitis viruses? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Increase awareness and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Educate patients about care and treatment </li></ul>
    4. 4. Ground Rules <ul><li>Open and interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Educational focus </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful and attentive </li></ul><ul><li>No medical diagnosis </li></ul>
    5. 5. Liver Function <ul><li>“ Hepa” means liver; “itis” means inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd largest organ </li></ul><ul><li>Performs over 500 different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks nerve endings </li></ul><ul><li>Able to regenerate </li></ul>
    6. 6. Hepatitis - caused by many different agents: <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs/prescriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul>
    7. 7. Hepatitis Viruses <ul><li>Hep A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fecal-oral transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminated food & water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hep B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood & bodily fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hep C: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Some Similarities: HIV and Hep B <ul><li>Transmitted via contaminated blood & bodily fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of sexual transmission is high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More easily transmitted through sex than hep C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is no cure for HIV or hepatitis B </li></ul>
    9. 9. Hepatitis B <ul><li>Vaccine preventable </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. most adults get over this infection on their own (90-95%) </li></ul><ul><li>People infected for a long time have a higher risk of getting liver cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver cancer possible before cirrhosis (unlike HCV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver cancer screening is important </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Protect Yourself <ul><li>Get immunized against Hep A and Hep B </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good hygiene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash your hands with soap & water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice safer sex with any new partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use condoms </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Hepatitis C <ul><li>Hepatitis C is a virus transmitted via contaminated blood </li></ul><ul><li>There is NO VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>It is very common U.S. and Worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 4-5 million Hep C+ people in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 200 million Hep C+ people in the World </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. How do people get infected with hepatitis C? <ul><li>Injection drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Tattoos (especially in jail or prison, street tattoos) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusions (pre-1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Intranasal drug use </li></ul>
    13. 13. Lower Risks of Exposure <ul><li>Sexual transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-to-child at birth (3-5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing personal hygiene tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupational exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters, healthcare workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fighting </li></ul>
    14. 14. Drug Use is #1 <ul><li>Sharing any drug equipment can pass Hep C and Hep B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“works” – needles, syringes, cottons, cookers, pipes, straws, rinse water, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaning with bleach is preferred, but isn’t reliable against hepatitis viruses </li></ul>
    15. 15. Tattoos <ul><li>Tattoos done in prison or jail are the most risky </li></ul><ul><li>Best protection: get tattoos at licensed shops (autoclave, disposable inks and needles) </li></ul>
    16. 16. How will I know if I have Hep C? <ul><li>Get tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First blood test looks for exposure. This is called an Antibody test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second blood test looks for virus. This is called a PCR or confirmatory test. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Natural History of Hep C 100 People 25% Resolve 75% Chronic
    18. 18. Natural History of Hep C 100 People Resolve (25) Chronic (75) Stable (34) Cirrhosis (41) Mortality (25) Liver Cancer (10)
    19. 19. Long-term effects of viral hepatitis <ul><li>Healthy livers are plump and smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrhotic livers are nodular; bumpy and shrunken </li></ul><ul><li>HCV is the leading cause of liver transplant in the U.S. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Dangerous Combinations <ul><ul><li>Alcohol + Hep C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV + Hep C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hep B + Hep C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These can cause much worse & much faster liver damage </li></ul>
    21. 21. Symptoms of Hep C <ul><li>Most people have no symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms can include: </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue (frequently tired) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory or concentration problems (brain fog) </li></ul><ul><li>Joint pains </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia (can’t sleep) </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
    22. 22. Liver Biopsy <ul><li>Gives you a scar stage, a rating of the amount of scarring </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of scarring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 0: No scarring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: Mild </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Moderate scarring, Treatment maybe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Bridging fibrosis, Treatment yes! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Cirrhosis, Treatment yes! (if liver can tolerate) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Types of Hep C <ul><li>Hepatitis C is like a family with 6 different brothers or sisters. </li></ul><ul><li>These “siblings” represent the different genotypes of Hep C </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S. we see mainly 3 different genotypes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype 1: needs one year of treatment, by far the most common type in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype 2 or 3: needs six months of treatment </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Is there a cure? <ul><li>Yes, for many but not all. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Cure rates for Hep C <ul><li>After 6-12 months of treatment about 70-80% of people will be cured </li></ul><ul><li>If HCV- after 4 weeks, cure rate is 90%+ </li></ul>
    26. 26. Hep C Treatment <ul><li>Combination of 3 drugs: interferon, ribavirin and a protease inhibitor </li></ul>Treatment Goals <ul><li>Kill the virus </li></ul><ul><li>Stop scarring of the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent cirrhosis </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of the fatigue and other symptoms </li></ul>
    27. 27. Interferon <ul><li>Interferon is an injection given just under the skin 3 times per week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pegylated interferon is injected once a week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair Thinning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Ribavirin <ul><li>Ribavirin is a pill taken twice a day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anemia “low blood”, makes a person feel tired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul></ul>Side Effects:
    29. 29. Protease Inhibitors <ul><li>Two new drugs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telaprevir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boceprevir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are oral medications taken every 8 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Both were added to IFN/riba treatment in 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Side Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telaprevir – main side effect: Rash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boceprevir – main side effect: Anemia </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Alternatives to Treatment May be useful for easing side effects <ul><li>Complimentary/ alternative treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massage therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer & meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturopathic medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbal medicine * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milk thistle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aroma therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acupuncture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbs that may be harmful to the liver * </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliotropium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skullcap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jin Bu Huan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sassafras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfrey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valerian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pennyroyal </li></ul></ul>Sources: NIH, NCCAM, May 2000 Hepatitis C Support Project, www.hcvadvocate.org, August 2011 * Caution should be taken in the use of herbals
    31. 31. If you have Hep C, you should NOT … <ul><li>Share needles or “works” </li></ul><ul><li>Share tattoo equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Share razors, nail clippers or toothbrushes </li></ul><ul><li>Donate blood </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hepatitis B & C are NOT spread by casual contact, i.e. <ul><li>Hugging </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing food or drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing a house </li></ul>
    33. 33. Now that you know… <ul><li>Get tested </li></ul><ul><li>And if you have Hep C… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get vaccinated against Hep A and B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk with your doctor to find out if you need treatment </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. For more information <ul><li>Books on Hep C are available in all Washington State prison libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Go online to learn more at http://www.hcvadvocate.org </li></ul><ul><li>Visit your local Public Health Clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Contact the Hepatitis Education Project </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 1-800-218-6932 </li></ul><ul><li>Address: 911 Western Ave. #302, Seattle, WA 98104 </li></ul><ul><li>Websites: http://www.hepeducation.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://hcvinprison.org </li></ul>

    ×