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Hepatitis A, B, C & HIV presentation (2011)
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Hepatitis A, B, C & HIV presentation (2011)

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General information about hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

General information about hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

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  • Personal hygiene equipment
  • Transcript

    • 1. Hepatitis A, B, C and HIV The Hepatitis Education Project Seattle, Washington
    • 2. Topics of Discussion
      • What is hepatitis?
      • How are the hepatitis viruses different?
      • How is HIV/AIDS similar to the hepatitis viruses?
    • 3. Goals
      • Increase awareness and understanding
      • Prevent transmission
      • Educate patients about care and treatment
    • 4. Ground Rules
      • Open and interactive
      • Educational focus
      • Respectful and attentive
      • No medical diagnosis
    • 5. Liver Function
      • “ Hepa” means liver; “itis” means inflammation
      • 2 nd largest organ
      • Performs over 500 different functions
      • Lacks nerve endings
      • Able to regenerate
    • 6. Hepatitis - caused by many different agents:
      • Viruses
      • Alcohol
      • Drugs/prescriptions
      • Herbs
      • Genetic disorders
      • Obesity
    • 7. Hepatitis Viruses
      • Hep A
        • Fecal-oral transmission
        • Contaminated food & water
      • Hep B
        • Blood & bodily fluids
      • Hep C:
        • Blood
    • 8. Some Similarities: HIV and Hep B
      • Transmitted via contaminated blood & bodily fluids
      • Risk of sexual transmission is high
        • More easily transmitted through sex than hep C
      • There is no cure for HIV or hepatitis B
    • 9. Hepatitis B
      • Vaccine preventable
      • In the U.S. most adults get over this infection on their own (90-95%)
      • People infected for a long time have a higher risk of getting liver cancer
        • Liver cancer possible before cirrhosis (unlike HCV)
        • Liver cancer screening is important
    • 10. Protect Yourself
      • Get immunized against Hep A and Hep B
      • Practice good hygiene
        • Wash your hands with soap & water
      • Practice safer sex with any new partner
        • Use condoms
    • 11. Hepatitis C
      • Hepatitis C is a virus transmitted via contaminated blood
      • There is NO VACCINE
      • It is very common U.S. and Worldwide
        • About 4-5 million Hep C+ people in the U.S.
        • About 200 million Hep C+ people in the World
    • 12. How do people get infected with hepatitis C?
      • Injection drug use
      • Tattoos (especially in jail or prison, street tattoos)
      • Blood transfusions (pre-1992)
      • Intranasal drug use
    • 13. Lower Risks of Exposure
      • Sexual transmission
      • Mother-to-child at birth (3-5%)
      • Sharing personal hygiene tools
        • Toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers
      • Occupational exposure
        • Firefighters, healthcare workers
      • Fighting
    • 14. Drug Use is #1
      • Sharing any drug equipment can pass Hep C and Hep B
        • “works” – needles, syringes, cottons, cookers, pipes, straws, rinse water, etc.
      • Cleaning with bleach is preferred, but isn’t reliable against hepatitis viruses
    • 15. Tattoos
      • Tattoos done in prison or jail are the most risky
      • Best protection: get tattoos at licensed shops (autoclave, disposable inks and needles)
    • 16. How will I know if I have Hep C?
      • Get tested
        • First blood test looks for exposure. This is called an Antibody test.
        • Second blood test looks for virus. This is called a PCR or confirmatory test.
    • 17. Natural History of Hep C 100 People 25% Resolve 75% Chronic
    • 18. Natural History of Hep C 100 People Resolve (25) Chronic (75) Stable (34) Cirrhosis (41) Mortality (25) Liver Cancer (10)
    • 19. Long-term effects of viral hepatitis
      • Healthy livers are plump and smooth
      • Cirrhotic livers are nodular; bumpy and shrunken
      • HCV is the leading cause of liver transplant in the U.S.
    • 20. Dangerous Combinations
        • Alcohol + Hep C
        • HIV + Hep C
        • Hep B + Hep C
      • These can cause much worse & much faster liver damage
    • 21. Symptoms of Hep C
      • Most people have no symptoms.
      • Symptoms can include:
      • Fatigue (frequently tired)
      • Memory or concentration problems (brain fog)
      • Joint pains
      • Insomnia (can’t sleep)
      • Depression
    • 22. Liver Biopsy
      • Gives you a scar stage, a rating of the amount of scarring
      • Stages of scarring:
        • Stage 0: No scarring
        • Stage 1: Mild
        • Stage 2: Moderate scarring, Treatment maybe
        • Stage 3: Bridging fibrosis, Treatment yes!
        • Stage 4: Cirrhosis, Treatment yes! (if liver can tolerate)
    • 23. Types of Hep C
      • Hepatitis C is like a family with 6 different brothers or sisters.
      • These “siblings” represent the different genotypes of Hep C
      • In the U.S. we see mainly 3 different genotypes:
        • Genotype 1: needs one year of treatment, by far the most common type in the U.S.
        • Genotype 2 or 3: needs six months of treatment
    • 24. Is there a cure?
      • Yes, for many but not all.
    • 25. Cure rates for Hep C
      • After 6-12 months of treatment about 70-80% of people will be cured
      • If HCV- after 4 weeks, cure rate is 90%+
    • 26. Hep C Treatment
      • Combination of 3 drugs: interferon, ribavirin and a protease inhibitor
      Treatment Goals
      • Kill the virus
      • Stop scarring of the liver
      • Prevent cirrhosis
      • Get rid of the fatigue and other symptoms
    • 27. Interferon
      • Interferon is an injection given just under the skin 3 times per week
        • Pegylated interferon is injected once a week.
        • Fever
        • Headache
        • Nausea
        • Diarrhea
        • Hair Thinning
        • Thyroid Problems
        • Side Effects:
        • Depression
        • Irritability
        • Fatigue
    • 28. Ribavirin
      • Ribavirin is a pill taken twice a day
        • Anemia “low blood”, makes a person feel tired
        • Rash
        • Insomnia
        • Loss of appetite
        • Cough
      Side Effects:
    • 29. Protease Inhibitors
      • Two new drugs:
        • Telaprevir
        • Boceprevir
      • Both are oral medications taken every 8 hrs
      • Both were added to IFN/riba treatment in 2011
      • Side Effects:
        • Telaprevir – main side effect: Rash
        • Boceprevir – main side effect: Anemia
    • 30. Alternatives to Treatment May be useful for easing side effects
      • Complimentary/ alternative treatments
        • Massage therapy
        • Prayer & meditation
        • Naturopathic medicine
        • Herbal medicine *
          • Milk thistle
        • Yoga
        • Aroma therapy
        • Acupuncture
      • Herbs that may be harmful to the liver *
        • Heliotropium
        • Skullcap
        • Jin Bu Huan
        • Germander
        • Sassafras
        • Comfrey
        • Senna
        • Valerian
        • Pennyroyal
      Sources: NIH, NCCAM, May 2000 Hepatitis C Support Project, www.hcvadvocate.org, August 2011 * Caution should be taken in the use of herbals
    • 31. If you have Hep C, you should NOT …
      • Share needles or “works”
      • Share tattoo equipment
      • Share razors, nail clippers or toothbrushes
      • Donate blood
    • 32. Hepatitis B & C are NOT spread by casual contact, i.e.
      • Hugging
      • Kissing
      • Sharing food or drinks
      • Playing
      • Sharing a house
    • 33. Now that you know…
      • Get tested
      • And if you have Hep C…
        • Limit alcohol
        • Get vaccinated against Hep A and B
        • Talk with your doctor to find out if you need treatment
    • 34. For more information
      • Books on Hep C are available in all Washington State prison libraries
      • Go online to learn more at http://www.hcvadvocate.org
      • Visit your local Public Health Clinic
      • Contact the Hepatitis Education Project
      • Phone: 1-800-218-6932
      • Address: 911 Western Ave. #302, Seattle, WA 98104
      • Websites: http://www.hepeducation.org
      • http://hcvinprison.org

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