12 hja 06 motive power exe 12


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Business Plan for Solar-Wind Packaged Power Solutions with Zero Energy Cost for yachts 40' -600'

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12 hja 06 motive power exe 12

  1. 1. Perpetual Mobility and Sustainment on Water Zero Energy Cost - No Longer a Panacea New Technology Solar/Wind: Packaged Power Solutions Business Plan - Executive Summery Henning@hjaSolutions.com Montreal, Canada 1 June 2012
  2. 2. Who am I:Seen in the 60s Criss-crossing the North Sea in a Collin Archer 38’ Great Fascination with Oceans from an Early Age
  3. 3. What Do I Do?
  4. 4. INTRO: Energy Density Wh/Kg 10000 High-pressure Gasoline Diesel Hydrogen (35 Mpa) CNG 20 Mpa) Bio-diesel Ethanol Liquid fuels(Wh/Kg) Gaseous fuels 1000Specific Energy Hydrogen absorbing Alloy (2wt%) Batteries 100 Lithium-Ion Nickel metal hydride Lead 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Volumetric Energy Density (Wh/L) Source: Toyota
  5. 5. INTRO: Selecting Fossil Fuel Instead of Electricity as Power Source at the Turn of the 20th Century Was Perhaps Mankind’s Most Costly Mistake Over 60% of oil today is destined for Transportation Fuels
  6. 6. Intro: Fossil Fuel Price Growing in Leaps and Bounds
  7. 7. How Do We Beat the Energy Drain?
  8. 8. Current Ideas on How to Beat the Cost of Mobility at Sea
  9. 9. Current Ideas on How to Beat the Cost of Mobility at Sea
  10. 10. Current Ideas on How to Beat the Cost of Mobility at Sea
  11. 11. Current Ideas on How to Beat the Cost of Mobility at Sea
  12. 12. Current Ideas on How to Beat the Cost of Mobility at Sea
  13. 13. The First Total Solar Powered Circumnavigation of the Planet Was Completed on May 4th 2012
  14. 14. Emergence of Solar Power for Ocean Passages 2010-2012 Planet Solar global2007 Sun21 Travel 7,000 nm circumnavigated Crossing the Atlantic 21,638 nmSeville – Florida – New York
  15. 15. Solar Power versus Fossil Fuel in Circumnavigation of the PlanetSimilar 95 tons vessels’Cost of Mobility for 21,638 nm(40,075 km) including Hotel Loadfor up to 8 people:Motor Yacht fuel Cost $600,000+Planet Solar energy Cost $ Zero Cruising Speed Fossil fuel: 12 -16 knots, Planet Solar Speed average 6-8 knots - Under sunny sky max 14 knots Acquisition at today’s level of technology For Conventional yacht vs. the Planet Solar Prototype: 1/10 ratio with current Technology
  16. 16. Planet Solar’s Mission Design and Mobility Solutions• To voyage at reasonable speeds,• Prove that perpetual travel on SolarPower alone is possible• Test the wave-piercing hulls ability topenetrate water to reduce resistanceunder all condition as required tooptimize the electric propulsion The multihull gave Planet Solar the beam required to place 5,780SFof Solar Panels topside which provided sufficient power for mobility and Sustainment (Hotel Load) for a global circumnavigation with current technology. CPV technology will allow much reduction in seize of vessels.
  17. 17. Improved Output from Solar Fields Will Shrink Size of Sun Catchment Area Comparison of Solar System Efficiency Improved Solar Field Output wouldType Cell Module System T racking Impact the size of catchment area for (DC) (DC) (AC) 1 & 2 Axis Power Generation - Smart SystemAmonix CPV 39% 31% 25% 28% & 32% monitoring will increase utilization ofSP PV 23.4% 19% 16% 18% & 21% Energy for new Solar Yacht designs.Thin Film (n/a) 12% 10% 8% 9% & 10% * Thin Film not practical for power generation
  18. 18. Equivalent Power Applying New Solar Technologies - Impact on Catchment Area NREL* Near Future CPV (2015) Efficiency Impact of Similar to Planet SolarSolar Energy Harvesting Field Size**: 2,751 SF – 44.5 kWp On the Size of Net 124,821 kWh/y Planet Solar 2012 CPV Amonix Notionally over Time Next Generation Similar to Planet Solar Field Size*: 3,468SF – 56.1kWp Net 124,821 kWh/y 52’ x 26’ - 49.4tons 2007 SP PVPlanet Solar Field Size: * Using CPV 1-Axis will further Increase Efficiency by13% 5,780 SF – 93.5 kWp Field Size 3,068 SF – 48.8 kWp Net 124,821 kWh/y ** Using CPV 2-Axis will further 61’ x 30’- 57 tons Increase Efficiency by 29% Field Size 2,002 SF – 31.6 kWp NREL is working towards CPV with 50% Efficiency further reducing field size100’ x 50’ – 95 tons *NREL: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  19. 19. Solar PV vs. CPV Efficiency vs. Field SizePlaner Solar in 2008 Selected FSLR CdTe 100% Size - All Thin Film (Baseline)SP C-Si PV for its Globalcircumnavigation Project to C-Si/CIGS Approx 81% Size - Most Siliconmeet all onboard Energyrequirements with 93.5kWp. In2012 – 2015 timeframe future SP C-Si 74% Size High Efficiency Silicontechnology will further drive NREL GaAg 68% Sizedown size of the energy Solarharvesting fields. NREL Single Junctional 58% Size Amonix CPV 53.1% Size The Energy Issue for NRLE Best Best all Yachts are about Size - CPV Cell the Best Field Size for Effectiveness Harvesting Solar Energy in 43.5% - 41.7 Size 2007 Was SP C-Si 23.4% Cell Efficiency and 16% System Efficiency* Technology market in Red has too low efficiency to be used where size of energy fields are an issue
  20. 20. Solar PV vs. CPV Efficiency vs. Field Size Equal Energy by Size of Field* All Thin Film Showing the 2008 SP C-Si at 100% for comparison of Nearly all Silicon based Current and Near Future Energy Field by Comparison SP C-Si 100% Size –23.4% High Efficiency Planet Solar 18.8% Eff. (4.6% degraded) Amonix CPV 53.1% Size NRLE Best Using CPV 1-Axis will CPV Cell Increase Efficiency by13% Effectiveness 43.5% 41.7 % Size Using CPV 2-Axis will 2015 CPV Target Increase Efficiency by 29% Effectiveness 50% 36.3% Size* All Size percentages relates to Planet Solar SP C-Si versus CPV
  21. 21. Energy Storage The accelerated development in Energy Storage is focus on eight technologies: batteries, hydrogen fuel cell, compressed air storage, flywheels,, superconducting magnetic energy storage, thermal energy storage, ultra-capacitors, isentropic – these technologies will compete head-to-head - size and weight will determine suitability for use onboard yachts .The most common energy storage system for small Yachts is Lithium Ion Batteries,packaged in 12 volt/160A (1,920W), or 24 Volt/160A (3,840W) weighing only 106 lbs.and measures 24.5”x7.8”x3.6” (12v version). These units are adequate for the HotelLoad for small yachts and cruising sailboats. These types of energy storage units willmake it possible to provide sufficient power even when the sun have been absent forlong periods of time (up to 72 hours), to ensure that most equipment will function.Fuel Cells (Hydrogen) of different designs will be used for large yachts.
  22. 22. Most Recent Battery DevelopmentThis Development Could Solve the On-board Energy Storage Problem Liquid Metal Battery It has been developed at MIT by Sadoway with seed 2,000 kWh/d 100% capital from Khosla Ventures and Bill Gates. (40’ x 8’ x8 =2,560 ft3)  Two liquid metal materials form the positive and negative poles of the battery. An electrolyte layer, which allows charged particles to cross 75% through as the battery is charged or discharged, 1,500kWh/d is located in the middle.  The battery uses magnesium as the negative electrode on the top layer; molten salt as the electrolyte and antimony as the positive 50% electrode on the bottom layer. To produce 1,000kWh/d current, the magnesium loses two electrons to become magnesium ions that travel through the electrolyte to the other electrode. Upon arrival, it 25% 500Kwh/d v accepts two electrons from the antimony and mixes with it to form an alloy. And electricity is released. 250k 12.5% Sadoway said the goal is to develop stackable Wh/d modules to form a giant battery that would fit Lithium-Ion 4.8x into a 40-foot shipping container (40’ x 8’ x 8’). Larger in size than The giant battery would have a nameplate Lithium-ion Equivalent output capacity of two megawatt-hours, enough energy 250kWh/d from Liquid Metal to meet the daily electrical needs of approx. 100 Battery average households.
  23. 23. Distributed Power Requirement: Motors & Hotel Load Based on Liquid Battery Projected Capacity Yacht Size of Energy Storage unit: Capacity Motors Hrs Motors Htl. Load Size* Lg Wi Hi ft3 kWh/d KWp Run kWh Bal. Kwh 400- up 40 8 8 2,560 2,000 80 8 640 1,360 300-400 30 8 8 1,920 1,500 60 8 480 1,020 200-300 20 8 8 1,280 1,000 40 8 320 680 100-200 13.1 7 7 640 500 30 8 240 260 40-100 8.9 6 6 320 250 20 8 160 90* Estimated based on Cruise Speed of 8 kts - leaving sufficient Hotel Load for the size of yachtThe Battery Development has seen little development in the last five years, theLithium-Ion Batteries are the current standard. New development of liquid Batteriesmay take storage a quantum leap forward. The Table above reflects therequirements that will have to be met for Independent Mobility and Sustainment forsea passages in perpetuity
  24. 24. Isentropic Energy Storage Research underway on a 100kW unit to become the Solar Yacht’s Energy StorageIsentropic IEC is a high efficiency externalheat engine which allows for cost-efficientgeneration of solar thermal power via aconcentrating system. The IEC can work withconventional solar collectors to deliverefficiencies as good as large steam turbinesbut in sizes down to 100kW, allowing CPV forto be use on large Mega Yachts.
  25. 25. Key Elements for Achieving Total Independence: Renewable Energy and Storage Technology SP Solar PV Amonix * Future (NREL)* Lithium Ion Fuel Cells s Solar CPV Solar CPV Batteries o u r s e 93.5 kWp 56.1 kWp 44.5 kWp Type A 144 x 1.5 Volt 40-100 kW Solar PV output Solar CPV Near Future System System, Energy Storage 100% field size equivalent Solar CPV connected in Suitable for large 23.4% Cell 60% field size 40.3% field size Series yachts, only Efficient 39% Cell Approx 37.7% (Used Planet Solar) Efficient EfficientCurrent Best PV Increased Use Laboratory Operational OperationalStatus Technology Proven Cell Proven Today TodayTech PV C-Si Advanced Advances Increase in Improvement2015 Reach Limit Designs In System Capacity In Fuel Cell Adds 1-2 Axis Output Efficiency* CPV Solar Harvest can be further enhanced by Tracking : 1-Axis 13% and 2-Axis 29%
  26. 26. Wind Power Added
  27. 27. Ducted Wind Power for Battery Charging During Cloudy Days The ducted rotor consists of a turbine inside a duct which flares outwards at the back, referred to as Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (i.e. DAWT). The main advantage of the ducted rotor is that it can operate in a wide range of winds and generate a higher power per unit of rotor area. The ducted rotor advantage is that the generator operates at a high rotation rate, so it doesnt require a bulky gearbox allowing the mechanical portion of the unit to be smaller, lighter and more quiet: 35dB at10 feet distance.
  28. 28. Auxiliary Power Generation for Charging BatteriesAirborne Wind Turbine The airborne wind turbine is a design concept for electric energy generation that is supported in the air without a tower.. When the generator is aloft, a conductive tether would be used to transmit energy to the ground or used aloft or beamed to receivers using microwave or laser. Airborne turbine systems would have the advantage of tapping an almost constant wind, without requirements for slip rings or yaw mechanism, and without the expense of tower construction.. When the generator is ground- based, the tether need not be conductive The Airborne Turbine can be used when a Yacht is stationary for recharging batteries, the same tether can be used for the SkySails
  29. 29. SkySails – Towing KiteProven Fuel Saving Transit System in use with Commercial Ships – the Towing Kitesare approved as Spinnaker Replacement in America Cup Races. The Economics forthe Skysails show two year repayment and a Life Long Cost-effective Transit AidReducing Cost. Estimated average underway savings of $1,500/Daily. Best routes forsustained wind can show up to 35% fuel savings
  30. 30. Sailboat Solar Energy Evolution Opportunities still being developed Today’s Solar Panel for Future Textile Thermal Solar Tomorrow’s Solar Dye Sensitive Film Nominal Auxiliary Power Energy Generation Coating for Solid Wing SailsSmaller Cruising sail boats requirements could be satisfied with renewable power, thecurrent solar panels generating power for lighting and navigation equipment– min.consumption180 watt over10 hour of cruising or racing equals 1.8kWh. In the futurewe may see hybrid energy harvested from dye-sensitive solar-thermal textiles wovendirectly into the main sail, acting as a large catchment field for Solar Power. Or, dye-sensitive film attached to a solid Wing Sail with multifunctional harvest/storage powerskins like those used by the Military today on Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs). TheOracle latest America Cup winner used a generator mounted behind the Captain fortrimming the nine sections of the solid Wing Sail and other operational requirements–it was noisy, smelly and totally unnecessary. The Wing Sail can generate 5-10 kWh/dof electricity, enough for all electronics, LED lights and winches.
  31. 31. Wind Systems Power Augmentation Ducted Wind Auxiliary Wind Airborne Wind Towing Kite* Thermal Textiles/ s Wind* Solar Cell Films o u r s e 5 m/s 10kWh/d 3.5 m/s :7.6 kWh/d SkySails Provides The Sail boat Type 7.5 m/s 15kWh/d 7.5 m/s 9.7kWh/d Airborne Tether 30% Fuel Saving Textiles or Films Power Used during Transit for Hotel Load or System during Transit for Solar Power Suitable for large Battery Charging Stationary yachts only during Transit (only large yachts) (only large yachts) Harvesting Current Prototype Operational Concept Operational Solid Wing Sail Status Available for Test Today Proven Today Is Proven Tech- Advanced Improvements Test Systems Improvement Enter Dye- nology Design and In Electronics sensitive Solar 2015 Larger Yachts Expanded Use Cell Films for Solid Wing Sails* Same Tether can be used for Airborne System and SkySails Towing Kite
  32. 32. Future Designs Maximizing Renewable Energy
  33. 33. Solar and Wind Yacht Conceptual - Integrated Energy System Airborne Energy Generating Preserving Rotating Kite Central Towing Kite Solar PV Energy Wind Panels Mgmt. Generators System Taffrail Water Emergency/ Generators Energy Battery (small yachts) Storage Charging Regeneration System Genset* Systems Electric/ Electric/ Electric Alternator Alternator Motors Motor* Motor**Electric Motors, Alternator for Regeneration and Genset are all Mature Technologies
  34. 34. Packaged Power - Options Diesel Diesel/Electric Hybrid - Current Technology Fuel Plug-in Shore Power Tank Batteries DC or AC Motors 2 Electric 1 or 2 Propeller GenSet Lithium- Motors Drives Ion DC DC A/C , Refrigerator, Induction Cooking, TV,, LED Lighting Solar Appliances Field* AC AC All Other Appliances Appliances* Red Denotes Packaged Power Augmentation Fuel Cell/Electric Hybrid – Near Future Technology Diesel Fuel Emergency Tank GenSet Power Generator DC Hydrogen Appliances A/C , Refrigerator, Induction Cooking, TV,, LED Lighting Power Tank Control AC All Other Appliances Unit Appliances 2 Electric Batteries DC or AC Motors Motors 2 Propeller Fuel Cell Lithium- 4 Electric Drives Ion Motors Stack* Red denotes Emergency Power only Plug-in Shore Power
  35. 35. Conceptual Solar and Wind - Packaged Power System Sample Battery Arrangement Hotel LoadPV or CPV Motors Volt Scalable: 12-24-48 Ah Scalable 200-,4,000 Diesel* Solar/Wind/Diesel Electric Hybrid – Packaged Power System Fuel Plug-in Shore Power Tank 2 Electric Batteries DC or AC Motors 2 Propeller GenSet* v Lithium v Inverter Motors 4 Electric Drives Ion Motors Solar Field DC DC A/C , Refrigerator, Induction Cooking, TV, LED Lighting Hotel Load Switch AC All Other Appliances AC Hotel Load Wind Aux * Red denotes Emergency Power only
  36. 36. CPV Power Generating Installation Bank of 10 units of CPV30ft x 12ft top view: 360 SF CPV Makes Energy Independence Possible Yacht size of 78ft x 40ft - 50 tons (approx.) will require 2 banks/10 tubs (20 tubs total). One 360SF Bank of CPV is equal to 720SF of the highest performing PV field today. Top side tub 1st Axis swivels +/- 15° Each unit 6 ft x 6ft 36 SF 2nd Axis
  37. 37. Benefits of High Efficiency PhotovoltaicHighest Current Cell Output for CPV 43.5% vs. Best PV Cell Output of 25% provides:• Sustainable, Reliable Power and very low Maintenance,• Clean, no smell from Fuel internally or Fuel Spillage externally,• Cost-efficient Life Cycle Cost when size of field is match to consumption,• Challenge: Price (Technology and Integration) and Energy Storage
  38. 38. Solar Yacht High Level Design Features Life Cycle Cost ImplicationsTarget Items Conventional Today Solar Yacht -Tomorrow Impact NotesPower Plant/ Diesel/ Electric Motors/Generator Diesel GenSet providing backupPropulsion Diesel-electric back-up (proven technology) emergency energy for batteriesEnergy Storage/ Lead Acid/ Lithium-Ion Fuel Cells Energy Storage, or Weight reduction , energy outputBatteries Liquid Batteries and overall cost reduction most critical to achieved future resultsDesign Features Traditional Hull Shapes Catamaran, Tri-maran or New Power placement, Surface Ramform for Stability piercing Propellers, Wave Cutting Shapes etc…Construction/ Composite and Wood Composite/ Carbon/ Ti/ Al Use Space Age Materials ensuresMaterial weight saving and strengthOperational Electronic Controls Computerized Controls - Controlling Energy BudgetSystems (manual) Energy management improves utilization and conserves stored energyInfrastructure/ Battery Lighting, Halogen LED, Low Power Apply new technology to reduceLighting Gas Appliances Convection Appliances Energy consumption , using DC power where possible (>20%)Weight Budget Diesel Engines/ Electric Motors/ new Energy Trade-off in Storage , power Genset/ Batteries Storage Systems systems on Life Cycle Cost basis (over 20 year Life Cycle)
  39. 39. Way Ahead The Renewable Energy Market is Fractured and Power Systems are Nascent• Complete Database Research on All Possible Power/Storage Solutions• Design a practical land based scalable integration demo unit• Build a Proof-of-principle Integrated Power System (100kWp)• Create Computer Model for Scalable Motive Power & Hotel LoadCalculations used to Propose Custom Solutions to Yacht Designers• Establish a Number of Renewable Energy Turnkey Power Packages• Promote the Packaged Power Approach to the Yachting Industry• Offer Power Packages to Yacht Designers/Builders Worldwide • Along with Power Option Solutions and Consulting Services Cont.
  40. 40. Market Size – High LevelPrimary Market: Secondary Market:The Mega Yacht new built (100 feet and up) 2,500 yachts are listed in Lloyd’s Registryworldwide Market is 25 yachts annually: (including Mega Yacht) as operating worldwide, all can benefit from a retrofitCurrently scheduled for delivery in 2012 is Packaged Power System.25 Mega Yachts - laid end-to-end thisrepresents approx 4,388 feet at a total In the 40-100 foot size category there areestimated built cost of approx $1.5 billion*. no reliable figures, but its likely to be over 100,000 – all of which can benefit fromAverage size of current Yachts is 176 feet at Packaged Power in order to reduce thean average Cost of approx $59 million. energy cost required for cruising operationMarket is unaffected by the ups-and-downs – including both Motive Power and Hotelin the Economy (2011 Market was equal to Load.2012 delivery schedule). More and more Yacht Builders are installingThe total Packed Power Requirement a variety of Hybrid Power Systems in orderrepresents between 25-30% of the built to reduce the energy requirement, butCost equal to $20-24 million per Yacht. activities is lacking an overall strategy to maximize the Energy Savings.* Base line estimated cost $300,000 per running foot This is a fractured and untapped Market!
  41. 41. Marketing StrategyFor Mega Yachts Establish Direct Contact with New and Upgrade Package Power Systemsthe Following Builders: for Yachts in the 40-100ft:Feadship, Lurssen, Peri Yachts. Delta, Amels, The Marketing focus will be on YachtMondo Marine, Fincantieri Yachts, Oceanco, Builders known to already have addedTrinity, Palmer Johnson, Benedetti, CRN, Electric Drives to their most currentHeesen, Christensen, Icon, Azimut, Aneking & designs (Off-line Diesel Engines withRasmussen, Cheoy Lee, Codecasa, Nobiskrug, GenSet and Battery Storage), or variousNothern Marine, Jade Yachts, Arcadia Yachts, other Energy Saving devices such asADM Shipyard, Mega Technica, RMK Yachts. limited use of Solar Panels (160-200 Wp) or Taffrail Generators (6 kts for up to 100And the following Designers: W per panel), for partial electric power.Reichel & Pugh, Van Geest Design, PhillippeBriand, Hot Lab Design, Espen Oino, Tim This fleet of yachts is very large as is theHeywood Design, Ron Holland Design, Diana number of boat builders worldwide (in theYacht Design, DeVoogt Naval Architects, Azure 1000s). Interest in a well thought outNaval Architects, Laurent Giles Naval Packaged Power System is high today.Architects, Vripack, Mulder Design, Claydon These Boat Builder can best be reached atReeves, C3 Design, Moore yacht Design, Ken Boat Shows (local and International), byFreivokh yacht Design, Dixon Yacht Design, demonstrating performance with theMarco Casali-Too Design, Barracuda Yacht planned land based Demo Unit.Design and Misha Merzliakov Design.
  42. 42. This in the End of the Presentation If you are interested in more Specific information on Project Designs in this Presentationdetailed explanation and Case Studies can be provided by contacting : Henning Jacobsen HJA Solutions Henning@hjaSolutions.com +1 514 214-4245
  43. 43. Current Business Case Samples of Applied Renewable Technology for Yachts1. 2007 Sun21 – Catamaran 42’ x 20’ and weighing 12 tons2. 2008 PlanetSolar is a Catamaran measuring 102’ x 49’ and weighing 95 tons3. 2009 WHY Wallygator – four deck 190’ x 125’ size weighing 2,646 tons4. 2010 Mochi Craft 23 Long Range - four-deck 75 foot, 95 ton yacht5. 2011 Oculus (250’ x 42’) 2,800E Tons6. 2012 Rainbow – J-Class Fleet Replica, 131’ x ? tons7. 2013 Floating Home -2 Story Living Quarters 60’ x 30’ weighing 100 -110 tons
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