Transcript of "Gender mainstreaming in humanitarian action"
Gender Mainstreaming in Humanitarian Action Reproductive Health Henia Dakkak, MD, MPH Humanitarian Response Unit UNFPA New York – June 21, 2007
“Gender” Explains the socially constructed identities, roles and expectations associated with males and females Describes the unequal relationship between men and women and makes clear that the prevailing unequal gender roles and relations help to limit women’s participation and contribution
Gender issues are not the same as women’s issues Working towards gender equality does not mean sameness between men and women, but rather that both can exercise their rights in an equitable process which recognizes that their starting points are different, but nevertheless equal Understanding gender means understanding opportunities, constraints and the impacts of change as they affect both men and women
Gender Roles In most societies gender inequality stems from the fact that women must fulfil 3 main roles, which are unrecognized and undervalued- Reproductive “refers to women’s child bearing as well as to their child rearing roles- Productive “refers to women’s role as income earners in both formal and informal sectors”- Community “refers to women’s collective work at the community level”
Gender-based Analysis Gender analysis is a tool used in the understanding of social processes and provides a method for responding with informed and equitable options Gender based analysis challenges the assumption that everyone is affected by policies and programs in the same way regardless of their sex, a notion often referred to as ‘gender-neutral policy’ and makes visible the different needs and perspective of women, identifies barriers facing women in carrying out their daily multiple roles and illuminates the socially constructed relationships between men and women
Gender Analysis and Gender Sensitive Indicators Effective gender analysis to monitor progress on gender equity and sustainable development requires good gender- disaggregated data, gender sensitive research and indicators. Severe lack of adequate data available. For example, in work assessment, caring activities are still categorized as leisure, and few gender disaggregated environment and health indicators exist
Gender Mainstreaming Strategy to encourage gender balance in governance and sustainable development include full and equal participation of women in the formulation of all policies and decision making; evaluating institutions for gender balance and action on gender issues; overcoming women’s apathy and lack of understanding of government processes with innovative types of outreach
Mechanisms to achieve gender mainstreaming Awareness-raising, capacity building, education and training of women and men; and all people in decision-making positions in all sectors and all levels (changing curricula, public campaigns, developing gender sensitivity training; guidelines for gender mainstreaming0 Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women e.g. legislation (CEDAW, national legislation); making gender disaggregated information available and supporting relevant research
Gender Mainstreaming Strategies Adequate funding and support with monitoring and evaluation for effectiveness and replication (gender budgeting) Collecting and sharing good practices at local, national and international levels including peer review of good practice and promoting successful strategies
Gender Mainstreaming in Humanitarian Action Five Way Proposal Gender Handbook in Humanitarian Action “Women, Girls, Boys and Men Different Needs – Equal Opportunities” was created to establish some standards for humanitarian actors Gender Surge Capacity and Roster – to create standby capacity of gender advisors who can be deployed to help Humanitarian coordinators Sex and Age disaggregated data Capacity development of humanitarian actors – Self training module as requirement before deployment similar to security awareness Increase Partnership with national and regional women organizations and civil societies
Framework for Gender EqualityA nalyse gender differencesD esign services to meet needs of allA ccess ensured for allP articipate equally for allT rain women and men equallyandA ddress GBV in sector programsC ollect, analyse and report sex/agedisaggregated dataT arget actions based on a gender analysisCoordinate actions with all partnersADAPT and ACT Collectively to ensuregender
HUMANITARIANreform THREE PILLARS OF REFORM AND THE FOUNDATION CLUSTER HUMANITARIAN HUMANITARIAN APPROACH COORDINATORS FINANCING PARTNERSHIP
reform HUMANITARIAN Inter-Agency Standing Committee Full Members and Standing Invitees Full Members Standing Invitees Whose reform? Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Office for the Coordination of International Council of Voluntary Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Agencies (ICVA) Inter-Agency Standing United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Committee (IASC) Societies (IFRC) United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) American Council for Voluntary International Action (InterAction) Composed of NGO consortia, United Nations High Comissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) International Organisation for Migration (IOM) Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IOM, World bank United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and UN agencies World Food Programme (WFP) Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons World Health Organisation (RSG on HR of IDPs) (WHO) Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SCHR) World Bank (World Bank)
reform HUMANITARIAN Global Capacity-Building Cluster/Sector Working Group Global Cluster Leads 1. Agriculture FAO 2. Camp Coordination & Camp Mgmt UNHCR & IOM 3. Early Recovery UNDP 4. Education UNICEF & Save the Children 5. Emergency Shelter UNHCR & IFRC (Convenor) 6. Emergency Telecomms OCHA (UNICEF & WFP) 7. Health WHO 8. Logistics WFP 9. Nutrition UNICEF 10. Protection UNHCR 11. Water, Sanitation & Hygiene UNICEF
reform HUMANITARIAN Cross-cutting Issues Ge nde r Equ ali ty UNFPA and WHO (IA SC SWG) HIV/ AIDS UNAIDS (IA SC TF) Envi ronme nt UNEP (O the rs huma n rig hts, age, older persons, etc)
Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. It also includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of life and personal relations. (Cairo, ICPD Programme of Action, paragraph 7.2)
Why reproductive health services for populations in crisis?Reproductive health is a human right a psychosocial health need
Inter-Agency Working Group on RH in Refugee Situations (IAWG)Formed in 1995 under coordination of UNHCR Minimal Initial Service Package (MISP) Inter-agency Field Manual
What is the MISP?Mimimum basic, limited reproductive healthInitial for use in emergency, without site-specific needs assessmentService services to be delivered to the populationPackage supplies (e.g. RH kit) and activities coordination and planning
Components of the MISP Identify a coordinator Prevent and manage the consequences of sexual violence Reduce HIV transmission Prevent excess neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality Plan for comprehensive RH services, integrated into PHC, as soon as possible
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