Drawing a new map appendix and refsDocument Transcript
Snowden’s classification of the environment
Repeating patterns and consistent events
Clear cause-and-effect relationships evident to everyone; the right answer exists
Expert diagnosis required
Cause-and-effect relationships discoverable but not immediately evident to everyone,
more than one right answer possible
Flux and unpredictability
No right answers, emergent instructive patterns
Many competing ideas
A need for creative and innovative approaches
No clear cause-and-effect relationship, so no point in looking for the right answer
Many decisions to make and no time to think
The Differences between Debate and Dialogue 34)
Debate–Oppositional: Two sides oppose each other and attempt to prove each other
Dialogue–Collaborative: Two or more sides work together toward a common
Debate – Winning is the goal
Dialogue – Finding common ground is the goal
Debate – Listening to the other side in order to find flaws and to counter arguments
Dialogue – One listens to the other side in order to understand, find meaning and
Debate – Affirms a participant’s own point of view
Dialogue – Possibility of enlarging and changing a participant’s point of view
Debate – Defends assumptions as truth
Dialogue – Reveals assumptions for re-evaluation
Debate – Causes a critique of the other position
Dialogue – Causes introspection on one’s own position
Debate – Defends one’s own position as the best solution and excludes other solutions
Dialogue – Opens the possibility of reaching a better solution than any of the original
Debate – Creates a closed-minded attitude; a determination to be right
Dialogue – Creates an open-minded attitude; openness to being wrong and an
openness to change
Debate – One submits one’s best thinking and defends it against challenge to show
that it is right
Dialogue – One submits one’s best thinking, knowing that other people’s reflections
will help improve rather than destroy it
Debate – Calls for investing wholeheartedly in one’s beliefs
Dialogue – Calls for temporarily suspending one’s beliefs
Debate – One searches for glaring differences
Dialogue – One searches for basic agreements
Debate – One searches for flaws and weaknesses in the other position
Dialogue – One searches for strength in the other positions
Debate – Involves a countering of the other position without focussing on the feeling
or relationship and often belittles or depreciates the other person
Dialogue – Involves a real concern for the other person and seeks to not alienate or
Debate – Assumes that there is a right answer and that someone has it
Dialogue – Assumes that many people have pieces of the answer and that together
they can put them into a workable solution
What Does Dialogue Look Like?34)
We can easily determine when dialogue is under way. The signs are as follows:
The conversation is filled with laughter
Everybody gets involved.
There is a sense of excitement
Views different from your own becomes exciting instead of annoying
People are listening more than talking
People are eager to add to what others have said
At the end of the process the understanding reached is greater than that which any of
the participants on their own could have reached.
How to move a conversation from debate/discussion to dialogue
Often conversations will move towards debate, an area where positions harden and
minds start to close. The quickest way to move the conversation back to debate is by
asking questions. These questions need to be aimed directly at what the other person
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