Entrepreneurship        Training                     By:   Henry Clarke Kisembo
Training Calendar   Dec 13 – Dec 16:   9:00 am – 6:00 pm
Overview of Training SessionsMonday What is an entrepreneur?   How to select a viable businessTuesday Market Research ...
Overview of Training SessionsWednesday The Costs of Starting & Operating a Business Marketing StrategiesThursday Financ...
Session #1: Outline   What is an entrepreneur?   What are the pros and cons of owning your    own business?   Opportuni...
Opportunity RecognitionWhere others see problems, entrepreneurs recognize                    opportunities.Qualities of a ...
Five Roots of Opportunity1.   Problems2.   Changes3.   Inventions4.   Competition5.   Technological Advances
The Eight Rules of Building aSuccessful Business1.   Recognize an opportunity2.   Evaluate the opportunity3.   Write a bus...
Evaluating OpportunitiesMarket Demand Who is your market? Who are your target customers?Competitive Advantage How are y...
SWOT Analysis   Strengths   Weaknesses   Opportunities   Threats
Four Basic Business Types1.   Manufacturing (inganda)2.   Wholesale (keranguza)3.   Retail (kudandaza)4.   Service servise...
Homework for next session   Poll friends, family members or colleagues (outside from ORI) and    ask them to share things...
Session #2: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 – 12:00 Market Research Product Development Return on Investment Cost/Benefit ...
Market ResearchMarket research is the process and technique of finding out who your potential customers are and what they ...
Return on InvestmentHow to Calculate Return on Investment (R.O.I.)1. Take the amount you possess at the close of the   bus...
Risk, Interest and LiquidityWhat is risk?The possibility that you may lose your moneyWhat is interest?When an investor len...
Risk, Interest and LiquidityGenerally, the lower the risk of investment, the  lower the required rate of return.The higher...
Cost/Benefit AnalysisThere are always two factors to consider when making any  decision:Costs: The money and time you will...
Financing Your BusinessThe money needed to start a business is   referred to as start-up capital.There are two primary way...
Debt vs. EquityDebt The business borrows the money from a person or institution and pays it back over a set period of time...
Debt-to-Equity RatioMany companies are financed by a combination of debt and equity.The financial strategy of a company is...
Financing Options for YoungEntrepreneurs   Loans from Banks   Loans from Credit Societies   Equity stakes for friends, ...
Homework for next session   Write a plan for how you are going to conduct    market research about your business idea.   ...
Session #3: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 – 12:15 The Costs of Starting & Operating a Business Types of Businesses Mainta...
The Costs ofStarting/Operating a BusinessThree Primary Categories of Costs (or  expenses)    Start-up costs    Cost of g...
Start-up CostsA start-up cost is a one-time expense  necessary for starting a business.These are also sometimes called the...
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)   Units of Sale       One example of the product sold (i.e. one cup of        coffee)       O...
Total Cost of Goods Sold   Total cost of goods sold is total cost of all    goods sold in a given period   What about if...
Operating CostsOperating costs are the costs necessary to run the  business (not including the cost of goods sold).These c...
Fixed vs. Variable costs   Fixed costs are operating costs that stay the    same regardless of sales       Also referred...
Calculating Gross Profit   Gross profit is determined by subtracting    the total cost of goods or services sold    from ...
Calculating Overall Profit   Gross profit is not the same as overall profit,    because operating costs are not considere...
Calculating Profit per Unit   Sometimes you may need to know how much    profit you make per unit of sale.   This is cal...
Types of Businesses   In order to operate in Rwanda, you will need    to register your business.   There are three types...
Business Structures   Three primary ways to organize a business:       Sole Proprietorship         Owned by one person ...
Maintaining CompetitiveAdvantage   What is the most important benefit that    customers in your market will receive from ...
Creating a Business Strategy1.   Develop a Mission Statement2.   Research your Competition3.   Write your strategy4.   Rev...
Maintaining QualityA business’s goal should always be quality, not  short-term profitsBusinesses should always strive for ...
Tips for Improving Quality1.    Adopt a philosophy of continuous improvement2.    Be consistent3.    Do it right the first...
Marketing Your BusinessWhat is marketing?The development and use of strategies for getting a product or service    to the ...
Marketing Your BusinessThe goal of your marketing plan is to bring the  right product to the right place at the right  pri...
Consumer & Market Analysis1. Who are your customers? What do they  want? What is your market segment?2. Now, you can analy...
Branding Your Business   A brand is a combination of name and    symbol/logo. Brands are also defined by    company cultu...
Types of Marketing   Advertising       Costs money       Typically posted in public venues, such as        newspapers/o...
Principles of Salesmanship1.    Make a good personal impression2.    View selling as teaching3.    Believe in your product...
Homework for next session   Write your mission statement and basic    marketing strategy for your business. What is    yo...
Session #4: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 – Noon Record Keeping Cash Flow and InventoryAfternoon Session 1:00 pm – 6:00 pm...
Record Keeping:The Business Ledger   Every business needs a record of all of its    income and expenses. This is the busi...
The Business Ledger
Supporting Documents   There must be a supporting document to    back up each transaction.   For each purchase, get a re...
Income Statements   Businesses must also produce regular income    statements, called profit and loss statements.   Inco...
Sample Income StatementDescription               Subtotal   TotalTotal Sales                          35,000Total C.O.G.S....
Analyzing Income StatementsDescription                Subtotal   Total    Financial AnalysisTotal Sales                   ...
The Balance Sheet   A business’ balance sheet shows the assets,    liabilities and net worth of the business.   Net wort...
Components of aBalance Sheet1. Assets All items of worth owned by the business  (cash, inventory, furniture, etc)     “C...
Components Continued2. Liabilities Debts owed by the business (bank loans,  mortgages, other loans)    “Current” must be...
Components Continued3. Net Worth/Owner’s Equity What remains once you’ve subtracted  liabilities from assets     Assets –...
Sample Balance SheetAssets                              LiabilitiesCash              100,000           Loan               ...
Debt Ratios   The debt ratio describes how much of the    total money in your business was provided by    creditors (i.e....
Assets: Cash Flow & InventoryCash Flow   The difference between the amount of money you take in    and the amount of mone...
Cash Flow StatementCash InflowSales                         35,000Total Cash Inflows            35,000Cash OutflowsC.O.G.S...
Monthly Cash Projections   A cash projection is an educated guess    about how much cash you will need in a    given mont...
The “Burn Rate”   Your burn rate is your negative cash flow    per month. The rate measures how quickly    you spend mone...
Inventory   Inventory is everything the business owns.    This includes items used to run the business    (i.e. computers...
Break-Even Analysis   Break-even Analysis helps you find the    point at which your business will be selling    enough un...
How to determine theBreak-Even point1.   Figure out your gross profit per unit2.   Calculate your monthly fixed costs3.   ...
Pricing: An Important NoteHow do you determine the appropriate pricing point for your product?   Multiply the wholesale c...
Budgeting   A budget is essentially an income statement    projected for a full fiscal year   Budgeting is always an est...
Sample Budget
Administrative Concerns1.    Laws and Regulations2.    Taxes3.    Legal Protections (i.e. insurance)4.    Assembling Your ...
Homework for next week   Write your initial financing strategies. How    much capital will you need to start your    busi...
Session #5: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 am – 1:00 pmAfternoon Session 2:00pm – 6:00pm Writing a Business Plan Business P...
Your Business Plan   Why do you need a business plan?       It serves as a guide for the owner       It forces the bsui...
Elements of a SuccessfulBusiness Plan1.   Business Description2.   Marketing Plan3.   Competitor Analysis4.   Economics of...
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  1. 1. Entrepreneurship Training By: Henry Clarke Kisembo
  2. 2. Training Calendar Dec 13 – Dec 16: 9:00 am – 6:00 pm
  3. 3. Overview of Training SessionsMonday What is an entrepreneur? How to select a viable businessTuesday Market Research Financing Strategies
  4. 4. Overview of Training SessionsWednesday The Costs of Starting & Operating a Business Marketing StrategiesThursday Financial Records Administrative ConcernsFriday Writing a Business Plan
  5. 5. Session #1: Outline What is an entrepreneur? What are the pros and cons of owning your own business? Opportunity Recognition SWOT Analysis Case Study Discussion
  6. 6. Opportunity RecognitionWhere others see problems, entrepreneurs recognize opportunities.Qualities of a Good Business Opportunity It is attractive to customers It will work in your business environment It can be executed in your “window of opportunity” You have the resources and skills You can offer the product/service at the right price
  7. 7. Five Roots of Opportunity1. Problems2. Changes3. Inventions4. Competition5. Technological Advances
  8. 8. The Eight Rules of Building aSuccessful Business1. Recognize an opportunity2. Evaluate the opportunity3. Write a business plan4. Build a team5. Gather resources6. Decide ownership7. Create wealth8. Execute your plan & satisfy consumer needs
  9. 9. Evaluating OpportunitiesMarket Demand Who is your market? Who are your target customers?Competitive Advantage How are you different from the competition?
  10. 10. SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
  11. 11. Four Basic Business Types1. Manufacturing (inganda)2. Wholesale (keranguza)3. Retail (kudandaza)4. Service serviseSome business sell products; others sell services.
  12. 12. Homework for next session Poll friends, family members or colleagues (outside from ORI) and ask them to share things that they find frustrating or difficult in their daily lives. Write down all of the complaints. Now, generate 3 possible business opportunities from the list. Evaluate the ideas using the Business Opportunities questions from the Workbook (Chapter 2, Module 1). Based on the evaluation, choose the best idea and complete a brief SWOT Analysis. Type up the analysis and bring it with you to the next session. Invent a tentative name for your business.
  13. 13. Session #2: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 – 12:00 Market Research Product Development Return on Investment Cost/Benefit AnalysisAfternoon Session 1:00 – 6:00 pm Financing Strategies
  14. 14. Market ResearchMarket research is the process and technique of finding out who your potential customers are and what they need/want.Types of Market Research General Research Surveys Statistical Research
  15. 15. Return on InvestmentHow to Calculate Return on Investment (R.O.I.)1. Take the amount you possess at the close of the business period. This is your end wealth (A in formula)2. Subtract the amount of your original investment. This is your beginning wealth (B in formula)3. Divide the resulting number by your beginning wealth.4. Multiply by 100 to get the percentage of return on your investment.Formula: (A-B) x 100 = R.O.I. B
  16. 16. Risk, Interest and LiquidityWhat is risk?The possibility that you may lose your moneyWhat is interest?When an investor lends money, s/he charges interest. - The money you borrow is called the principal. - The interest rate is the rate at which the bank (or other investor) will charge interest. This rate is a percentage of the principal. - When you pay back the loan, you need to pay the principal + interest.If you cannot pay back a loan, it is called defaulting.What is liquidity?The ease of getting cash in and out of an investment
  17. 17. Risk, Interest and LiquidityGenerally, the lower the risk of investment, the lower the required rate of return.The higher the risk of investment, the higher the required rate of return.
  18. 18. Cost/Benefit AnalysisThere are always two factors to consider when making any decision:Costs: The money and time you will have to investBenefits: The rate of return on your investment (financial or non-financial)Don’t forget to consider opportunity costs!Remember, there are trade-offs involved in any decision.
  19. 19. Financing Your BusinessThe money needed to start a business is referred to as start-up capital.There are two primary ways to raise capital:1. Debt2. Equity
  20. 20. Debt vs. EquityDebt The business borrows the money from a person or institution and pays it back over a set period of time at a set rate of interest. The entrepreneur signs a promissory note, promising to repay the borrowed sum + interest.Equity The business gives up a percentage of ownership of the business in exchange for money. The investor receives a percentage of future profits based on % ownership.
  21. 21. Debt-to-Equity RatioMany companies are financed by a combination of debt and equity.The financial strategy of a company is expressed by its debt-to-equity ratio.A highly leveraged company is a company that relies heavily on debt.
  22. 22. Financing Options for YoungEntrepreneurs Loans from Banks Loans from Credit Societies Equity stakes for friends, family & colleagues Micro-loan financing Starting small Grants Savings and Loan groups
  23. 23. Homework for next session Write a plan for how you are going to conduct market research about your business idea. What will you do? Be sure to include both general research and some interviews with potential customers. If you plan to use a survey, write a first draft of the questions you wish to ask.
  24. 24. Session #3: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 – 12:15 The Costs of Starting & Operating a Business Types of Businesses Maintaining Competitive Advantage Maintaining QualityAfternoon Session 1:15 pm – 6:00 pm Marketing Your Business
  25. 25. The Costs ofStarting/Operating a BusinessThree Primary Categories of Costs (or expenses)  Start-up costs  Cost of goods sold  Operating costs (both fixed and variable)
  26. 26. Start-up CostsA start-up cost is a one-time expense necessary for starting a business.These are also sometimes called the original investment or seed money.
  27. 27. Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) Units of Sale  One example of the product sold (i.e. one cup of coffee)  One hour of service time  Average sale per customer, if the business sells more than one product (i.e. average sales in a grocery store) Cost of Goods Sold for one unit
  28. 28. Total Cost of Goods Sold Total cost of goods sold is total cost of all goods sold in a given period What about if your unit of sale is a service?  Cost of Service Sold (per unit and total)
  29. 29. Operating CostsOperating costs are the costs necessary to run the business (not including the cost of goods sold).These costs typically fall into seven categories:  Utilities (gas, electric, telephone, internet)  Salaries  Advertising  Insurance  Interest  Rent  Depreciation
  30. 30. Fixed vs. Variable costs Fixed costs are operating costs that stay the same regardless of sales  Also referred to as overhead Variable costs are operating costs that change depending on the volume of sales but cannot be assigned directly to the production of one unit of sale
  31. 31. Calculating Gross Profit Gross profit is determined by subtracting the total cost of goods or services sold from the total revenue earned If unit of sale involves multiple ingredients, the gross profit per unit is the cost of all goods subtracted from the price paid by the customer
  32. 32. Calculating Overall Profit Gross profit is not the same as overall profit, because operating costs are not considered when calculating gross profit How to calculate overall profit: Gross Profit – Operating Costs = Profit
  33. 33. Calculating Profit per Unit Sometimes you may need to know how much profit you make per unit of sale. This is calculated in the following manner: Profits = Profit per Unit Units Sold
  34. 34. Types of Businesses In order to operate in Rwanda, you will need to register your business. There are three types of organizations in Rwanda:  For-Profit Businesses (registers with RDB)  Non-Profit Organizations (registers with MINALOC or Immigration)  Cooperatives (registers with Rwanda Cooperative Authority)
  35. 35. Business Structures Three primary ways to organize a business:  Sole Proprietorship  Owned by one person  Owner receives all profits and suffers all losses  Partnership  Owned by two or more people who make business decisions together  Partners share profits and losses  Corporation  Legal entity composed of stockholders under a common name  Elect officers and a board of directors
  36. 36. Maintaining CompetitiveAdvantage What is the most important benefit that customers in your market will receive from your product/service? How will you deliver it? This forms the basis of your business strategy (the tactics that you will use to outperform your competition)
  37. 37. Creating a Business Strategy1. Develop a Mission Statement2. Research your Competition3. Write your strategy4. Revise your strategy by monitoring the competition and making changes
  38. 38. Maintaining QualityA business’s goal should always be quality, not short-term profitsBusinesses should always strive for continuous improvement.Ethics also play a role in any successful business.
  39. 39. Tips for Improving Quality1. Adopt a philosophy of continuous improvement2. Be consistent3. Do it right the first time4. Develop long-term relationships5. Focus on quality in products & customer service6. Set up training programs for employees (including yourself)7. Get rid of fear8. Don’t ask for perfection but improvement9. Focus on quality, not quantity10. Ask for comments and input
  40. 40. Marketing Your BusinessWhat is marketing?The development and use of strategies for getting a product or service to the customer and generating interest in itWhat are some elements of a successful marketing strategy?1. Location2. Marketing TechniquesFour essential items of a marketing plan: Product Price Place Promotion
  41. 41. Marketing Your BusinessThe goal of your marketing plan is to bring the right product to the right place at the right price with the right promotion. Steps for developing a marketing plan  Consumer Analysis  Market Analysis  Developing a marketing “mix”  Break-even analysis
  42. 42. Consumer & Market Analysis1. Who are your customers? What do they want? What is your market segment?2. Now, you can analyze your market - Pick a sample of your population - Conduct some research - Compile your data and look for trends3. How do the different components of your marketing plan work together?
  43. 43. Branding Your Business A brand is a combination of name and symbol/logo. Brands are also defined by company culture. Reputation is a very important aspect of business. Keep your reputation positive by:  Providing high quality products/services  Clearly defining your products/services  Making advertising positive & informative  Treating employees/customers with respect
  44. 44. Types of Marketing Advertising  Costs money  Typically posted in public venues, such as newspapers/other media or billboards Publicity  Free advertising  Also considered to be more trustworthy by clients
  45. 45. Principles of Salesmanship1. Make a good personal impression2. View selling as teaching3. Believe in your product or service4. Know everything about your product/service5. Know your field6. Listen to and understand your customers7. Prepare and practice your presentation8. Think positively9. Keep good records10. Make appointments11. Stay in touch and build relationships
  46. 46. Homework for next session Write your mission statement and basic marketing strategy for your business. What is your target audience? Then, determine what is the best legal structure for your business.
  47. 47. Session #4: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 – Noon Record Keeping Cash Flow and InventoryAfternoon Session 1:00 pm – 6:00 pm Break-Even Analysis Administrative Considerations
  48. 48. Record Keeping:The Business Ledger Every business needs a record of all of its income and expenses. This is the business ledger. In the ledger, income sources are referred to as credits and expenses are referred to as debits.
  49. 49. The Business Ledger
  50. 50. Supporting Documents There must be a supporting document to back up each transaction. For each purchase, get a receipt. For each sale, produce a bill or invoice and keep a copy for yourself.  Keep a separate record of all invoices in numbered order.
  51. 51. Income Statements Businesses must also produce regular income statements, called profit and loss statements. Income statements should include:  Sales  Total C.O.G.S.  Gross Profit  Operating Costs  Profit Before Taxes  Taxes  Net Profit/(Loss)
  52. 52. Sample Income StatementDescription Subtotal TotalTotal Sales 35,000Total C.O.G.S. 20,000Gross Profit 15,000Operating Costs- Fixed Costs 8,000- Variable Costs 0- Total Operating Costs 8,000Profit Before Taxes 7,000Taxes 3,500Net Profit/(Loss) 3,500
  53. 53. Analyzing Income StatementsDescription Subtotal Total Financial AnalysisTotal Sales 35,000 100%Total C.O.G.S. 20,000 57%Gross Profit 15,000 43%Operating Costs - Fixed Costs 8,000 23% - Variable Costs 0 0% - Total Operating Costs 8,000 23%Profit Before Taxes 7,000 20%Taxes 3,500 10%Net Profit/(Loss) 3,500 10%
  54. 54. The Balance Sheet A business’ balance sheet shows the assets, liabilities and net worth of the business. Net worth is the difference between assets and liabilities. This is also called the owner’s equity. Businesses typically produce income statements and balance sheets once a month, once a quarter and once a fiscal year.
  55. 55. Components of aBalance Sheet1. Assets All items of worth owned by the business (cash, inventory, furniture, etc)  “Current” could be sold for cash in one year  “Long-term” would take more than one year to turn into cash
  56. 56. Components Continued2. Liabilities Debts owed by the business (bank loans, mortgages, other loans)  “Current” must be paid within the year  “Long-term” will be paid over a period of more than one year
  57. 57. Components Continued3. Net Worth/Owner’s Equity What remains once you’ve subtracted liabilities from assets Assets – Liabilities = Net Worth If assets are greater than liabilities, net worth is positive If liabilities are greater than assets, net worth is negative
  58. 58. Sample Balance SheetAssets LiabilitiesCash 100,000 Loan 150,000Tables & Chairs 100,000Coffee Machine 150,000 Owner’s Equity 200,000Total Assets 350,000 Total Liabilities 350,000 & Owner’s Equity** Both sides of the Balance Sheet must show the same total.
  59. 59. Debt Ratios The debt ratio describes how much of the total money in your business was provided by creditors (i.e. how much is debt) Debt Ratio: Total Debt Total Assets Typically banks don’t like to lend to businesses with high debt ratios
  60. 60. Assets: Cash Flow & InventoryCash Flow The difference between the amount of money you take in and the amount of money you spend Three simple rules to help maintain positive cash flow  Collect cash as soon as possible  Pay your bills as late as possible within the agreed-upon time frame  Always know your cash balance by consulting your ledger and bank statements frequently Remember to account for seasonal changes
  61. 61. Cash Flow StatementCash InflowSales 35,000Total Cash Inflows 35,000Cash OutflowsC.O.G.S. 20,000Operating Costs 8,000Total Cash Outflow 28,000Net Cash Flow Before Taxes 7,000Taxes 3,500Net Cash Flow 3,500 Cash Flow = Receipts - Disbursements
  62. 62. Monthly Cash Projections A cash projection is an educated guess about how much cash you will need in a given month. Preparing a Cash Flow Projection  Project your income from all available sources  Subtract the expenses you expect to have from the projected cash income
  63. 63. The “Burn Rate” Your burn rate is your negative cash flow per month. The rate measures how quickly you spend money. It is normal to have a negative cash flow for the first few months of a business. Cash on Hand = # Months before cashNegative Cash Outflow per Month runs out
  64. 64. Inventory Inventory is everything the business owns. This includes items used to run the business (i.e. computers and printers) and products bought in bulk for eventual sale. It can sometimes to be risky to buy inventory in advance:  You have to pay for storage costs  The items may be damaged or stolen  It may take a long time to sell the inventory
  65. 65. Break-Even Analysis Break-even Analysis helps you find the point at which your business will be selling enough units to cover its costs Businesses must at least break even to survive. In the long-run, they must make profit beyond the break-even point.
  66. 66. How to determine theBreak-Even point1. Figure out your gross profit per unit2. Calculate your monthly fixed costs3. Divide gross profit per unit into monthly fixed costs4. This gives you the number of units you will need to sell in order to cover fixed costsMonthly Fixed Costs = # Break-Even UnitsGross Profit per Unit
  67. 67. Pricing: An Important NoteHow do you determine the appropriate pricing point for your product? Multiply the wholesale cost of the product by your mark- up percentage (generally the same for the entire business) to find the cost of the item (or the retail price)Determine profit margin by dividing profits by sales. This shows how much of overall sales is profit.
  68. 68. Budgeting A budget is essentially an income statement projected for a full fiscal year Budgeting is always an estimation but it is very important guide that allows you to monitor the financial health of your business
  69. 69. Sample Budget
  70. 70. Administrative Concerns1. Laws and Regulations2. Taxes3. Legal Protections (i.e. insurance)4. Assembling Your Team 1. Contracts 2. Tax Obligations 3. What is your hiring strategy? How will you hire the best people?
  71. 71. Homework for next week Write your initial financing strategies. How much capital will you need to start your business? How do you plan to raise the money? What is your projected budget for your first year of operations? Bring all of your homework with you for tomorrow’s session, as it will be useful when writing your business plan.
  72. 72. Session #5: OutlineMorning Session 9:00 am – 1:00 pmAfternoon Session 2:00pm – 6:00pm Writing a Business Plan Business Plan Writing Workshop
  73. 73. Your Business Plan Why do you need a business plan?  It serves as a guide for the owner  It forces the bsuiness owner to think through the direction and strategy of the business in a structured way  It is sometimes required by banks or other investors
  74. 74. Elements of a SuccessfulBusiness Plan1. Business Description2. Marketing Plan3. Competitor Analysis4. Economics of One Unit5. Management and Organization6. Start-up Costs & Financing Strategy7. Operating Costs & Break-Even Analysis8. Financial Statements

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