Power in organizational behaviour


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Power in oraganization behaviour

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Power in organizational behaviour

  1. 1. Power packed performances bySri AnkitaBalaji KulkaHema rnidriBajirMansi PriyaaoPurohi m
  2. 2. What do we have in store for you?• Definition of Power• Difference between Power and Authority• Bases Of Power• Dependency• Power Tactics• Power in Groups: Coalitions• Unequal Power in Organizations
  3. 3. Abraham Lincoln says that….• Nearly all men can stand adversity. If you want to test a man’s character give him POWER.
  4. 4. I have the power…• Capacity of A to influence the behaviour of B so that he/she does things that he/she would otherwise not do.
  5. 5. Authority and Power..What is the difference???Authority Power• Legally • Individual enforced and independent• Formal • Informal• Limited • Transcends scope Boundaries• Just and • May be used
  6. 6. Bases Of PowerCoercive Power:• Power because the person has control of the punishments or demotions .• Victim complies in order to avoid punishments believed to be controlled by the agent.
  7. 7. Bases of PowerPositional Power:• Power of an individual because of the relative position and duties in the organization.• Target complies because he believes the agent has the right to make the request and he has
  8. 8. Bases of PowerExpert Power:• Individuals power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organizations needs for the same.• Target complies because he believes that the agent has special knowledge about
  9. 9. Bases of PowerReferent Power:• Power to attract others and build loyalty.• Based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder.• Target complies because he admires or identifies with the agent and wants to gain the
  10. 10. Bases of Power Reward Power:• Refers to the degree to which the individual can give others a reward of some kind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or increases in pay or responsibility.• Power a person has because he or she has control of the resources.• Target complies in order to obtain rewards he or she believes
  11. 11. Dependency• Power : Function of dependency• There often exists a counter-power. e.g. a powerful manager who controls rewards may be dependant on the employee to achieve his/her goals.• The dependency of A on B {D(A,B)} is a function of two things: 1. Demand – how much A needs what B controls.
  12. 12. • 2. Supply – how easy it is for A to go elsewhere to get what B controls. – Supply is inversely related to dependency
  13. 13. • Dependency may be mutual: – Married couple may depend on each other for all the same things. – Or, A can depend on B for some things, and B depends on A for others – A has power over B if A is less dependent on B than B is on A.
  14. 14. General dependency• General dependency postulate – Greater B’s dependency on A ,Greater the power A has over B. – When you possess anything that others require but you alone control, you make them dependent on you and you gain power over them – Example • Intelligent student • Superrich • Blind
  15. 15. What creates dependency• Dependency is increased when the resource you control is : – Importance. – Scarce. – Nonsubstitutability.• Importance – The things you control must be important. – The ability to reduce uncertainty increases a group’s power and enhances its ability to create dependency. – An organization like Panasonic is dependant on engineers than Procter & Gamble
  16. 16. Scarcity• A resource needs to be perceived as scarce to create depen-dency.• The need to obtain a scarce resource— such as, important knowledge—makes the high-ranking member dependent on the low-ranking member.• Individuals in occupations in which the supply of personnel is low relative to demand can negotiate compensation and benefit packages far more attractive
  17. 17. Non-substitubality• The resource cannot be substituted with something else.• The more that a resource has no viable substitutes, the more power that control over that resource provides.• At university in which there are strong pressure for faculty to publish ,the department head’s power over a
  18. 18. Power TacticsWays in which Tactical Dimensions:individuals • Legitimacytranslate • Rational persuasionpower bases • Inspirational appealsinto specific • Consultationactions. • Exchange • Personal appeals • Ingratiation • Pressure • Coalitions
  19. 19. Preferred Power Tactics by Influence DirectionUpward Influence DownwardInfluence Lateral InfluenceRational persuasion Rationalpersuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange
  20. 20. Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of• Power Tactics Sequencing of tactics – Softer to harder tactics work best• Skillful use of a tactic• Relative power of the tactic user – Some tactics work better when applied downward or upward• The type of request attaching to the tactic – Is the request legitimate?• How the request is perceived – Is the request consistent with the target’s values?• The culture of the organization – Culture affects user’s choice of tactic• Country-specific cultural factors – Local values favor certain tactics over others
  21. 21. Power in Groups:Coalitions: Coalitions the end uppower • Mostly their usingA coalition is a pact or treaty wrongly, but effective ifamong individuals or groups, used wiselyduring which they cooperatein joint action, each in their • Seek a broad andown self-interest, joining diverse constituency forforces together for a common support of theircause. objectives.•Typically exposed in crisis time • Occur more frequently•In US, there is a typical in organizations withorganization regulating this high task and resourcecoalition groups, interdependencies.called Coalition for aDemocratic Workplace(CDW) • Seek to maximize their size to attain influence. • Occur more frequently if tasks are
  22. 22. Unequal Power in the WorkplaceGlass Shield for higher positions• Even in this era of globalization, there exists a mental block among themale, which don’t accepts a female astheir as their boss.Sexual Harassment• Requests for sexual favors, andother verbal or physical conduct of asexual nature, typically exploitingwomen.
  23. 23. The final verdict…“The fundamental concept in social science is power, in the same sense in which energy is the fundamental concept in physics.”