Life in a ‘Fast-LiNE’EXPLORING THE NEW ROLES OF CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS TO CONCEIVE A SPATIAL STRATEGY FOR THE GLOBAL NODES IN MUMBAIp 2 p r e s e n t a t i o n2 3 . 0 1 . 2 0 1 2mentor team- Stephen Read; Willem Hermans; Steven SteenburgenHema Priya Kabalistudent number : 4121880complex cities studiochair of spatial planning & strategydepartment of urbanism, TU Delft
Graduation structure 1City transformations 2Research & Analysis of Mumbai in context 3Vision & Agenda 4Its about a process of change!
abstract-aim & objectives- Local CBDproblem statement-main research question- National CBDmethodology & relevance Global CBD Morphogenesis of CBDs Source: author, 20121. Mumbai’s large metropolis2. Set against colonial past interventions3. Exponentially expanding into the mainland region4. Growth along infrastructure corridors5. Changing aspects of ‘Central Business Districts’ (CBDs)
Mumbai in global-national-regional-metropolitan contextSource: author, 2012; urban age, 2007; cesus of india, 2001,2011
abstract- liveaim & objectives- liveproblem statement- commutemain research question-methodology & relevance work Work-live diagram of the city Source: author, 20121. The project objective is to understand the impact of urban transformations in relation to the changing roles of the ‘Central Business Districts’, to research and analyze urban development through colonial, post- colonial and global phases of the city.2. The main aim to conceive a spatial strategy for the global nodes in Mumbai, in relation to work, live and commute patterns. As such to reorganize the regional structure of Mumbai, having strategic planning and design components.
Mumbai in Regional ContextDistricts in the State of MaharashtraSource: author, 2012 Mumbai-Pune-Nashik in region Source: unknown
Mumbai-Pune-Nashik ‘Golden triangle’, NH 4 Source: author, 2012Mumbai-Pune highway, NH 4Source: Soham Banerjee, 2007• Mumbai-Pune industrial corridor• A part of national highway system• Focus on regional development.• Pune, is heavily linked to Mumbai with its shared industrial and service interactions.
City StructureMumbai MetropolisCompared to theRanstad regionSource: author,2012;adapted from Geographical contextSusan Raju, 2009 Source: author, 2012
abstract-aim & objectives-problem statement-main research question-methodology & relevance Mumbai Borivalli Suburb Mumbai Victoria Terminus (VT) Source: Ankit Bhargav, 2010 Source: unknownWith an increasing presence of global activities and fairly rapid pace of urban restructuring, the city of Mumbaiis subjected to increasing congestion and constant influences of the market forces.However, the city’s infrastructure although over-stressed is the major lifeline and carries tremendous scope fordecongestion and development of the regional structure.The networks which link the CBDs s are yet to adapt to the expanding functional changes, given the context ofpopulation growth, rapid urban development and assigned new roles of the CBDs.
abstract-aim & objectives-problem statement-main research question-methodology & relevance Tracing the problems Source: author, 2012
structure & framework of thesisabstract-aim & objectives-problem statement-main research question-methodology & relevance Mumbai Downtown Source: Jasvipul, 2006Project keywords: CBD; Change; Global; urban restructuring; Congestion; Development; Infrastructure; RelationsHow can the changing roles of the Central Business Districts help conceive a spatial strategy for the globalnodes in Mumbai, towards developing an integrated urban system (s) for the city ?
Urban activitiesabstract-aim & objectives-problem statement-main research question-methodology & relevance• Cataloguing datasets for academic value• Identifying the changing aspects and implications• Potentials of new centralities• Increased connectivity and growth opportunities• Positive effects on urban development Methodology & Phasing Source: author, 2012
Birds eye view of Victoria Terminus (VT) with the European suburbs Source: Bombay, the cities within, 1890s
1500- Indigenous fishing villages 1534- Portuguese colony 1661- Presented to the English1920s-1940s- growth along railways 1720- Bombay fort and esplanade Bombay islands in 17101920s- increase in natives 1700s Bombay colonial fort Then governor of Bombay speaking 1850- land reclamations completed 1851- first cotton mill1950- 1st municipal expansion 1853- first railway link1957- 2nd municipal expansion 1870- Bombay port trust1965- 3rd municipal expansion First railway link, 18531970s- migration 1850s railways Hornby road, 19301972- Navi Mumbai development1977- Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC)CBD 1900- Bombay municipal corporation1982- Textile mill strike 1920- Booming industrialization1990- expansion of suburbs Bombay cotton mills, 1900s1990- expansion of suburbs 1920s - industrialization
Mumbai timelineSource: author, 2012 Colonial phase European CBD Hornby road in European suburb Source: unknown, 1920 Native CBD Post-Colonial phase National CBD – service oriented economy Local CBD – migration and growing domestic companies Bandra-Worli Sea link Bridge Source: unknown Global phase Global CBD – increasing corporate activity National CBD – increasing national functions Local CBD – increasing small scale businesses
Mumbai’s Growth between 1850-1950Urban development: Colonial phase Source: author, 20121850-1950 • Fort was spatially organized around port which functioned as central nodes in trade network, as a gateway city • Strategic location linked to railways • Fort was next to commercial waterfront, a well-defined European business district • Arrangement of traditional bazaars in native town • Native town separated from European town by green esplanade (Grant and Nijman, 2002) European CBD Native town Colonial city Flourishing port cityOriginal Bombay TownSource: Grant&Nijman, 2002
Mumbai’s Growth between 1950-2000sUrban development: Post-Colonial phase Source: author, 20121950-2000s• After the independence of 1947• Nationalization of former European CBD• Implementation of economic reforms• Massive increase of population; Rural-Urban migration• Formation of Navi Mumbai and Bandra Kurla Complex• Congestion of inner city districts• Textile mill strikes & Decline of cotton textile industries• Shift from manufacturing to service based functions• Increasing corporate density (Grant and Nijman, 2002) National CBD Native CBD Dense industrial city Poly-centric city Financial and cultural city Corporate activities Source: Grant&Nijman, 2002
Mumbai’s Growth between 2000-2010+Urban development: Global phase Source: author, 20122000-2010+• Certain specific forms of development• Increasing service based sectors• Influx of foreign services• Emergence of free market• Growth of ICT services• Shift in focus of development from city to suburbs• Dense flows of capital, goods, services and people (Grant and Nijman, 2002) Global CBD National CBD Local CBD Alpha city (GaWC, 2008) Competitive city Gateway city Changing roles of CBDs Source: Grant&Nijman, 2002
European CBD National CBD Global CBD Native town Native CBD National CBD Local CBD Global CBD>=2 National CBD>2 Extended–Secondary CBDs>5 Main Local CBD Colonial city Dense industrial city Alpha cityFlourishing port city Poly-centric city Competitive city Financial and cultural city Gateway city 1850-1950 1950-2000s 2000-2010+
Land pricesEconomic profile Source: Kapil Gupta, 2010 Mumbai houses HQ’s of RBI, BSE, NSE etc. & India’s biggest Bollywood industry with high Income tax payers! Timeline of Economy Source: author, 2012; KRVIA, 2005
Distribution and growth of employees andEmployment distribution and growth offices across Greater Mumbai Source: author, 2012 Spread of establishments in Sectors establishments in Greater Mumbai 1990&1998 Source: author, 2012; Source: author, 2012; mmrda, 2005 mmrda, 2005
Ownership patterns of companies in MumbaiSpatial distribution and ownership of work-sectors Source: author, 2012; CMIE, 2011 Land ownership Types of sectors Source: Urban age, 2007 Source: Urban age, 2007
Organization & allocation of service industriesTotal number of companiesdocumented– 415Global companies– 29%Domestic companies- 71%National headquarters –Fort and BKC CBDGlobal headquarters-Nariman point CBDRegional headquarters-alternative CBDsNariman point – approx. 23global and 20 national firmsBKC – 23 national firmsData acquired based on: Illustration of current corporate activity Organization & division of service industriesNasscom; BSE; CMIE; Naukri Source: author, 2012 Source: author, 2012
Figure 6: Geographical Mumbai Structure of CBDs in contextCBDs in Mumbai Source: author Source: author, 2012
Relations between Growth and InfrastructureMumbai’s longest flyover which leads to Eastern ExpresswaySource: Jehangir Sorabjee, 2007
Probable Visionan integrated urban system for the global nodes in MumbaiA:strategic proposal for regional structureA:1 - strengthening public transportation by high-speed connectivityA:2 - urban loop/hyper-mobility driven between higher order nodesA:3 - public/private partnership opportunitiesB:strategic planning proposal for Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC) axisB:1 - infrastructure as vehicle for new forms of developmentB:2 - literature references of successful similar projectsB:3 - strategic planning of urban fields between the city & hinterlandsC: strategic design intervention (s) around BKC node
A:strategic proposal for regional structure A:1 - strengthening public transportation by high-speed connectivityAhmedabad A:2 - urban loop/hyper-mobility driven between higher order nodes A:3 - public/private partnership opportunities Pune
B:strategic planning proposal for Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC) axis B:1 - infrastructure as vehicle for new forms of developmentAhmedabad B:2 - literature references from successful similar projects B:3 - strategic planning of urban fields between the city & hinterlands Pune
C: strategic design intervention (s) around BKC nodeAhmedabad Pune
Urban formProbable Vision: Higher order nodes Source: Google Maps, 2012 2 3 4 1 5
Source: Google Maps, 2012Probable Location for strategic intervention in relation tohi-speed corridor: Bandra-Kurla Complex (BKC) 2