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  • 1. REVISIT MUMBAI-the new spatial order
  • 2. TITLE:revisit mumbai- the new spatial orderSUB TITLE:reconfiguring the urban space for in-creased connections between the old andnew central business districts DRAFTP1 PresentationHema Priya KabaliStudent no_4121880MSc 3 UrbanismStudio_Complex Cities in regions of transformationChair of Spatial Planning and StrategyDepartment of Urbanism_Faculty of Architecture, Urbanism and Building SciencesTU DelftCover_ View of Mumbai Fort area from the sea Original photo in Gawc report by Philipp Rode & Rit Chandra Adapted photo by authorDate_04.11.2011
  • 3. 1 RESEARCH INTRODUCTING-subject MAIN OBJECTIVE-goals RATIONALE-motivation INTRODUCTING-city2 CITY STRUCTURE-scale URBAN HISTORY-timeline DEMOGRAPHICS-analysis MAPPING MUMBAI-city and governance AND CURRENT SITUATION -emerging trends3 PROBLEM FIELD-issue MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION RELEVANCE-purpose4 GOVERNMENT VISION-economic core EXPECTED RESULTS5 METHODOLOGY-tools METHODOLOGY-structure QUESTIONS DESIGN
  • 4. introducing the subject in the context of enormous- ly accelerated population growth increasing volume of eco- nomic activities increasing demand for ser- vices and public infra- structure rapid restructuring of global cities:london exhibition spaces due to shifting source:kate andrews, 2007 economies and changing built-space environment with big divide between the societies 1 2 3 4 5
  • 5. shift from indus- trial economy to service economy has led to a rapid rise of residential, com- mercial and retail functions of high land index value, clearly indicated by the real estate boom. speculative prices, investor-driven ac-shot from slumdog millionaire quisitions, scarcitysource:imdb website, 2008 of land threatens the urban life.1 2 3 4 5
  • 6. this new spatial order changing the urban structure of the city has giv- en rise to new central business dis- tricts (CBDs) since the late 1990s. world one residential tower and virar township (northern suburb) source:urbz website, 2010 adapted images:author1 2 3 4 5
  • 7. This central theme of this subject, revists the current poly nodalurban structure of Mumbai in order to understand the economic clus-tering of the new cbd’s.1 2 3 4 5
  • 8. The shift in the focus of development in retail and commercial alongthe greater mumbai region owing to the availability of cheaper realestate, proximity to infrastructural gateways such as airports andrailways, availability of skilled man-power has put forth an emergingtrend in strengthening the new nodes.1 2 3 4 5
  • 9. With the advent of Fort Mumbai downtown decentralisation, the rise ofBandra Kurla Complex (BKC) CBD and Navi Mumbai CBDs carries tremen-dous scope for development and decongestion. Connectivity between thenew and the dominant old economic node is efficient but over stressed.Movement is a genuine issue and this leads to bottlenecks along themain infrastructure arteries.1 2 3 4 5
  • 10. An integrated landuse zoning and effective network connections becomecritical in developing the new cbds in relation to the main cbd.1 2 3 4 5
  • 11. main objective Goals: 1.specific solutions - for an urban system and comprehen- sive planning strategy high speed connectivity networks and governance (between the cbds)scale 1 infrastructure corridors and policy restructuring scale 2 (between bandra-kurla complex cbd and downtown mumbai cbd) integrated landuse planning,design and policy incentives in BKC cbd) scale 3 2.generic solutions -an overview on set of spatial guidelines for developing global cities -a summary on zoning regulations and design parameters for central business districts Scope: This project embraces the development of new CBDs within the Greater Mumbai region and the rest is excluded from the scope of research 1 2 3 4 5
  • 12. rationale - personal motivation Working locations in Mumbai city source:Google maps, 2011 As Akshaya Mishra says, Mumbai is a state of existene where every frame that makes the city renders a differ- ent definition to it. The city is pro- grammed to move, movement is the stat- ic reality in Mumbai as is speed in everyone’s life. While much of the recent debates has been about the problems related to South Mumbai, it is fascinating to un- derstand urban complexity in the new growth clusters with much concern to future planning perspectives. These are the parts, where the elements of the city come together. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 13. introducing the city Symposium event schedule source:MIT, 2008 1 2 3 4 5
  • 14. in the world: Dominant centres source:Peter TaylorMumbai is a high gateway city and akey economic player in the world finan-cial network.With the economy of the city contrib-uting to more than 6% of the nationalGDP1 GPS map of shipping routes 2 3 4 5 source:Tia Ghose
  • 15. in the country:Mumbai is the capital of Maharashtrastate, the largest city of India andthe fifth most populous city in theworld.The Mumbai Metropolitan region(MMR) includes,1. Mumbai city2. Greater Mumbai3. Thane district4. Raigad district. Mumbai location in World map source:spacesyntax mumbai delhi kolkata India golden quadrilateral mumbai source_author chennai View of the highway from Chennai towards Bangalore source_sohnam banerjee, wikipedia1 2 3 4 5
  • 16. in the state: nashikMumbai city area: 603km2Mumbai Metropolitan region area: 4355 km2Mumbai city and suburban population (2011)- 12,479,608MMR population (2001)- 17,702,761 NH 8 NH 3 NH 222 mumbai NH 4 Mumbai’s golden triangle with Nasik and Pune source_author State of Maharastra source_author1 2 3 4 pune 5
  • 17. city structure 3rd extension 2nd extension 1st extension Municipal city extensions happended during 1950,1957 and 1965 1 2 3 2km 10km 4 5
  • 18. city scale mumbai metropoloitan population - 17,702,761 (2001)million region area - 4355 km2 mumbai metropoloitan population - 17,702,761 (2001)million region area - 4355 km2 greater mumbai population - 12,478,447 (2011) million density - 20,694 per km2 greater mumbai island mumbai population - 12,478,447 (2011) million area - 603 km2 density - 20,694 per km2 island mumbai area - 603 km2 ranstad metropolitan region urban population - 7.1 million suburban population density -metropolitan region ranstad 1.535 per km2 area - 4300 km2 - 7.1 million urban population suburban population island population density - 1.535 per km2 area - 4300 km2 source:susan raju, 2009 island population adapted:author Island city Greater Mumbai Mumbai metropolitan Maharashtra region Island city Greater Mumbai Mumbai metropolitan Maharashtra 1 2 region 3 4 5
  • 19. urban history early 1600s indigenous fishing colonies seven different islands came under the portugese in 1534 5th-8th century A.D rock cut temples of elephanta caves unesco archaeological heritage site 1 2 3 4 5
  • 20. GLOBAL CITYfinancial economycity of agents MEGA CITY service economy city of white and CONTESTED CITY blue collared people industrial economy SOCIALIST CITY city of agents ADMINISTRATIVE CITY mercantile economy city of merchants and slaves STRATEGIC BASE agrarian economy city of farmers and fisher-folk before 1650 1650-1850 1850-1900 1900-1940 1940-1960 Historical growth of 1960-1980 Mumbai’s economy 1980-1990 source_design cell: KRVIA, Mumbai 1990-1995 Adapted drawing:author 1995-2000 1 2 3 4 2000+ 5
  • 21. 1800sland reclmationbombay fort and esplanadeeuropean suburbs10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 22. 1870sfirst cotton textile millfirst railway link from VT to thanebombay port trust10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 0km 2km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 23. 1900sbombay municipal corporationindian suburbs expanded10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 24. 1920sbooming industrializationmigration startedresidential enclaves10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 25. 1950spost independence growthfirst municipal extensionsecond municipal extensionthird municipal extensionrapid population increaseeconomic prosperitytextile mill strikeMMRDA was formed10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 26. 1990sgrowth of new centersbuilt area increased in suburbsexpansion of specialized retailmarkets with privatizationreal estate boomnew JNPT port10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 27. 2003+massive investment in infrastructureuneven spread of urbanizationincreasing economic interests of in-vestement markets10km 2km 6km 10km 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 28. 1800 1870 1900 1920 1950 1990 2003+ 10km 2km 10kmFort as Fort with Fort with Fort with indiancolonial core colonial suburbs industrial core residential core Fort as commercial core1500 indigenous fishing villages; koli communities 1534 portugese colony; new trading post established 1661 presented to the english 1720 bombay fort and esplanade1708 became the head-quarters of english east india company 1730 european suburbs around fort increased Fort and new Mumbai growth centralities clusters1850 land reclamations completed 1851 first cotton textile mill 1853 first railway link from victoria terminus to thane 1870 bombay port trust1900 bombay municipal corporation 1920 booming industrialization 1947 india gained independance 1950 first municipal extension 1957 second municipal extension 1965 third municipal extension1970 mumbai economic prosperity peak; pressure on urban landscape 1975 mumbai metropolitan development authority was formed 1972 navi mumbai development 1977 bandra-kurla complex business district1982 textile mill strike 11990 built area increase in suburbsurban history and growth centres 2 3 1995 expansion of specialized retail enclaves 4 2000 real estate boom 5
  • 29. demographic analysis - growth 1600000 Employment profiles between 1400000 1980 and 2011 in MMR 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 Island City 400000 Western Suburb Eastern Suburb 200000 Western regionm 0 North east region 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Navi Mumbai EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS IN THE MMR BETWEEN 1980 AND 2011 INCREASING POPULATION TRENDS 14.00 12.00 Population(in millions) 10.00 8.00 6.00 Population growth 4.00 Island population Suburban population 2.00 Total population Compound growth rate 0.00 1901 1921 1941 1961 1981 2001 Statistical representations The evolving urban form of MMR source_author source_Wendell Cox, 2011 1 2 3 4 5
  • 30. demographic analysis - economies ESTABLISHMENT OF SECTORS IN 1990 ESTABLISHMENT OF SECTORS IN 1998 1 2 3 4 5
  • 31. infrastructure Eastern and western expressways form the main arterial roads - DMIC (Delhi-Mumbai Industrial corridor) Three suburban railway lines form the lifeline of public transport CST international airport and proposed Panvel airport MRTS phase 1 under completion in 2012 and ongoing Monorail construction 2 2km 10km 1 3 4 5 0km 6km 2km 10km 0km 6km
  • 32. wards and land value c The city is divided into 24 wards under the Mumbai Municipal Corporation The land price is exhorbitant near redevelopment sites of south Mumbai. With the new connections to BKC CBD and Vashi, Navi Mumbai from the Island city has made these localities compete with that of mainland. 2 2km 10km 0km 6km 1 3 4 5
  • 33. city governance-public|private 1 2 3 4 5
  • 34. current situation-spatial trends
  • 35. According to the recent world bankreport, Mumbai has the world’s larg-est slum situated on the world’smost expensive real estate(Vyjayanthi Rao, UDRI:2010).1 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 36. Several research studies as indicat-ed by Mike Davis notes that Mumbai’sproblems of density and degradedbuilt form has less to do with pov-erty and more to do with policy.1 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 37. The city continued to attract mi-grants for its ability to generatejobs but a fair housing market nev-er existed, where even the workingclasses ended in informal colonies.1 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 38. cWith the emerging trends in specula-tive strategies of city growth, thecurrent planning approaches and pol-icies require a closer look1 2 3 0km 2km 6km 10km 4 5
  • 39. conclusions-emerging trends Key indicators described below show the decline of various functions in the Island city. Consequently, it has given rise to a functional landscape of the city that is growing towards its suburbs, emerging big cbds and interme- diate cbds: 1. (1970-1980)newNavi mumbai and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) with island city Series of - growth clusters to arrest the concentration of the In- ternation business and financial centre; 2. Decline whenmanufacturing functions (1980-2000) - due to closure of mills lands, of mills became malls; 3. Declinethe commercial functions (1990-1995) - due to major retail clustering in of suburban areas, with privatization; 4. Change in the functional landscape of the city (1991-2001) - increas- ing retail establishments and service industries; 5.coveted real port functions (1999-2001) - Docklands and warehouses be- came Decline of estate areas. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 40. problem field 1 2 3 4 5
  • 41. problem field The island city maintained its primacy as a commercial center mainly due to the pull of commuters from the suburbs to the center and the concentration of specialized shops ( machinery, garments etc). However, with the major re- tail spread into the suburban areas that happened after the 1990s along with expansion of private enterprises, there was major decadal growth of special- ized retail enclaves. This was also owing to the rapid rise of population in the suburban areas and real estate boom. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 42. problem framework-1 On one hand, the development of infrastructure was essential to the city’s DNA.This became inadequate as the city expanded. There exists no alternate connections other than the over-stressed rail routes between the CBDs On the other hand, reallocation and distribution of strategic functions that gives jobs did not happen due to short sightedness of certain governance policies towards mumbai downtown in the mornings away from mumbai downtown in the mornings 1 2 3 4 5
  • 43. problem framework-2 Lessons from the original Mumbai’s DNA is crucial to understand the scale of urban growth that lies ahead. First, “new job centres in new locations, connected by new public transport should have happened way back in 1964.” (Charles Correa, The long view) With the economical boom, in the service sector industries, there exists a need to merge and recognize the local business identities as a part of the new growth clusters. User Groups source_Urbz, 2011 1 2 3 4 5
  • 44. problem defined no specific future plan- ning perspec- tive on loca- no direct tion of job connections function fo- between the no inte- cusing on main and new grated zon- the coherent cbds for in- al planning growth of new creased ex- with spatial week govern- cbds change of guidelines ance based on commuters and that cater to speculative value added diverse user strategies services groups and market investments 1 2 3 4 5
  • 45. main research question ? What are the conditions that can regu- late (or reorganize) the spatial con- figuration to integrate the old and new central business districts? - what is the influence of the main CBD on the development of new CBDs ? - What are the demographic and economic strengths of the new nodes? - What are the policies and who are the policy makers associ- ated with BKC development? - How is BKC connected to the main CBD? 1 2 3 4 5
  • 46. social relevancethis r+d project, aims to make changes identifying the arteries between the major growth clus- ters bring a combination of technology, policy and spatial intervention Commute times between the nodes shall decrease and alternate outreach choic- es are possible for people owing to efficient connectivity between nodes. Efficient connections shall increase the reach bubble of the people, thus en- hancing a lifestyle unaffected by distances and congestion. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 47. academic relevancethis r+d project, aims at creating a catalogue of available data complete with recent figures on the aspects necessary to enhance connectivity data is drawn from a variety figures available from the local government and private stake holders to provide up to date information from an academic perspective. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 48. government vision for MMR 1 2 3 4 5
  • 49. expected results 1 metropolitan scale 2 city scale 3 local scale 2km 10km 2km 10km 2km 10km 0km 6km 0km 6km 0km 6km 1 2 3 4 5
  • 50. methodology - tools Mumbai city context theoritical research empirical research Literature review: Theory focussed integrated landuse planning Urban historical analysis - Mapping, online arti- - Books, Journal arti- cles cles, research papers, conference proceedings movement of the people Metropolitan scale analy- sis City focussed - Mapping the location, demography, economic - Conference papers, Gov- levels, socio-spatial ernment reports, policy changes, infrastructure research document, online networks, centralities, artilces retail and commercial sector trends, statistics and survey Theory abstract zoning-design conditions City scale analysis Review Paper - detailed mapping land- - Logical argumentation, use, programs and func- coherent storyline, lit- tions, governance and erature findings, case policies, statistics and city validation surveys Conclusions Local scale analysis - detailed mapping tech- niques of BKC region spatial guidelines policies and policy makers 1 2 3 4 5
  • 51. phasing and products Research and design struc- ture Tools p3 p5product structure p1 p2 p4 methods used - Rationale behind new - mapping changes in the spatial order of Mumbai urban city structure - Problem statement - Literature references, real time understanding - Main research question NOV - A reasonable aim (s) - Analysis: City and Pol- - Mapping and reports icy JAN - Design Theme - Creative integration of public space, land-use, infrastructure, MAR - Strategic planning - Mapping causes and ef- fects - Policy revisions and - Reports spatial incentives MAY - Space flows and relations - Design interventions at 3 scales - Different stakeholders - stakeholder incentives at the local level JUN - Final product presenta- - visual and verbal commu- nication 5 tion - Conclusions 1 2 3 4
  • 52. thank you,questions ?

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