Leaders and leadership (chapter 12)
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Leaders and leadership (chapter 12) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. D R . L O R A H E L V I E - M A S O N , C O M S 4 0 4 Leaders and Leadership (Chapter 12)
  • 2. Before you read…  Be prepared to self-reflect during this chapter  Remind yourself of the leaders who have come and gone in your various organizational experiences  Consider the industry you will enter after graduation—what expectations exist for leaders?
  • 3. Leadership as a process  Leadership is interactional, contextual, and is a process (not a trait someone has)  Various elements help leadership emerge  A leader is a person who takes charge of the situation and influences the attitudes and actions of others  They don’t always have the title of leader  They see a need and possible answers, and then voice their ideas  They influence the behavior of others Think about it… A ―manager‖ knows all of the policies and procedures and does them correctly. A ―leader‖ knows how to do the right thing even if it is not spelled out in a manual
  • 4. Situational Leadership  Early research focused on the person and TRAITS he or she had with the assumption that ―leaders are born rather than made.‖  Consistently, research focused on intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, energy, activity, and task-related knowledge  More recent research, SITUATIONAL leadership, focuses on behavior, not traits. Behaviors are flexible depending on the situation  Leaders, it is assumed, have a ―leadership style‖
  • 5. Successful Leadership  Hersey & Blanchard (1988) found characteristics of the followers are relevant to successful leadership  Follower maturity  Follower ability and willingness  Leaders, then, adjust their behaviors based on the group needs and situation (―styles‖)  Telling - must tell followers how to do task  Delegating – must give followers authority to carry out task  Selling – must sell followers on the idea that they can do the task  Participating – must build relationships and share decision- making
  • 6. So what?  What’s the big deal about these concepts?  Leaders can CHANGE their styles of interacting with followers by considering their ability and involvement in the task. They will be more successful as they assess and adapt to their followers.  Responsive leaders, flexible leaders, are successful
  • 7. Charismatic Leadership Theory  House, 1977  Charisma is the effect that a leader has on his or her followers  Followers identify with the leader  The leader is able to communicate emotional involvement with the organization’s mission  Such leaders often have:  Strong presence  A desire to influence others  Self-confidence  Strong sense of one’s own moral values  Goes beyond traits to behaviors
  • 8. Transactional leaders Transformational leaders  Focused on contingent rewards  Employs management by exception-active or management by exception- passive  The motivation of followers takes place through a system of rewards and punishment based upon performance that is monitored  Appeals to higher order needs of followers  Charisma (or ability to gain trust, respect and confidence from followers)  Demonstrates idealized influence (role model)  Instills inspirational motivation  Intellectually stimulating  Communicates concern for his or her followers Transformational Leadership
  • 9. Relational Leadership Model  Relationships are CENTRAL to an individual’s success or failure as a leader  Leaders must  Create positive relationships with all levels of employees  Central principles:  Inclusiveness  Empowerment  Ethics  Purposefulness  Process-orientation Think about it… Do you feel these principles are necessary? What thoughts do you have on the role of relationships in leadership?
  • 10. Feminist Perspective  Consider the influx of women into positions of higher authority  Socialization process begins in childhood. Factors such as family, culture, and social factors influence the development of leadership capacity  Tannen (1990) argued that women and men are socialized from early childhood to engage in distinctively different communication styles with different purposes, rules, and understandings of how to interpret interactions.  These differences may lead to two different leadership models; one based on masculine instrumentality and the other on feminine collaboration.  While both models possess usefulness to an organization, many feminist scholars argue that the feminine model has historically been rejected by male-dominated organizational structuring processes.
  • 11. Leadership as Serving  Leadership as serving means ―doing things for others that enable them to do their jobs; serving means taking obstacles out of employees’ way rather than putting them up‖ (Fine & Buzzanell, 2000, p. 131).  Leaders who serve many might experience  Hopefulness for fundamental change.  Strength in the feminist vision.  Watchfulness lest service become servitude.  Humbleness in knowledge that the server is an instrument of change.  Wonderment at the passages of self, other, community, and principal growth.
  • 12. Responsibilities of Leaders Leadership brings responsibility and expectations: 1. To act 2. To build a team 3. To ask the right questions and continue to search for responses 4. To make effective decisions 5. To practice constant and continuous communication Consider what role POWER plays in leadership.
  • 13. Leaders as Change Agents  Change agents are leaders who directly or indirectly implement new processes, train employees on new policies and procedures, and generally act as role models to demonstrate different and better ways of working (Arrata, Despierre, & Kumra, 2007). Change agents are unique! Can envision a future as no others see it Courage/confidence to gamble with careers Charisma, can create excitement in others
  • 14. Social Responsibility  Organizations must now consider social responsibilities—consumers are demanding they are held accountable  Leaders are held accountable and must live up to organization’s SR goals Corporate social responsibility is defined by the International Organization for Standardization as a ―balanced approach for organizations to address economic, social, and environmental issues in a way that aims to benefit people, communities, and society.‖ Think about it… Explore examples in your text of the fines, fraud, public relations issues, and litigation…can you think of more examples? What impact do these items have on the organization, employees, and leaders?
  • 15. Passionate Leaders  One critical aspect of outstanding leadership is passion: passion for the job, passion for the organization, passion for the people in the organization.  Leaders who don’t love what they are doing often fail  We often choose to do what we love Think about it… Does passion really matter? What do you think?