Before you read… Consider why there is a chapter on genderand emotion Explore what you EXPECT this chapter willcover Reflect on your own experiences in variousorganizations
Slow changes in the workplace Women earned 62%of men’s wages 47% of mothers withchildren under 18worked outside thehome Men earned themajority of degrees Women earning 80% ofmen’s wages Equity increases atyounger age 71% of mothers withchildren under 18worked outside thehome Women earn over 55%of all bachelor’s degreesand 60% of master’s1970s 2008
Know the history Equal Pay Act of 1963 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Pregnancy Discrimination Act Civil Rights Act of 1991 Family Medical Leave Act Millennial women are just as likely as men to wantjobs with great responsibility. The education gapbetween women and men has significantlydecreased. The family structure has changed forboth men and women.
Slow changes in the familystructure The workplace isn’t the only aspect of oursociety that has changed—so, too, has thefamily structure Is this relevant? Absolutely! Work-family and gender policies are tied together. As our family structures have shifted, our expectationsand needs from our workplace change
Changing for employees’ needs Organizations are creating programs to meetthe needs of the diverse employees in theircare. On-site daycare Flextime Various hours Dependent care Flexible spending accounts Employee Assistance Programs
Discrimination & UnequalTreatment Only about 15% of senior management positions in the U.S.are held by women. The numbers decrease even more when you considerminority women with only 5.2% of them holding professionalmanagement positions. Daily and Dalton (1999) wrote about the glass ceiling, ametaphorical boundary, based on misconceptions,stereotypes, and beliefs that keep certain groups ofindividuals from advancing into management positions. The metaphor of the concrete ceiling was later developed todescribe the plight of minorities who try to advance throughseemingly impenetrable barriers. Women tend to occupy caring professions or even caringpositions in professional fields.
Discrimination Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC) Sexual Harassment Quid Pro Quo Hostile work environment Sometimes, discrimination is less visible than wemay expect Consider the fact that women are often not included inmentoring and networking opportunities (this impactspromotion/raises, etc.) What is the difference between ―glass‖ and―concrete‖ ceilings?
Sexuality and Gender Identity Issues around sexuality and gender identity have becomemore open in society, challenging workplaces to craft policiesthat prevent workplace discrimination. 2 million transgender professionals LEAVE work due todiscriminatory practices Sex – biolgoical classification Gender – culturally defined set of behavioral, cultural, psychological,and social traits associated with one’s sex Transgender – umbrella term for individuals with non-traditionalgender identities Policies are shaping and changing as gender identity andsexuality are more common topics in the workplace. Diversityawareness/training, among other suggestions, is essential tofoster an inclusive work environment.
Emotions and employees According to Rafaeli and Sutton (1989) it isimportant to know the rules for emotionalmanagement in order to understandorganizational culture. Appropriate emotional management will help an individualdevelop relationships and it can increase an individual’s chancesof achieving career success. Socialization research on a variety of service industries suggeststhat organizations choose employees who seem able to conformto certain emotional display rules.
Emotions and employees Manage Emotions Deep acting – emotional display that stems from more of aconditioned internal state Surface acting – external state of emotion, it is a public display ofemotions Amplification Initiate or enhance public displays of emotions Suppression Reducing or eliminating public displays ofemotion
Socialization and Expectations We typically have a set of thoughts about howan organizational will be. Slowly, as we interactwith its members, we learn what is expected Professional/Unprofessional Consider how socialization occurs within theorganizations you have been personallyinvolved in.
Emotional Regulation Emotional dissonance Strain Emotional labor Frequency of appropriate emotional display Attentiveness to required display rules Variety of emotion required to be expressed Burnout Socialization
Work-Family Balance Conflict Health outcomes ―Second Shift‖ Domestic labor Career advancement implications Depends on occupations Stress Some positives may exist (Greenhous &Powell) Consequently, although the policies doexist in many organizations, workingparents are still conflicted in how tobalance their work and family lives insuch a way that meets the needs ofboth their employee and their ownfamilies.
Telecommuting and Telework Nilles defined as: Telework is ―ANY form of substitution ofinformation technologies (such astelecommunications and computers) for work-related travel‖ (p. 1).