Introduction to FlashCopy

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If you’re using SAN in your Power Systems environment without taking advantage of FlashCopy, we have one question for you: Why not?

FlashCopy takes a quick snapshot of your data at a particular point in time, then POOF! Your data is available for backup or use on another partition for high availability, disaster recovery, or even to create a test environment for your developers.

Join IBM i expert Chuck Stupca, IBM emeritus, as he explains how FlashCopy works and how best to take advantage of its unique features. We’ll also discuss ways that it helps you build a better backup strategy for your IBM i environment:

• Making a backup copy of production for tape-based saves
• Providing test environments from your production data in seconds
• Comparing FlashCopy to a save-while-active backup

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  • Introduction to FlashCopy

    1. 1. FlashCopy for IBM i
    2. 2. FlashCopy for IBM i Broadcasting live from Eden Prairie, Minnesota Chuck Losinski Director of Automation Technology Robot Chuck Stupca IBM i Expert IBM (retired)
    3. 3. Agenda • FlashCopy Defined • How FlashCopy Works • FlashCopy Options • FlashCopy Space Efficiencies • Automation Opportunities
    4. 4. What is FlashCopy? • A function that occurs within a SAN storage device • Provides a point-in-time copy of the contents of disk volumes • Can be a full system or an IASP • Many options for the copy process available • Differences between V7000 and DS8000
    5. 5. Save While Active Before starting a discussion of FlashCopy, let’s review a more familiar point-in-time copy: Save While Active 1.When a Save While Active is started, a sync point is reached before the save operation starts (this may take some time) 2.The objects to be saved are marked for processing by the save 3.Users may begin to use the objects being saved 4.If an object is changed, before it has been saved, the original information is moved to a shadow area 5.When the save operation reaches the changed information, the original information is saved from the shadow area
    6. 6. FlashCopy Basics • A FlashCopy takes place within a single storage unit—you cannot flash from one storage device to another • FlashCopy is a physical copy of the disk unit—the storage unit has no concept of objects • Logical saves (SAVOBJ, SAVLIB, etc.) can be taken from the FlashCopy units • There are many different options when you take a DS8000 FlashCopy • A system or IASP may be quiesced in order to reach a sync point (usually a matter of seconds)—highly recommended • Two basic forms of FlashCopy – FlashCopy with copy – FlashCopy no copy
    7. 7. FlashCopy with Copy The contents of all disk units in the FlashCopy operation are copied from source volumes to target volumes. Source Volumes Target Volumes
    8. 8. FlashCopy with Copy Force all changes from main storage to the source volumes and issue the FlashCopy command. A bitmap with all zeroes is generated by the DS. Source Volumes Bitmap 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    9. 9. FlashCopy with Copy Each track is copied from the source volumes to the target volumes. As the tracks are copied, the corresponding bit in the mask is changed from 0 to 1. Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    10. 10. FlashCopy with Copy Since both the source and target volumes are available for use, the bitmap directs users of the target volumes to the location of the information being used: • • 1 = use the target volume 0 = use the source volume Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    11. 11. FlashCopy with Copy Since the source volumes are in use, what happens when a track that hasn’t been copied is changed in the source volumes? Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    12. 12. FlashCopy with Copy Before the change is written to the source volume, the original track is copied to the target volume and the corresponding bit is set to 1. Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000100000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    13. 13. FlashCopy with Copy Since the bit of the changed track is set to 1, the users of the target volumes know that the correct data is in the target—kind of like Save While Active knowing to use the shadow area. Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000100000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    14. 14. FlashCopy with Copy Eventually, all tracks are copied from the source to the target. At this point, the default FlashCopy operation is complete and the bitmap is removed. There is no longer a relationship between the source and target volumes. Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 1111111111 Target Volumes
    15. 15. FlashCopy with Copy Now you have a full copy of the original source volumes to use! Source Volumes Target Volumes
    16. 16. FlashCopy with Copy What happens when a track that hasn’t been copied is changed in the target? The change is written to the target volume and the bit is set to 1. The track will not be copied from the source to the target. Source Volumes Bitmap 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000100000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    17. 17. FlashCopy no Copy Only the contents of changed tracks on disk units in the FlashCopy operation are copied from source volumes to target volumes. Source Volumes Target Volumes
    18. 18. FlashCopy no Copy Force all changes from main storage to the source volumes and issue the FlashCopy command. A bitmap with all zeroes is generated by the DS. Source Volumes Bitmap 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    19. 19. FlashCopy no Copy No background copy of source tracks to target tracks is performed. Source Volumes Bitmap 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    20. 20. FlashCopy no Copy When a track in the source volumes is being changed, the track is copied to the source, and the corresponding bit is set to 1. Source Volumes Bitmap 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0001000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    21. 21. FlashCopy no Copy Only the original contents of changed tracks are moved to the targets. Source Volumes Bitmap 0000000000 0010000000 0000000010 0000000000 0001000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000100000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    22. 22. FlashCopy no Copy Changes to the target system cause the copy bit to be set to 1. This will prevent a change to the source from overwriting the target change with original data. Source Volumes Bitmap 0000000000 0010000000 0000000010 0000000000 0001000000 0000000000 0000000001 0000100000 0000000000 Target Volumes
    23. 23. FlashCopy no Copy • The relationship between the source and target remains in place until all source tracks have been changed (highly unlikely). • Usually the flash copy relationship is explicitly removed when the user has finished using the targets. • This form of FlashCopy is typically used to save objects on a partition that is different from the production partition. • Since few of the tracks are likely to change during the save operation, there may be contention for access to the source volumes—usually the interference is not noticeable.
    24. 24. FlashCopy V7000 • Source and target volumes are specified using a mapping operation • Target volumes must be identical in size to the source volumes • Multiple volumes may be placed in a consistency group – Similar to a DS FlashCopy of multiple volumes – Provides a point-in-time copy for all volumes in the consistency group • Rather than copying tracks, V7000 copies “grains” – User specifies the size of a grain – May be 64K – 256K – Default is 256K • FlashCopy on V7000 is with copy
    25. 25. Other DS8000 FlashCopy Options • Persist: keep a FlashCopy relationship in place • Record: keep track of changes made since the last point in time copy – Often used in conjunction with the persist option • Target inhibit: prevent writing to the target volumes – Do not use with IBM i
    26. 26. Using Persist and Record • Most often used to update target volumes copied using FlashCopy with copy • At the completion of the full copy from source to target, the bitmap between source and target is retained • Because record is also specified, a second bitmap is used to record the changes on the source volumes and target volumes • At the next instance for FlashCopy, a variation called Resync flash is used
    27. 27. Resync Flash • Changes to tracks in both sets of volumes are recorded in the bitmap • Remember that our original flash was a point-in-time flash of the source volumes Source Volumes Bitmap 0010000000 0010000000 0000000010 0000000100 0001000000 0000000001 0000000000 0000100000 1000000000 Target Volumes
    28. 28. Resync Flash In order to restore the changed tracks in the target to the values in the original FlashCopy, the changes will be “backed out” using the unchanged pages in the source. Source Volumes Bitmap 0010000000 0010000000 0000000010 0000000100 0001000000 0000000001 0000000000 0000100000 1000000000 Target Volumes
    29. 29. Resync Flash • Full copy of source volumes must be completed • When a resync flash is issued, a second bitmap of all zeroes is created • Changes that occur while the resync flash is taking place are recorded in the second bitmap – Changes to a track in a source volume will cause the original track to be written to the target – Changes to a track in a target volume are more complicated
    30. 30. Resync Flash—Changes to Target Volumes Condition 1 – the track is not scheduled to be copied during the resync flash •The change is made to the target volume and the corresponding bit in the change recording bitmap for the next resync is set to 1. •The track will not be copied from the source volume to the target volume. Condition 2 – the track is scheduled for resync and has already been copied from the source •The track on the target is changed. •The corresponding bit in the change recording bitmap for the next resync is set to 1. Condition 3 – the track is scheduled for resync but has not yet been copied from the source •The track on the target is changed and the corresponding bit in the change recording bitmap for the next resync is set to 1. •The track will not be copied from the source volume to the target volume.
    31. 31. Why Use FlashCopy • Clone an IASP or system using FlashCopy with copy • Use the target volumes for save operations – IPL the full system flash with special handling • System name • IP addresses – Vary on a FlashCopy IASP • In the event that the source volumes become mucked, the target volumes provide a quick recovery to the point in time of the FlashCopy
    32. 32. Saving Objects from a FlashCopy • The save is taking place on a different system • An IBM i has an operating system option for saving from a full system – The production system will not have the date of last save changed – IBM i will adjust the catalog to “spoof” a save from the production system • Saving from an IASP attached to a different partition is much easier – The save is still done on a different system/partition – IBM i has an option to update the last saved information in the source IASP • Lab Services Toolkit provides an automated process for both full system and IASP FlashCopy
    33. 33. Space Efficient FlashCopy • To this point, the target volumes in either a DS8000 or a V7000 have been the same size as the source volumes (fully provisioned). • Do we need fully provisioned targets? – FlashCopy no copy will not copy everything – Often times, target volumes have a short life span, e.g., they exist only until a save operation is complete • In a DS8000, we can use targets that are smaller than the source volumes (thin provisioning).
    34. 34. Space Efficient FlashCopy The DS8000 targets are configured differently. Source Volumes Space is allocated for the target volumes. Allocated space is a percentage of the space for the source volumes. Choose a percentage that will not overflow during the save operation.
    35. 35. Space Efficient FlashCopy The DS8000 targets are configured differently. Source Volumes Target Volumes “Virtual” target volumes are defined to be the same size as the source volumes. There is a mapping between the tracks of the target volumes and the actual disk space used for the FlashCopy.
    36. 36. Space Efficient FlashCopy The DS8000 targets are configured differently. Source Volumes Target Volumes A change to a track in the source causes the original track to be written to the allocated area. The bitmap between source and target indicates that the original page is in the “virtual” target disk.
    37. 37. Space Efficient FlashCopy The DS8000 targets are configured differently. Source Volumes Target Volumes When a user of the target volumes accesses the changed page, the bitmap directs the read to the target volume. The changed track in the target volume is mapped to original information in the allocated area.
    38. 38. FlashCopy Summary • Contained within a single storage unit • A fast way to establish a point-in-time image of volumes (disk units) in IBM i • Copies are physical, not logical i.e., there is no way to restore individual objects from a FlashCopy • Can make full system or IASP copies • Save operations can be performed on the target units • Space efficient FlashCopy reduces storage requirements
    39. 39. Resources • Redbooks – – – – – SG24-7938 Overview of the IBM Storwize V7000 SG24-8886 IBM System Storage DS8000: Architecture and Implementation SG24-7120 IBM i and IBM System Storage SG24-7103 IBM System Storage Copy Services and IBM i SG24-6788 IBM System Storage DS8000 Copy Services for Open Systems • IBM Education – AS541 IBM PowerHA for IBM i, Clustering, and IASP Implementation (4 days) – OS830 System Storage DS6000 and DS8000 on I (3 days) • STG Lab Services – IASP Copy Services Toolkit (2 versions) – Full System FlashCopy Toolkit
    40. 40. Automation Opportunities • Many of the Robot products can exploit this technology – – – – – Robot/SCHEDULE to automate the FlashCopy execution Robot/SAVE to execute and track your backup to media Robot/CONSOLE to monitor for FlashCopy messages Robot/ALERT to notify you of any issues Robot/SPACE to track disk usage statistics, notify of growth thresholds and automate cleanup tasks
    41. 41. Automation Opportunities Automated Job Scheduling Message Management - Improve uptime - Eliminate errors - Avoid overtime - Save time with automated documentation - Event-based scheduling more effective - View only important messages - Acknowledge important messages - Single pane of glass view - Maximize uptime - Easy to locate cause of errors Performance Management Disaster Recovery - Dynamic expert tuning - Proactive disk saving - Capture runaway jobs fast - Managed impact of change - Easy to show that SLAs have been met - Automate save and restore - Flexible tape management - Reliable, unattended backups - Powerful data security and audit - Simplified disaster recovery planning Robot systems management solutions save money and help improve competitiveness.
    42. 42. Robot/SCHEDULE, Enterprise, and Replay Event-Driven Job Scheduling for IBM i and Windows, Unix, Linux and Interactive Tasks Event-driven scheduling | Flexibility to react to changing events Schedule Activity Monitor | Powerful scheduling dashboard Replay | Automates interactive green-screen tasks Cross Partition Dependencies | Add Robot/NETWORK Cross Platform Dependencies | Add Robot/SCHEDULE Enterprise Sophisticated calendars | Adapt to any schedule or fiscal year Dynamic parameters | Support unattended job submission Good Morning Report | Keeps you posted on nightly activity Job blueprints | Generate graphical views of job flow Job Blueprint shows you job dependencies between jobs, partitions and platforms! Database | All data and schedules are stored on the IBM i ROBOT/SCHEDULE ROBOT/SCHEDULE The world’s most advanced job scheduler for IBM i. Robot Plug-In Modules: Robot/SCHEDULE SAP Interface • Robot/SCHEDULE Oracle E1 Interface • Robot/REPLAY • Robot/NETWORK
    43. 43. Robot/CONSOLE and Robot/ALERT System Message and Resource Management Message management | Handle messages automatically Message notification | Escalate only important messages OPAL | Defines complex message processing SNMP SMS SMTP 2-way | Add Robot/ALERT Consolidated monitoring | Add Robot/NETWORK Resource monitoring | Keep resources healthy System log monitoring | Maintain security and compliance Message history | Detailed historical message analysis Good Morning Report | Keeps you posted on nightly activity ROBOT/CONSOLE ROBOT/CONSOLE Powerful interface | Easy to use Message set creation wizard | Easy to install Automate message responses and resource monitoring such as: CPU, subsystem, line, job queue, and output queue. Escalate only the exceptions and reply remotely. Automated system monitoring. Don’t be tied to your screen. Related Robot products: Robot/ALERT and Robot/NETWORK
    44. 44. Robot/SAVE Disaster Recovery Automated backup | Eliminate save errors IFS groups | Easily manage IFS backups and restores Data encryption | Secure mission critical data Save media management | Error-free media handling Data centre management | Multi-system/data centre support Centralized scratch pool | Reuse media across multiple systems Guided restoration | Improves Recovery Time Objective (RTO) Object archive | Easy to restore prior versions of data/objects Restricted State Utility | Safe, unattended system-level saves Ad hoc operations | Management of media outside of DR Move Sets help manage the location of save media at all times. Reports | Comprehensive DR documentation suitable for audit ROBOT/SAVE ROBOT/SAVE It’s more than save and restore, it’s a whole DR solution. Related Robot products: Robot/SCHEDULE • Robot/ALERT • Robot/NETWORK
    45. 45. Robot/SPACE Proactive Storage Management Critical Storage Investigator | Identify storage problem causes Collection explorer | Graphical storage statistics and trends Storage audits | Automated disk cleanup ASP monitors | Monitor ASPs individually Active job storage monitoring | Identify out of control jobs fast Storage collections | Flexible, user-defined statistical groupings Robot/QUERY | Flexible, user-defined storage analysis Reports | Assist in monitoring storage space ROBOT/SPACE ROBOT/SPACE Critical Storage Investigator (CSI) allows easy identification of storage problems. Save disk space. Predict future space requirements. Avoid critical storage conditions. Related Robot products: Robot/SCHEDULE • Robot/ALERT • Robot/NETWORK
    46. 46. Questions? PRESENTATION RECAP: • FlashCopy Defined • How FlashCopy Works • FlashCopy Options – With and without copy – Resync flash – Persist and record – Running saves • FlashCopy Space Efficiencies • Robot automation opportunities
    47. 47. Thank you for joining us today! Contact Information Telephone: 800-328-1000 sales 952-933-0609 support Website: www.helpsystems.com Chuck Losinski Director of Automation Technology, Robot Presenters: chuck.losinski@helpsystems.com | 952-563-2790 jcstupca@msn.com Chuck Stupca IBM i Expert IBM (retired)

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