Social presence as apredictor of satisfactionin pedagogical scenariosdesigned in a blendedset-up Helga DornerUniversity of...
Outline of the presentation• Theoretical foundations• Aims and hypotheses• Methodology - Research tools• Results and discu...
Theoretical foundationsSocial construction of knowledge –constructing meaning actively and continuouslyin a social context...
Theoretical foundationsa blended learning environment ~ a synergy ofexperiences, the phenomenon of socialpresence is stron...
Social presence“the degree of salience of the other person in theinteraction and the consequent salience of theinterperson...
Social presence“the ability of learners to projectthemselves socially and emotionally,thereby being perceived as ‘real peo...
Aims and hypothesismaking trainees’ “experience” visible (to see theways of a potential change of their behaviourfrom “ind...
MethodologyContextEnglish as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachingmethodology classes of a Hungarian university(ELTE) – online...
Methodology – Research toolsMixed-methodology approachQuantitative Participant satisfaction and communicationquestionnair...
Methodology – Research toolsSocial presence dimensions – Participantsatisfaction and communication questionnaire 25 Liker...
Methodology – Research toolsSocial presence dimensions – Participantsatisfaction and communication questionnaire first ph...
Social presence Content analysis (Rourkeet al, 2001)Affective CategoryIndicator Description/ ExampleExpression of emotions...
Explanatory model Spring 2007Participants’coursesatisfactionFacilitatorSocialpresenceOnlinecommuni-cation0,5050,3890,1050,...
Explanatory model Fall 2007Importance0< imp. < 1Direct impactIndirect impactParticipants’coursesatisfactionFacilitatorSoci...
Explanatory model Spring 2008Importance0< imp. < 1Direct impactIndirect impactFacilitatorSocialpresenceOnlinecommunication...
Content analysis – intercoder reliabilityHolsti’s coefficient of reliabilityC.Rcognitive engagement 0,7143teaching presenc...
Social presence Content analysis Spring200713%5%3%13%15%11%5%31%3%3%7%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%AF1 AF2 AF3 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4...
Social presence Content analysis Fall 200712%6%3%13%11%9%1%29%14%3%6%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%AF1 AF2 AF3 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 ...
Social presence Content analysis Spring20082% 1%7%12%1%1%1%25%1%15% 34%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%50%55%60%AF1 AF2 AF3 IC...
Limitations, further investigationsample sizeAdding results of content analysis ofcognitive and teaching presenceGroup-...
Thank you for your attention!helgadorner@t-online.hudornerh@ceu.hu
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Dorner Helga: Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction in pedagogical scenarios designed in a blended set-up

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Presentation at the annual EARLI conference, Amsterdam

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  • Transcript of "Dorner Helga: Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction in pedagogical scenarios designed in a blended set-up"

    1. 1. Social presence as apredictor of satisfactionin pedagogical scenariosdesigned in a blendedset-up Helga DornerUniversity of SzegedCentral European University,BudapestHungaryEARLI 2009 conferenceAmsterdam, August 25-29,2009
    2. 2. Outline of the presentation• Theoretical foundations• Aims and hypotheses• Methodology - Research tools• Results and discussion• Limitations and future plans
    3. 3. Theoretical foundationsSocial construction of knowledge –constructing meaning actively and continuouslyin a social context (Vygotsky, 1978; Young,1997)Computer-mediated communication (CMC) canact as catalyst of evolving collaborationamong course participantsSense of Community as an essential support ofcollaborative learning ~ Community of Inquiryframework: cognitive, social and teachingpresence (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000)
    4. 4. Theoretical foundationsa blended learning environment ~ a synergy ofexperiences, the phenomenon of socialpresence is strongly connected to flexible toolmediation that is provided by the technologythe success of pedagogical scenarios inblended settings is impacted by theparticipants’ experience: “students who feelthat they are part of a group or ‘present’ in acommunity will wish to participate actively ingroup and community activities” (Picciano,2002, p.24.)
    5. 5. Social presence“the degree of salience of the other person in theinteraction and the consequent salience of theinterpersonal relationships” (Short, Williams &Christie, 1976, p. 65)“illusion of nonmediation” (Lombard & Ditton,1997) occurs when a person fails to realise theexistence of a medium in her communicationand interacts as if it were not therethe concept of presence manifests itself throughthe interactions among the participants and theinstructor and as such is a social phenomenon.
    6. 6. Social presence“the ability of learners to projectthemselves socially and emotionally,thereby being perceived as ‘real people’in mediated communication” (Rourke,Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 2001)
    7. 7. Aims and hypothesismaking trainees’ “experience” visible (to see theways of a potential change of their behaviourfrom “individual professionals” to “professionalteam-players”)testing our hypotheses:social presence…is a strong predictor of satisfactionis a crucial component of online communication inpedagogical scenarios designed in a blended form.
    8. 8. MethodologyContextEnglish as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachingmethodology classes of a Hungarian university(ELTE) – online modules done in the MoodleCMSParticipantsTeacher trainees (n=60) working in teams of 5-6DurationThree successive semesters: Spring and Autumn2007 and Spring 2008
    9. 9. Methodology – Research toolsMixed-methodology approachQuantitative Participant satisfaction and communicationquestionnaire (Dorner, 2007)Qualitative approach but quantifying findings Macro - Social Network Analysis Micro - Content analysis for social presencecomponent of the CoI framework (Rourke etal, 2001)
    10. 10. Methodology – Research toolsSocial presence dimensions – Participantsatisfaction and communication questionnaire 25 Likert-type items 4-point response scale (stronglydisagree, disagree, agree and strongly agree) ~perceived (subjective) values Four variables: (1) participants global satisfaction, (2)satisfaction with the facilitator’s activity, (3) onlinecommunication in the CSCL environments, and (4) theparticipants’ perceived social presence. The items concerning social presence were adaptedfrom social presence scales employed byGunawardena and Zittle (1997), Richardson and Swan(2003), Picciano (2002) and Swan and Shih (2005).
    11. 11. Methodology – Research toolsSocial presence dimensions – Participantsatisfaction and communication questionnaire first phase of the regression analyses: the extent towhich the independent variables affect the dependentvariable ~ importance of the components and globalindexes- 4-scale ratings converted to a 0-100 scale ~ single scores foreach variable- Regression analyses computed and significant items indicated– with the respective importance values.- Using the importance values, global indexes calculated second phase of regression analyses: these indexeswere employed to build explanatory models, whichelucidate the relations between the four components
    12. 12. Social presence Content analysis (Rourkeet al, 2001)Affective CategoryIndicator Description/ ExampleExpression of emotions "I just cant stand it when…" "ANYBODY OUT THERE"Use of humour Teasing, cajoling, irony, sarcasmSelf-disclosure (present details of life outside of class, orexpress vulnerability)“Where I work this is what we do…” “ I just do notunderstand this question”Interactive categoryContinuing a thread (using reply function of software ratherthan starting a new thread)Subject Re:…….; Branch formatQuoting from others’ messages Referring explicitly tosomebodys message"Martha writes …"Asking questions (students ask questions of otherstudents)"Anyone had experience with…?"Complementing, expressing appreciation “ I really like your interpretation”Expressing agreement "I was thinking the same thing. You really hit the nail on thehead."Cohesive categoryVocatives (referring to participants by name) " I think John made a good point." "John what do youthink?"Addresses or refers to the group using inclusive pronouns(addresses group as we, us, our group)"Our textbook refers to…" " I think we are off the trackhere…"Phatics, salutations (communication that serves purelysocial function)"Hi all…" "Thats it for now" "We are having lovelyweather…"
    13. 13. Explanatory model Spring 2007Participants’coursesatisfactionFacilitatorSocialpresenceOnlinecommuni-cation0,5050,3890,1050,117Importance0< imp. < 1Direct impactIndirect impact
    14. 14. Explanatory model Fall 2007Importance0< imp. < 1Direct impactIndirect impactParticipants’coursesatisfactionFacilitatorSocialpresenceOnlinecommunication0,540,150,470,160,56facilitator 0,15 0,16*0,54=0,086 - 0,24online communication 0,54 - - 0,54Social presence 0,47*0,54=0,2538 0,56*0,16*0,54=0,048 0,56*0,15=0,084 0,39
    15. 15. Explanatory model Spring 2008Importance0< imp. < 1Direct impactIndirect impactFacilitatorSocialpresenceOnlinecommunication0,500,130,410,200,50Participants’coursesatisfactionfacilitator 0,13 0,20*0,50=0,1 - 0,23online communication 0,50 - - 0,50Social presence 0,41*0,50=0,205 0,50*0,20*0,50=0,05 0,50*0,13=0,065 0,32
    16. 16. Content analysis – intercoder reliabilityHolsti’s coefficient of reliabilityC.Rcognitive engagement 0,7143teaching presence 0,5417social presence 0,4949cognitive presence 0,5968teaching presence 0,6667social presence 0,6944cognitive presence 0,9544teaching presence 0,8000social presence 0,8709Spring2008Fall2007spring2007
    17. 17. Social presence Content analysis Spring200713%5%3%13%15%11%5%31%3%3%7%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%AF1 AF2 AF3 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 CC1 CC2 CC3Cohesive category -communication servingpurely communicativefunctionInteractive categorycomplementing,appreciationInteractive – askingquestionsAffective –expression ofemotion
    18. 18. Social presence Content analysis Fall 200712%6%3%13%11%9%1%29%14%3%6%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%AF1 AF2 AF3 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 CC1 CC2 CC3Cohesive category -communication servingpurely communicativefunctionInteractive – askingquestionsAffective –expression ofemotionInteractive –expressingagreement
    19. 19. Social presence Content analysis Spring20082% 1%7%12%1%1%1%25%1%15% 34%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%50%55%60%AF1 AF2 AF3 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 CC1 CC2 CC3Cohesive category -communication servingpurely communicativefunctionInteractive –expressingagreementInteractivecategorycomplementing,appreciationAffective - Self-disclosure (presentdetails of lifeoutside of class, orexpressvulnerability)
    20. 20. Limitations, further investigationsample sizeAdding results of content analysis ofcognitive and teaching presenceGroup-level social network analysisStatistical analysis of possible relations: Global indexes and frequency of posting messages(interactivity) Global indexes and ICT competence (Internet ability andcomputer skills) Global indexes and online experience
    21. 21. Thank you for your attention!helgadorner@t-online.hudornerh@ceu.hu

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