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Spoken Language Study Scheme of Work

Spoken Language Study Scheme of Work

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  • 1. Friday 4 November – Texting and th Internet talk
  • 2. Differences between written and spoken languageWritten : encyclopedia entry Spoken : phone call• Visual (it’s read) • Aural (it’s heard)• Permanent – can be checked and re- • Temporary – only retained in the read memory• Impersonal: the audience is not • Personal: directed towards a known known audience• Distant – can be accessed at any • Immediate – restricted to the time time of the call Can you think of anything else?
  • 3. Language forms aren’t always one or the other – some fall in between the extremes. Where on the continuum would you place the following? The Bible A classroom discussion An internet chat roomVisual (it’s A Shakespeare playread) Aural (it’s A ‘tweet’ heard)Permanent Text message advert An episode of Eastenders Temporary –– can be A shopping list only retainedchecked and Text message from a friend in there-read memoryImpersonal: Personal:the directedaudience is towards anot known known audienceDistant – Immediate –can be restricted toaccessed at the time ofany time the call
  • 4. Mixed mode textsMixed mode texts share features with both written and spoken language.Two examples of mixed modes are texting and ‘internet communication’ (the variety of language used by different people to send emails and communicate on forums, instant messaging software like MSN and post in internet chat rooms).
  • 5. You receive this text from a friend... hi how ru gd wknd? Write a fairly brief reply using a style that you would usually use when texting a good friend. Don’t alter your style.
  • 6. BrevitySelf expressionSculpting social imageRebellionPlayfulnessFitting inPeer group
  • 7. BrevitySelf expressionSculpting social imageRebellionPlayfulnessFitting inPeer group
  • 8. Tuesday 8th November – Ways people text To investigate the different ways in which people text and understand new terminology for our spoken language study.
  • 9. Statement – 1 to 10 Agree?The interaction would actually be quicker if you just rang the person rather than texted.Texting is for young people.Texting uses slang most of the timeTexting is just another form of speechText language/use is not proper EnglishIf you don’t text proper English, you should!
  • 10. Wednesday 9th November – Ways people text To apply new terminology to actual examples of real texts focusing on why they have used certain text language.
  • 11. Revision of termsWhat is an initialism?What is an emoticon?What are number/letter homophones?What is phonetic spelling?What are abbreviations?
  • 12. Ways of texting What they are ExamplesInitialisms Initialisms are things like LOL. Each letter stands for a word and they are used instead of the whole phrase.Emoticons They are used to show the emotion of the message. It may help the message be clearer. You stink  is different to you stink ;)Number/Letter Use a number instead of the letter they sound like.homophonesPhonetic spelling Words are spelled how they sound.Abbreviations When words are shortened.Compressed language When words are left out of sentences but the sentences still make sense.Non-standard When text messages don’t look like proper English (slang or omission etc.)Back-channelling These are noises we make to show we’ve listened when other people have said something.
  • 13. A: Thought u woz meeting me in town?B: Soz, forgot, give me 20. InitialismsA: Pizza Express? EmoticonsB: Yeah. Number/Letter homophonesA: Cool.B: L8RS x Phonetic spelling Brevity Abbreviations Self expression Sculpting social image Compressed language Rebellion Non-standard Playfulness Fitting in Back-channelling Peer group
  • 14. Thursday 10th November – Good or bad? To focus on the positive and negative aspects of texting conventions and apply those positives and negatives to single texts.
  • 15. Initialisms Emoticons Back channellingNumber homophonesYou sometimes have to use ___________ as you cannot hear someone laughing or see someone frown if you are texting.Using ___________whilst texting can sometimes be confusing as LOL can mean Laugh out Loud or Lots of Love.Using ______________ can save a lot of time as you only have to press one thing to replace a full word._______________ is useful as it shows somebody you have read their text or acknowledged a certain aspect of what you said.
  • 16. Ways of texting Positives NegativesBack channelling Emoticons know saving InitialismsInitialisms Most people nowadays them so can be another time and useNumber homophones device.Emoticons People could find the text a bit childish When I text, I use _____________ to show that I acknowledge whatquicker – you are saving onNumber/Letter Far the other person has said average two key presses. You sometimes have to use ______________ ashomophones you cannot hear someone laughing or see someone frownPhonetic spelling texting. if you are The person receiving the text may think the sender cannot Using ______________ is a way to type your text spellAbbreviations much quicker as you swap lots of presses for a word for one press. Focuses on the key words of theCompressed language sentence. Most people can work out Using _______________ whilst texting can sometimes the meaning anyway.Non-standard Receiver may not like slang or even be confusing as LOL can mean Laugh out it. understand Loud or Lots of Love!Back-channelling Shows the person you have read the information.
  • 17. Thought u woz meeting me in town? Initialisms Emoticons Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Compressed language Non-standard Back-channelling
  • 18. Friday 11th November – Attitudes to texting To understand and apply different attitudes to texting.
  • 19. Positives ofAbbreviationsBackchannellingEmoticonsPhonetic spellingCompressed language
  • 20. Negatives ofInitialismsNumber/Letter homophonesNon standard English
  • 21. Texting – Friend or FoeGo back through the text underlining/highlighting all the ways in which Crystal supports/defends text messaging.
  • 22. Wednesday 16th November – Attitudes to texting To appreciate the negative attitude to texting and apply both attitudes to sample texts.
  • 23. Attitude starterWots ur ati2d to txt slng?Wot othr ati2dz av u hrd?Wot abt slng in gnrl? Do u uz bare sik wurdz?Or do you prefer Standard English? Why/ why not?
  • 24. David Crystal’s defence
  • 25. In what ways does JohnHumpreys say texters defend it?
  • 26. Thursday 17th November –Applying attitudes to textingTo apply positive and negative attitudes tosample texts.
  • 27. What reasons does JohnHumpreys have for disliking it?People should have time to text things properly.He doesn’t like that phones can use emoticons automatically.Ambiguity of Initialisms like LOL (What do they mean?)He is worried that the language will end up littered with emoticons and ever changing abbreviations.
  • 28. How it’s used and what it shows Exhausted! How woz day? InitialismsCons Pros Emoticons Negative attitudes Number/Letter homophones Positive attitudes Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Compressed language Non-standard Back-channelling
  • 29. Writing it up…
  • 30. Tuesday 22nd November – Getting the grades. To understand the mark scheme and apply it to a model answer and one of our own.
  • 31. Re-cap on attitudesCome up with three attitudes against textingCome up with three attitudes for texting
  • 32. Example analysis B replies to A’s question “hows u?” with the response “gud thanx, u?” Firstly, B uses a non-standard feature, not using a capital letter. This is slightly quicker and easier than using a capitalletter as she doesn’t need to press the shift key. It is also very informal. Whilst texting ascommunication is often less formal than other forms of writing, this is so informal that itsuggests A and B are good friends with each other. Secondly, both “gud” and “thanx” are speltphonetically, which could be seen as something done for brevity, as both words have one lessletter than usual and again, it suggests informality. However, this kind of phonetic spelling is fashionable among teenagers (age suggested by“History coursework”,) and this may be an example of B adapting her language because of herage and fashion, probably unconsciously. Additionally, phonetic features such as this can be seenas an attempt to represent the sounds of natural speech in order to make the conversation seemmore like a real conversation. As a multi-modal text, the conversation shares features with bothwritten and spoken texts, and this phonological spelling may be an attempt, probablyunconsciously again, to make the conversation seem closer to speech. Finally, the non Standard spelling is mildly subversive: this type of language may be usedso heavily by teenagers because it is almost a form of rebellion. It rejects Standard English, andteenagers may be taking the opportunity to rebel in a new way at an age when rebellion is soattractive to them. It is a way of rejecting the habits of adults. A and B and many teenagers mightsee the use of such features as fun and a way of expressing themselves. However, other people seeit as a threat to the language and literacy. They believe a generation is growing up unable to spellcorrectly because of SMS messages and the internet. Alternatively they may think that as withspeech, Non Standard forms suggest that a person is uneducated or of a low class. This seemsover the top and unfair to say the least! In fact, there are other people, such as David Crystal, whobelieve that texting is a rich and new version of language, which can exist independently.
  • 33. Let’s hear some of yoursBand 3 (D/E) Candidates demonstrate9 – 12 marks  exploration of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  exploration of features found in some spoken language data  exploration of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Band 4 (B/C) Candidates demonstrate13 – 16 marks  confident explanation and analysis of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  confident analysis and reflection on features found in some spoken language data  confident analysis of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Band 5 (A/A*) Candidates demonstrate17 – 20 marks  perceptive analysis and evaluation of aspects of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  sustained and sophisticated interpretations of key features found in spoken language data.  sophisticated analysis and evaluation of key issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.
  • 34. How it’s used and what it shows Soz, forgot, give me 20. InitialismsCons Pros Emoticons Negative attitudes Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Positive attitudes Compressed language Non-standard Back-channelling
  • 35. Let’s hear some of yoursBand 3 (D/E) Candidates demonstrate9 – 12 marks  exploration of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  exploration of features found in some spoken language data  exploration of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Band 4 (B/C) Candidates demonstrate13 – 16 marks  confident explanation and analysis of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  confident analysis and reflection on features found in some spoken language data  confident analysis of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Band 5 (A/A*) Candidates demonstrate17 – 20 marks  perceptive analysis and evaluation of aspects of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  sustained and sophisticated interpretations of key features found in spoken language data.  sophisticated analysis and evaluation of key issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.
  • 36. Mr. Gibb’s desk Mitch Ryan Ashle AyoadDanny Shane Josh Brett Chris Lewis ell F M yM e Daniel Nichola Jorda MitchHugo Carl C-S Ellis James Alan s n ell JRyan C Denhol Ashle Sir Ross m Adam Shaun Dennon yB
  • 37. Wednesday 23rd November –Practising with a grade in mind To write up our own piece of analysis focusing on features, attitudes and use of text language.
  • 38. What is the question?The answer is emoticons.The answer is back channelling.The answer is quicker.The answer is destroying the English language.The answer is impacting on people’s written English.The answer is you can switch between texting and normal Standard English.The answer is Initialisms.
  • 39. How it’s used and what itThe sender uses an interesting blend of standard and non showsstandard English: “Soz, forgot, give me 20.”The abbreviation of sorry to “Soz” is very informal and is actually Featuresused by young people in their everyday speech. The writer of thetext is clearly comfortable enough to speak to the recipient of the Attitudesmessage in a relaxed way. The fact that Soz is slipping intoinformal spoken language from texting would be viewed by someas a bad thing. People like John Humpreys think that textlanguage is sloppy and that our language may become an everchanging tide of abbreviations. However, other people wouldargue that “Soz” would never creep into formal English as it is Initialismsclearly informal.In addition, the use of Standard English capital letters, commas Emoticonsand full stops suggest that actually this user of text languageknows the full grammatical rules of English. When they do leave Number/Letter homophonesout words and compress the language (words like I’ve andminutes are clearly missed out for speed) they are doing soconsciously in order to suit the message that they are sending. Phonetic spellingThey seem to write in a strange mixture of Standard and Nonstandard English and this may probably indicate someone who is Abbreviationswell educated, but understands the value of texting relativelybriefly. Compressed languageOverall, the abbreviations and compressed language are informalin nature, show that the sender has saved valuable time and Non-standardkeystrokes and seem to convey a relaxed tone, which indicates Back-channellingfriendship with the recipient.
  • 40. How it’s used and what it shows Your text here InitialismsCons Pros Emoticons Negative attitudes Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Positive attitudes Compressed language Non-standard Back-channelling
  • 41. How it’s used and what it showsWriting yours up… Features AttitudesThe person uses…On one hand, this…On the other hand…This may be used to …However…This may be…Some people argue that…Alternatively, other people think…
  • 42. Thursday 24th November –Feedback on grades and analysing different people’s texts To get some grade feedback on yesterday’s writing and analyse three more texts in detail, making annotations.
  • 43. Let’s hear some of yoursBand 3 (D/E) Candidates demonstrate9 – 12 marks  exploration of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  exploration of features found in some spoken language data  exploration of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Band 4 (B/C) Candidates demonstrate13 – 16 marks  confident explanation and analysis of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  confident analysis and reflection on features found in some spoken language data  confident analysis of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Band 5 (A/A*) Candidates demonstrate17 – 20 marks  perceptive analysis and evaluation of aspects of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  sustained and sophisticated interpretations of key features found in spoken language data.  sophisticated analysis and evaluation of key issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.
  • 44. How it’s used and what it shows From a brother Cheers 4 the day owt sis da food n dat cake wo wel nyc. Am glad we watched that instead it woz good want it u get home ok? x InitialismsCons Pros Emoticons Negative attitudes Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Positive attitudes Compressed language Non-standard Back-channelling
  • 45. Colloquialisms related to northern area, e.g want it, wo wel nycomissionphonetic spellinglower casenumerical homophones
  • 46. Friday 25th November – More texts To look at a wide range of texts exploring how and why they were sent.
  • 47. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-15863830
  • 48. Cheers 4 the day owt sis da food n dat cake wo wel nyc. Am glad we watched that instead it woz good want it u get home ok? x
  • 49. In case youWhat is this Who sent this text? Give reasons for choosing who haven’t checked yr e-mail, thetext about? (E.g. age, sex, their sent this text, you must name office door code job, place they at least 2 features in your has changed to 023056. Susan live..) reasons. Congrats on ur engagement, thats fab news! U should have popped in 2 c us when in wales. lol grandad and me :-X
  • 50. Yer problyWhat is this Who sent this text? Give reasons for choosing who driving but on the off chancer rtext about? (E.g. age, sex, their sent this text, you must name u anywhere near job, place they at least 2 features in your Lufbra? The weans r about live..) reasons. ready 4 bed.. YD Hi sorry I missed your call home now x
  • 51. Tuesday 6 December - Practice th analysis To practice writing about one more text and collect data for your controlled assessment.
  • 52. Why it has been written like this? From a workmate In case you haven’t checked yr e-mail, the office door code has changed to 023056. Susan Initialisms Emoticons Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Compressed language Non-standard Back-channellingCons Pros Positive attitudes Negative attitudes
  • 53. How it’s used and what it shows In case you haven’t checked yr e-mail, the Features office door code has changed to 023056. Susan Attitudes Band 3 (D/E) Candidates demonstrateThe person uses… 9 – 12 marks  exploration of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  exploration of features found in someOn one hand, this…  spoken language data. exploration of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken languageOn the other hand… Band 4 (B/C) varieties. Candidates demonstrateThis may be used to … 13 – 16 marks  confident explanation and analysis of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposesHowever…  confident analysis and reflection on features found in some spoken language dataThis may be…  confident analysis of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Some people argue that… Band 5 (A/A*) Candidates demonstrate 17 – 20 marks  perceptive analysis and evaluation ofAlternatively, other people think… aspects of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  sustained and sophisticated interpretations of key features found in spoken language data.  sophisticated analysis and evaluation of key issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.
  • 54. Why it has been written like this? From a workmate In case you haven’t checked yr e-mail, the office door code has changed to 023056. Susan Initialisms Emoticons Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Compressed language Non-standard Back-channellingCons Pros Positive attitudes Negative attitudes
  • 55. Explore four different text messages analysing how they have been written and the potential attitudes people may have regarding them.No talking – three strikesRemember to include an introduction about texting generally.GCSE assessment – GCSE marks!Remember to use the PEE paragraph structureRemember to analyse how the text has been written, why it has been written like that and what attitudes people may have about it (good and bad).Go into as much detail as possible.Talk about the features used as well and why!
  • 56. On a separate sheet of paperI want you to find four different types of text on your phone.One might be from your mumOne might be from a close friendOne might be a family member other than your MumOne might be from a friend who isn’t as close.They should all be quite different in the way that they are written.
  • 57. Once you have your data sheetchecked…You need to make notes on them in your book:Your notes should focus on:What features are used and whyWhat attitudes people may have about the way that the text is writtenAnything else you find interesting
  • 58. Congrats on ur Yer probly driving butengagement, thats on the off chancer r ufab news! U should anywhere nearhave popped in 2 c Lufbra? The weans rus when in wales. about ready 4 bed..lol grandad and me YD:-X The person uses… On one hand, this… In case you haven’t checked yr e- mail, the office door code has On the other hand… changed to 023056. SusanHi sorry I missed This may be used to …your call home nowx However… This may be… Some people argue that… Alternatively, other people think…
  • 59. Uses standard punctuation- commas, apostropheOnly one case of omissionFormal- work related
  • 60. How it’s used and what it shows From a grandparent Congrats on ur engagement, thats fab news! U should have popped in 2 c us when in wales. lol grandad and me :-X InitialismsCons Pros Emoticons Negative attitudes Number/Letter homophones Phonetic spelling Abbreviations Positive attitudes Compressed language Non-standard Back-channelling
  • 61. Use of punctuation although not consistentemoticonphonetic representation- simple examplesMake note of the fact that ‘lol’ means lots of love in this case
  • 62. How it’s used and what it shows Writing yours up… Features Attitudes Band 3 (D/E) Candidates demonstrateThe person uses… 9 – 12 marks  exploration of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  exploration of features found in someOn one hand, this…  spoken language data. exploration of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken languageOn the other hand… Band 4 (B/C) varieties. Candidates demonstrateThis may be used to … 13 – 16 marks  confident explanation and analysis of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposesHowever…  confident analysis and reflection on features found in some spoken language dataThis may be…  confident analysis of some issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.Some people argue that… Band 5 (A/A*) Candidates demonstrate 17 – 20 marks  perceptive analysis and evaluation ofAlternatively, other people think… aspects of how they and others use and adapt spoken language for specific purposes  sustained and sophisticated interpretations of key features found in spoken language data.  sophisticated analysis and evaluation of key issues arising from public attitudes to spoken language varieties.
  • 63. AQA said: “In responding to the first data set the candidate confidently identifies, names and comments on a range of features. (B4) The focus is always on the task title and although it may seem a little like a list in the way features are identified, there is some confident explanation (B4), for example of the use of x.” What do you think makes the comments on ‘x’ “confident”?
  • 64. Thursday 8th December -PlanningTo complete our planning grid and write a model introduction.
  • 65. Tick English Language Unit 3Centre name is The Harefield AcademyCandidate’s full name is your nameTask title is: Explore four different text messages analysing how they have been written and the potential attitudes people may have regarding them.Sign where it says Candidate signaturePut today’s date 8/12/11 where it says date
  • 66. PlanningYou have ten minutes to copy up your text messages and any notes onto the back of the planning sheet. Focus on how they have been written and why they have been written like that.You must write down the key features (emoticons etc…)You must write down some notes about attitudes to texting.
  • 67. Intro: Explore four different text messages analysinghow they have been written and the potential attitudespeople may have regarding them.What is texting?How texting is used, by how many people?What are some of the key features of texting?What arguments are made by both sides about texting?What are some of the key features of texting?How is texting having an impact on people and the world?
  • 68. A: Exhausted! How woz day? B: Pretty good. U? A: OK. We had meeting after school, went on 4 ages. Got some marking to do, haven’t got the energy. B: Oh dear! xx A: I can see you’re busy. Will text later. B: xx Initialisms Emoticons Number/Letter homophonesBrevity Phonetic spellingSelf expression AbbreviationsSculpting social imageRebellion Compressed languagePlayfulness Non-standardFitting inPeer group Back-channelling
  • 69. Age The pastimes and leisure activities that people take part in will affect language use.Gender Who, where and why a person is talking to someone else will affect language use.Hobbies Where a person is from (geographically) will affect language use as well as accentEthnicity The job or career that a person does will affect language use.Deviance The social, educational and economic position that people are born into / live in will affect language use.occupation Any ‘less savoury’ activities that an individual is involved in will affect language use e.g. Bumping people off or doing porridgeRegion A person’s ethnic background (for example, British Asian) will affect language use.Social class How old or young a person is will affect language use.context Whether you are male or female will affect language use.
  • 70. In your book, write down examples of words andphrases which may be used due to each of thefactors belowAge e.g. tracks, records, choons, musicGenderHobbiesEthnicityDevianceoccupationRegionSocial classcontext
  • 71. Accommodation theoryWho proposed this idea? Howard GilesWhat is it? Giles proposed that when speakers seekapproval in a social situation they are likely to(consciously or unconsciously) change their speech sothat it is similar to their listener.However, if the speaker wants to disassociate him /herself from the speaker, they may change theirspeech to show that they are different.Task: In pairs, try to think of situations at school, realor invented, which could be explained by this theory.
  • 72. Read the example textWhich features can you find?
  • 73. How many different spoken language features can you identify using the correct terminology?
  • 74. Why does the examiner think the notes were unhelpful? What should you put on an effective notes page?The exam board said: “The candidates notes do not seem particularly brief. The concern, however,might be that they are not very useful because of the considerable amount of technical terminologythat covers the page. The candidates response, at about 1400 words, is significantly longer than issuggested in the specification and while there is no penalty for this, it may be worth discussingwhether the length of the response works in the candidates interest, and whether the large amountof detail in the notes is a contributory factor to this length.”