Introduction• Malaysia’s population 24 million consists of64% Bumiputera group, 27 Chinese and 8%Indian.• Malaysia has experienced Islamic culture sincethe 15th century, then faced the colonial eras,and its history since WWII.
Early History• Since the first millennium AD both the Malaypeninsula and the northern Borneo coast wereimportant for maritime trading networks.• There was a very important ancient kingdomcalled Sri Vijaya, its capital in a place calledMelayu.
Melaka and Malay Culture: 15th• Founded about 1400, Malaka was both a majortrade centre and a great cultural one.• Its position was excellent and it took care tobecome a tributary of China, Majapahit, andAyudhya.• A Chinese community settled and became afeature of Malakan society.• In 15th century, its rulers adopted Islam, making ita favored destination for Arab and Indian Muslimtraders.
Melaka and Malay Culture: 15th• Along with its religion, the port cities alsotended to adopt the Malakan form ofgovernment and Malay became the mostwidely understood language in the region.• The golden age of Melaka ended in August1511, and its ruling elite and their followersestablished the sultanate of Johor.
A Threatening World: 16th – 18th• In 1641, Johor helped the Dutch oust thePortuguese from Malaka, outlying base in agrowing Dutch empire.• The Dutch took care to concentrate their navaland military resources against any state whichemerged threat.• Many Malay states faced internal instability.• In the late 18th and early 19th, the northern Malaystates of Patani, Kelantan, Kedah, Perak, andTrengganu all experienced Thai pressures
The British Advance 19th• The British established the Straits Settlementsin Singapore, Melaka and Penang.• By the 1860s these states were in anarchy anddemands for official British intervention grew.• In 1874, one of the leading Malay disputantsand the Governor of the Straits Settlementssigned met agreement called the PangkorTreaty, which the British took control mostfinancial and administrative matters.
The Colonial Era• The British set about creating an environment foreconomic expansion.• Tin, rubber, pepper, sugar and coffee hadsignificantly grown; but no significantindustrialization occurred.• Chinese immigration swelled in the colonial era,while the British had also recruited Indian labour.• Divisions between Malays, Chinese and Indianswere deepened by British perception and policies.
• Japanese forces attacked British Malay on 8December 1941• Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army under theCommunist Party of Malaysia.• The British introduced a plan for Malayan Union• United Malays National Organization (UMNO)-the largest and best political party, Malaysian-Chinese Association, and Malaysian-IndianCongress.• In 1957, the Alliance achieve independence forthe Federation of Malay
• The creation of Malaysia• The 1969 crisis: after the1969 elections,Violent clashed erupted in Kuala Lumpur• UMNO became the dominant party inMalaysia over the next two decades, and in1976 the Alliance was superseded by a broadercoalition of parties, Barisan.• Until 1990 general election, Barisan comprisednine parties, held 127 of the 180 seats.
• The New Economic Policy (NEP) set two goals with a 1990target date: reduce and eradicate poverty and identificationof economic function with race.– The volumes of public investment and public consumptionexpenditure increased– The government promoted the education and training ofBumiputeras• In the years 1971-90, the country’s annual average growthin GNP was 6.8% and per-capita GDP $380 to $2,200.• However, NEP benefits had tended to be spread to UMNO’spolitical advantage rather than on the basic of equity.
• 1981 Malaysia met a complex politicalpersonality, Dr. Mahathir, who promoted Islam• He centralized all the significant power in thehands• His biggest political challenge occurred in 1986-87.• He detained 106 people including oppositionpersonalities; three newspaper were closed.• He remained so powerful for more than 20 yearsuntil his resignation in 2003.
Singapore• A thriving city-state, with a population of 4.2 million,people is Singapore live in the highest per-capitaincome in Asia.• There are minority Indian and Malay communities,but political, commercial and cultural power is in thehands of the Chinese.
Colonialism• Stamford Raffles hoisted the British flag on the islandof Singapore on 29 January 1819• Firstly, this small island off the southern tip of theMalay peninsula known as Temasek (See Town), andlater as Singa-pura (Lion City)• The Straits Settlements remained in EIC control• By the 1830s, Singapore had become the majorregional trading port because its geographic location,its status as free port; its linkages into the Britishcommercial and industrial empire.
Colonialism• Most Chinese came to Singapore as impoverishedindentured labourers, and in 19th century, the Chinesepopulation of Singapore were predominantly male.• Chinese and European investors in the tin-miningindustry in Singapore• On the eve of WWII, more than two-thirds of Malay’simports and exports went through the port ofSingapore.• By the late 19th century, it was an important financialand commercial cetnre.
Colonialism• Before 1960, Singapore was a place of foodprocessing including tin and rubber.• By the early 2oth century, there was no sense of beingSingaporean.• There was Indian minority varying 6 to 12 % of thepopulation
• Singapore fell under the Japanese Army on 15February 1942.• The Chinese were still suffered the most
Towards Independence• British retook Singapore in 1945• Post-war British policy towards Singapore differedfrom that towards Malaya.• Limited self-government was introduce intoSingapore in 1955.• In 1959, the People’s Action Party (PAP) gainedmajority seats in the Legislative Assembly
Towards Independence• The creation of Malaysia seemed to solve allproblems by forming Singapore, Sabah and Sarawakin a new state of Malaysia• When Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963,Singapore separated from Malaysia in Sep. 1965.• At the first, Singapore feared that its economy wastoo small and too vulnerable to anti-Chinese feelingamong its neighbors.• Identity question, leadership, a regional economicpowerhouse in under 40 years.
Towards Independence• However, 40 years later, this country is a majoreconomic success story.• Singapore had moved from entrepot economy to apredominantly industrial and service-based economy.• The PAP has brought strong, stable and corruption-free government to Singapore• They created a Central Provident Fund• Developed an excellent comprehensive educationsystem