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Thailand background

Thailand background

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Presentation6 (2) Presentation6 (2) Presentation Transcript

  • THAILAND
  •  Thailand’s population of 63 million is relativelyhomogeneous Before 1932, Thailand was an absolute monarchy A violent collision between the military and pro-democracy demonstrators on the streets of Bangkokin 1992. The 1997 Asian economic started in Thailand Pressing problems include widening gaps betweenurban and rural conditions, and between rice andpoor.
  • Early History In the 13th century, several kingdoms emerged acrossthe regions The Tais were the principal ancestors not only oftoday’s Thais but also of the Lao peoples, the Shans The Tias were wet-rice farmers clusters in maung-oneor more villages under a chieftain The Tais probably adopted Theravada Buddhism fromMon states
  •  Angkor provided lessons in administeringlarge, scattered populations and in a range of arts andtechnologies-their attacks in 14th-15th centuries. 13th century, the most celebrated early Tai states werethe Kingdom of Sokhothai.
  • AYUDHYA, 1351-1767 In 1351, the establishment further south of thekingdom of Ayudhya-known as Siam, which surviveduntil 1767. It founded by U Thong Thai-ness was also being constructed out ofMon, Khmer, Chinese and other peoples. Ayudha became one of Southeast Asia’s great tradingports. Male subject pay many months of service each year tothe state.
  •  Ayudha’s social structures proved remarkably strong andenduring. They had defeated Angkor and wage war on otherrivals, and claim an empire sometimes encompassingmuch of modern Laos, the Tai kingdom of Lan Na, and thestates of Malay peninsula. 1568, the Burmese king Bayinnaung laid siege toAyudha, haivng extended his military power over the northas fas as Laos. Ayudha city fell in 1569 and was destroyed
  •  Over the next decades, Narasuan managed toreconstitute the kingdom and clawed back much ofAyudha’s tributary empire. By 17th, Ayudha was againa major power. Ayudha was a wealthy trade centre wherePortuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French, Malay and otherAsian traders. However, it had to challenge with Burma again in1766 and one year later, the city fell into the hands ofBurma. The city was burned
  • The Rise of Bangkok Empire Taksin declared himself king and founded a newcapital at Thonburi in 1767. In 1782, a tax revolt evolved into a coup and Tasikwas deposed and executed, and then the coup leaderoffered ChaophrayaChakri, Rama I, the throne in1782. Because of his military skills and great administrativeand intellectual abilities, Thai empire became largerthan any Ayudha had controlled.
  •  King Rama I built constructed his capital inBangkok, founded in 1782. Rama I gathered about him talentedofficials, jurists, scholars and artists. Their achievements included the reconstruction andreform of the sangha hierarchy, production of new textof the Buddhist scriptures, the complete revision of thekingdom’s laws, and the translation of numerousworks.
  • Bangkok and the West In the 1830s and 1840, Bangkok saw Vietnam as theirchief foreign threat rather than Western power. In Bangkok, a group of royal and noble young menwere studying the West keenly, led by PrinceMongkut. When he as a monk, Mongkut spent his energies toreform Thai Buddhism, studying Westernlanguages, Western science and mathematics. Then he became king, Mongkut was in a position tore-orientate Bangkok positively towards the West
  •  King Mongkut avoided other fundamental reformed. Hisson Chulalongkorn (Rama V, 1868-1910) came to replacehim. King Chulalongkorn abolished slavery, ended forced laborsfor the states, a major reform in the government, cabinetgovernment, and provincial administration. However, Western empires stripped the former Thaiempire. His death in 1910 laid the foundations of a modernmilitary, improving communications, law reform, andWestern-style education.
  • The Eclipse of theMonarchy, 1910-1932 The emergent of Thai nationalism was strengthened in thereign of King Rama VI, 1910-25. It was his who introduced the trinity of “Nation, Religion andKing” King Prajadhipok (Rama VII, 1925-35) succeeded thethrone and the national income slumped. On 24 June 1932, plotters in the military and bureaucracystaged a bloodless coup, obliged king to surrender themonarchy’s absolute powers and accept constitutionalstatus.
  • The Rise of MilitaryGovernment, 1932-1948 The military was best-organized, most cohesive moderninstitution. PhibunSongkhram and his supporters were attracted toother political models-fascist Italy, Germany, Japan. Phibun changed his country’s name from Siam to Thailandin 1939. Phibun sent forces in November 1940 to invade Laos andCambodia. Facing to an Allied victory, he quietly resigned the primeminister-ship.
  • Strongman Era, 1948-1973 Washington wanted strong, anti-Communist, Thailandjoined in American-led strategies for containment of Asiancommunism. In the 1950s, US aided Thailand with great social andeconomic development. Phibun mounted another anti-Chinese campaign, and alsoattempted to impose cultural uniformity in Malay-Muslims ofthe far south. In 1955, Phibun promised elections, and then his party wasaccused of massive fraud during 1957 election. Sarit stagea coup in September 1957, driving Phibun into exile.
  •  King BhumibolAdulydej (Rama IX, 1946-present) attendedpublic ceremonies, toured the provinces and patronizeddevelopment projects. The public was shocked when Thanom proclaimedreversed direction in 1971, dissolving the parliament andbanning political parties. In October 1973, student protests against politicaldepression. The demonstrators were successful when the armywithheld its support from Thanom, who fled into exile.
  • Between Autocracy andDemocracy, 1973-1992 In 1976, the military resumed power and permitted to right-wing organization to torture and kill student radicalsgathered at Thammasat University in Bangkok. General KriangsakChomanandassued the prime ministers-ship in 1977, promising a new constitution and elections in1979. PremTinsulanonda 1979-1988 ChatichaiChoonhavan 1988-1991 GenealSochindaKraprayoon 1991-1992 Chuan Leekpai 1992-1995; 1997-2001 ThaksinShinawatra 2001-2006
  • Thailand in Prospect The military’s political influence remain strong Corruption is a specter (ghost) which hang over bothcivilian and military politics. The present King maintained broad national respect. Thai society has remained stable when compared withneighboring countries. Thailand achieved average growth rates of around 7to 8 per cent; has played as a key regional financialcentre; population 63 million in 2005.
  •  Poverty became an issue at the forefront of nationalconcern, traffic jams in Bangkok, money politics. Rural infrastructure remains inadequate to attractmuch business and industrial away from the capital. AIDS has become the country’s most pressing healthissue; drug problem; the three Malay-Muslimdominated southern states.