The Emergence ofModern Japan: 1874-1894Sight at Ochanomizu 1880 byKiyochika Kobayashi
Political Development Several uprisings occurredduring the 1870s and 1980s.And the most serious one wasled by SaigoTakamori. The rebel force rose as highas 42,000, but after half a yearthe rebellion was crushed.
Political Development Protest against thegovernment continued and another important man, who hadworked so hard to create thenew Japanese state, wasassassinated.Okubo Tishimichi
Political DevelopmentEverywhere, antigovernment organizations voicedthe discontent of local interests, demanding politicalrights, local-government, and formation of a nationalassembly.
Political Development Iwakuramission, initiated in1871
Political Development Ito Hirobumi took the leadin political modernization.He became the PrimeMinister of Japan four times(the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th)
Political DevelopmentYamagata Aritomo, thecreator of the newarmy
Political DevelopmentOkuma Shigenobuserved as FinanceMinister, then 5th PrimeMinister
Political DevelopmentThe governmentannounced that theEmperor Meiji wouldgrant a constitution totake effect in 1890.
Formation of Parties The Jiyuto (Liberal party) formed by Itagaki and hisassociates Drew its support from rural areas It proclaimed itself “devoted to the expansion ofliberty, protection of rights, promotion happiness andreform of society.” The Kaishinto (Progressive party) formed by Okuma More urban and more moderate Advocating English-style liberalism and setting forthmore specific proposals
Formation of Parties Japan’s first newspaper appeared in 1871, andpress laws enacted in 1875. The Liberal party was hurt by differences among itsleaders, but was damaged even more byantagonism within its membership, it was dissolvedin 1884. A system of centralizing local administration wasestablished, villages and town were now headed byofficials, and local assemblies were created.
The Emperor and theConstitution The emperor was a divine being embodying a timeless spirit, but this wasa modern divinity, resplendent in his flashy, new, world-class uniform. The emperor, “sacred and inviolable” father of the family state, wassupreme. He was the locus and source of sovereignty: the land and peoplebelonged to him. He had power to declare war, conclude treaties, and command the army. He also had the right to open, recess (suspend), and dissolved thelegislature Only the emperor could take the initiative to revise the constitution
Western Influence on Values andIdeas Styles of dress
FukuzawaYukichi, wholearned Westernknowledge and createdwhat is known as“civilization andenlightenment.”
Civilization and Enlightenment In 18th century Europe, the intellectual movement knownas the Enlightenment sought to put all traditional ideasand institutions to the test of reason. FukuzawaYukichi was strongly influenced by theEuropean Enlightenment. He goals were to stimulate the development of anindependent and responsible citizenry in Japan. While he reviewed the role of women in terms of familyand home, Fukuzawa also recommended greaterequality between sexes, championed monogamy arguedthat women should be educated and allowed to holdproperty.
Civilization and Enlightenment According to Fukuzawa, history was made by thepeople, not by a few great leaders. He established what became Keio University, adistinguished private university in Tokyo whosegraduates were important in business and industry. He believed that human affairs should be governedby inherent concepts of justice like the physicalworld is governed by laws of nature.
Social Darwinism It’s all based on the theory of evolution by naturalselection presented in Darwin’s famous On the Origin ofSpecies (1859). The theory was summarized by the catch phrase“survive of the fittest.” It applies to the success or failure of individuals withinsociety, it justified brutal competition. Similarly, applied to the rise and fall of nations, it focuseson military as well as civil competition. In both case, “the fittest” were those came out on the topand thereby contributed to human progress.
The Arts Western influence was both audible and visible. Music taught in school Literature, “the age of translation” Painting, “Morning Toilet” by Kuroda Seiki, painting ofnude The coming of Western art led to the neglect oftraditional art.
Conservatism and Nationalism Some Japanese feared that acceptance of a foreign culture was astep towards national decline, and should adopt some of Westernculture while retaining valuable aspects of their past. Western individualism, fostered by the policy ofmodernization, clashed with the old family values. …… Okakura went on to define a wider world role for Japan byemphasizing Japan’s Asian roots. His book, The Ideals of the Eat presents the nation’s mission interm of preserving an Asian cultural essence.
Education Education was important in fashioning a new Japancapable of competing with the West. At the beginning of the Meiji period (1873), One-eighth of ME’s first budget was designed forsending students overseas. Many foreign instructors were brought to Japan toteach various specialized schools. The Ministry of Education was created since 1871to determine what was taught.
Education Political leaders agreed to provide people with skillsnecessary for modernization. In the 1870s, more books were frequently translatedfor use in Japanese schools. However, there were also critics who insisted thatschools should preserve traditionalConfucian/Japanese values.
Modernizing the Economy The nation was still primarily agrarian, but Western experience broughtthe country to the condition for industrial development. Japanese agriculture had become more efficient with the introduction ofnew seed trains, new fertilizers, and new methods of cultivation. Trade helped generate capital needed for investment in manufacturing. However, Benefits resulting from the commercialization of agriculturewent to the landlord. The Meiji regime invested heavily in the economic infrastructure The government took the lead in establishing and operating cementworks, plants manufacturing tiles, textile mills…..
The Zaibatsu The zaibatsu (huge financial and industrialcombines) were usually organized by newentrepreneurs to make a successful tradition intothe new world of Meiji. The Mitsui was vigorous and capable, establishingfirst a bank and then a trading company whichbecame important factors in foreign commerce.
Military The Taiwan expedition of 1874 The Satuma Rebellion of 1877 The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 Yamagata established a general staff along Germanlines, and the Germany became the overall modelfor the army, previously influenced by France. The army got modern equipment, the creation of aStaff College and improve training, and Navalmodernization.