The Portuguese in East Asia The Portuguese reached India in 1498, China in 1514, andJapan in 1543. They established their Asian headquarter in 1510 at Goaand 1511 they captured Malacca. Spices: to make meat palatable, medicine and religiousceremonies. Superior ships, weaponry and seamanship, they derivedincome from transporting goods like SEA spices toChina, Chinese silk to Japan, and Japanese silver toChina.
The Portuguese in East Asia They used their profits from this trade to purchase spicesand other products for European markets. What they had to do was to secure entry into China andJapan. Not waiting for official permission to trade, theyengaged in illegal commerce and even built a fort inLintin Island. In 1557 an arrangement was reached permitting thePortuguese to establish themselves in Macao, ceded toPortugal in 1887.
The Jesuits in Japan Missionary work was also important: mid-16th centuryGoa boasted some 80 churches and convents. The great pioneers were the Jesuits, members of theSociety of Jesus. In 1549, St. Francis Xavier, one of the original membersof the Society, landed on Kyushu. Donald Lach has summarized the qualities that theJesuits found to admire in the Japanese: “theircourtesy, dignity, endurance, frugality, equanimity, industriousness, sagaciousness, cleanliness…….”
The Jesuits in Japan (cont.) They criticized the Japanese propensity for suicide and also foundfault with the “disloyalty of vassal to master,….,their inhumantreatment of enemies,…., their failure to respect rule of law, andtheir unwillingness to give up the system of concubinage.” The Jesuits tried to win acceptance by adapting themselves tolocal manners and customs. The Jesuits father’s strategy was to work from the top byconverting the rulers and then allowing the faith to seep down tothe populace at large. This approach met with considerable success in Kyushu, but notlong lasting. The Jesuits themselves became involved in this trade and inpolitics and later they realized that real progress of their missiondepended on the will of the central government.
The Impact of other Europeans The Dutch arrived in 1571 with imperialistambitions The English Protestants arrived in the early 1600s The Spanish commanded the precious metals-thesilver
The Closing of Japan In 1606 Christianity was declared illegal, and in 1614 he undertooka serious campaign to expel the missionaries. By 1614 there were over 300,000 converts in Japa. The destruction of Christianity was long and painful. Torturessuch as hanging a man upside down with his head in a pit filledwith excrement… In its suppression, some 37,000 Christians lost their lives. The Japanese saw Christianity as potentially subversive of thepolitical order and basic social structure. The Spaniards were expelled in 1624, one year after the Englishhad left voluntarily. The Portuguese were also expelled.
The Jesuits in Vietnam The first Europeans to arrive in Vietnam werePortuguese adventurers and traders. In 1525 theyestablished a trading center at Hoi An. Father Alexander de Rdodes arrived in Vietnam in1624, a church had already existed in Danang. Although the Jesuits sought to work from the topdown, and did convert a Nguyen princess, governmentpolicy under both Nguyen and Tinh vacillated fromtolerance. By 1640 there were a reported 39,000 converts in centralVietnam and 82,000 in the north.
The Jesuits in China Then Valognano established a special training center inMacao so that missionaries could study the Chineselanguage and culture in preparation for worn in China. The outstanding pioneer was Matteo Ricci (1551-1619). They were particularly successful in demonstrating thesuperior accuracy of European astronomicalpredictions, chiefly Adam Schall von Bell (1591-1666)and Ferdinand Verbiest (1633-1688). The emperor accepted the Jesuits’ science with alacrityand took their quinine for the sake of his health. But theywere less successful in spreading the religion.
The Jesuits in China (cont.) “ I had asked Verbiest why God had not forgivenhis son without making him die, but thought he hadtried hard to answer I had not understood him” The high point for early Catholicism in China camein the middle years of Kangi’s reign, but by 1700there were no more than 300,000 Christian Chinese.
The Rites Controversy It revolved around the question of the properattitude a Christian should adopt toward Confuciandoctrines and practices. The Jesuits turned Confucius into a religiousteacher, while the Dominicans held that the ancientChinese were atheists. The Jesuits claimed that some ceremonies werenonreligious and therefore permissible, but theDominicans disagreed.
The Decline of Christianity in China In 1704 the pope condemned Chinese rituals, and in1742 a decree was issued to settle all points againstthe Jesuits. Powerful emperors like Kangxi, however, resentedRome’s claim of authority over their subjects, andthey saw no reason to abide by the papal judgment. Christianity was forbidden in 1724 By the end of 18th century, the number of convertshad been reduced to about half.
Trade with the West and the Canton System Qianlong opened a special area in Canton to set aside for thewarehouses (factories) of foreign traders. Foreign traders were required to deal with a group of Chinesemerchants who had been granted a monopoly on foreigntrade. The foreigners were not granted direct access to Chineseofficials, nor government-to-government relations. Foreign maritime trade were taxed higher that Chinese one The system continued to operate until China faced a Europethat could no longer be contained.
Portrait of aJapanese Girlexperimentingwith WesternDress
Group discussion Opium War, The Mongol’s Occupation of the World, Great Wall of China, The Closing of Japan, Japanese War in China and Korea South China Sea Dispute Marco Polo (1254-1324) Tubeplus.me