1. Why Care about Environment?EconomicDevelopmentPoliticalStabilityEnvironmentSustainableDevelopmentWorld Commission onEnvironment andDevelopment (WCED, 1987):“Development that meets theneeds of the present withoutcompromising the ability offuture generations to meettheir own need.”
1. Why Care about Environment?1. Environmental Pollution: A disease caused by environmental degradationwas found in Minamata city of Japan. (Minamatadisease). Disease destroys a neurological system of humans:numbness in hands and feet, muscle weakness,hearing and speech damage.
1. Why Care about Environment?Did the Japanese government pay attention to theMinamata people?1968, the government recognized the existence of thedisease, but not ask Chisso to compensate victims.Why so?Late 1970s, the Government started compensatingvictims.Is Minamata the only case of Environmentalpollution? In 1984, a nuclear leak in Bophal, India. In 1986, a nuclear leak in Chernobyl, Ukraine In 2011, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants
1. Why Care about Environment?2. Climate Change
1. Why Care about Environment?Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC)predicted will increase between 1.4-5.8 degreeCelsius between 1990-2100.Global Warming could cause land loss. Egypt: 3 meter sea level rise causes 12%-15% land loss (6million people), 13 million in Bangladesh, and 72 millionpeople in China will suffer. Some places become arid.
2. Do all Countries Have the Same Concern aboutEnvironmental problems?Developed Countries agreed on the New Model ofDevelopment, except the US.Developing Countries dissatisfied with the newmodel. Why?
Global Governance on Environment1972 Stockholm UN Conference on Human Envir. Creating UNEP Spaceship Earth “Think globally, and act locally” More involvement of NGOs, ScientistsMoving toward Sustainable Development UNGA established Word Commission on Environment andDevelopment
The United Nation Conference on the Environment andDevelopment (UNCED) was held in Rio in 1992, or theEarth Summit. RELEVANT! Agenda 21: Adoption of the two treaties: the Convention on ClimateChange and the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997, entered into force in2005, 5% reduction of GHG within (2008-2012) vis-à-vis 1990level. Developed Countries agreed on “Common butDifferentiated Responsibilities.” Financial Pledge: 0.7 % of GNP of Developed Countries to foreignassistance by 2000. Pledge: US$607 annually to implement environment relatedconventions of the UN.
Sovereign Rights of States (Developing countries) toexploit their natural resources. Para 2 of Chapter 3: “While managing resources sustainably,an environmental policy that focuses mainly on theconservation and protection of resources must take dueaccount of those who depend on the resources for theirlivelihoods.”NGOs’ role has been promoted.
Polluter Pay Principle: Principle 16“National authorities should endeavour to promotethe internalization of environmental costsand the use of economic instruments, taking intoaccount the approach that the polluter should, inprinciple, bear the cost of pollution, with due regardto the public interest and without distortinginternational trade and investment.”
2002 Johannesburg Summit (PoA) Restoration of fisheries by 2015 Reduction of biodiversity loss by 2015 Better use of chemicals by 2020 More use of renewable energyCOP15?COP16?COP17?COP18?