1The UN: CenterpieceInstructor: Cheunboran ChanboreyOf Global Governance
2The UN Milestones 1941:Churchill and Roosevelt announced theAtlantic Charter in which the initial beginnings ofa new order for peace and cooperation areembedded. 01/01/1942: The name “United Nations”appeared for the first time in the declarationmade by the Allies during the Second World War,in which 26 states pledged themselves tocontinue the fight against the Axis powers. 25more countries joined the alliance by the end ofthe war.
3The UN Milestones 30/10/1943: First Foreign Minister Conference bythe Allies in Moscow. The USA, Great Britain, theUSSR and China declared that a generalinternational organisation of all peace-lovingstates is to be created to retain world peace andinternational security. 01/12/1943: At the conference in Teheran,Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin declared that theyand the United nations were responsible forcreating lasting freedom.
4The UN Milestones Sept. 1944: In Dumbarton Oaks, USA,representative of the USA, Great Britain, theUSSR and China prepared the basic outline of acharter for the United Nations. Feb. 1945: In Yalta, Churchill, Roosevelt andStalin agreed on the special status of the majorpowers in the Security Council (veto right)
5The UN Milestones April–June 1945: Representatives from 50League member nations drew up the UnitedNations Charter at the United NationsConference in San Francisco. 26/06/1945: The Charter is signed by the 50founding states (Poland declared 51st foundingstate later).
6The UN Milestones 24/10/1945: The United Nations Charter cameinto force following ratification by the majority ofthe founder members. Observe how meetings had been more frequentthe nearer to end of WWII The UN was indeed a product of WWII
8Assurance of Peace After two devastating world wars, theassurance of peace and internationalsecurity form the central tasks of the worldorganisation, whereby the endeavour is tolearn lessons from the failed attempt to set upa collective security system under the Leagueof Nations in the period between the wars
9Protection of Human Rights The genocide and the crime against humanityof the Hitler regime in particular, form thebackground for the second major field oftasks for the United Nations: the protectionof human rights and the continueddevelopment of public international law.
10Economic and Social Development Economic and social development makesup the third major field of tasks for the UnitedNations. Peace, in the sense of the negativepeace, is not just understood as an absenceof war, but, in the sense of positive peace,also encompasses questions of worldwidedevelopment and justice
11Environmental Protection In the face of global problems such as thegreenhouse effect and the ozone hole,environmental protection has been addedto this as an additional field of tasks in recenttimes.
12UN Charter Article 1: Purposes Art. 1(1): Protection of international peace andsecurity. Art 1(2): Develop friendly relations amongnations based upon respect and implementationof human and equal rights. Art 1(3): Global economic and socialdevelopment as a preventive measure to theoutbreak of war; promoting cooperation.
13UN Principles Sovereignty (Art. 2(1)) Non-use of force against territorial integrity orpolitical independence of any member-state (Art. 2(4)) Collective Security (Art. 2 (5)) Non-intervention in internal affairs (Art. 2 (7)) Special responsibility of Great Powers: veto powerof P5 (Art. 27(3)). Legitimacy: The UN SC has the power to decidewhat is and what is not a breach to internationalpeace and security and to decide upon legitimateaction (Art. 39).
15Main Bodies1. Committee: Disarmament and International Security2. Committee: Economic and Financial3. Committee: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Issues4. Committee: Special Political and Decolonisation5. Committee: Administrative and Budget (internal)6. Committee: Legal
17The General AssemblyFunctions: Rules and norms setting and codification of IL Consider and approve UN budget and assessfinancial contribution of member states Elect the non-permanent members of UNSC andmembers of other UN organs At the recommendation of UNSC, appoint theUNSG Receive and consider reports of UN organs Recommendation, Recommendation andRecommendations…
18The General AssemblyVoting System As a rule, decisions are reached by a simplemajority. A two-thirds majority is required forimportant issues, such as accepting or excludingnew members or the election of non-permanentmembers of the Security Council. Over the last few years, making decisions withouta formal vote in the consensus procedure hasbecome standard.
20Non-Permanent Seats in UNSC3 African states: (Morocco-2013, SouthAfrica-2012, Togo-2013)2 Asian states: (India-2012, Pakistan-2013)2 Latin American states: (Colombia-2012,Guatemala-2013)2 West European and other states(Germany-2012, Portugal-2012)1 East European state: Azerbaijan-2013
21Major Functions International peace & security, military actionagainst aggressor (Chap VII: Collective Security), Recommend admission of new member, Recommend the UNGA to appoint UNSG andjudges of the ICJ etc
22Security Council The ten non-permanent members are elected fora period of two years by the General Assembly. The procedure here is that five non-permanentmembers are elected each year, so that thecomposition of Security Council changes eachyear. procedural decisions (9/15) substantive issues (9 + absence of veto from P5)
23Security Council The Presidency changes every month and canconvene sessions at any time. These can takeplace at the request of a Council member ormember state, the General Assembly or the UNSecretary-General In 1963 Charter was changed to increase nonpermanent members from 6 to 10
25ECOSOC Promoting higher standards of living, fullemployment, and socio-economic progress Identifying solutions to internationaleconomic, social and health problems Facilitating international cultural andeducational cooperation Encouraging universal respect for HRs
26ECOSOC with the creation of special organs such as theDevelopment Programme (UNDP), or theConference on Trade and Development(UNCTAD), the General Assembly has deprivedthe ECOSOC of further powers in the field ofdevelopment, so that hardly any operative fieldsof duty remain, except that of human rights. The ECOSOC meets once a year for four weeks. A large part of its work is performed in numerousparallel organisations
27ECOSOC Charter was changed twice to increasemembers of ECOSOC In 1963 from 18 to 27 In 1973 form 27 to 54
28Trusteeship Council Examining and discuss reports from theAdministering Authority on the political,economic, social and educational advancementof the peoples of Trust Territories The Trusteeship Council suspended its workfollowing the release of the last of eleven trustterritories (Palau) into independence on 1stOctober 1994. Despite this, the corresponding chapters in theCharter (Chapters XII and XIII) have not beendeleted.
29The Secretariat The UN is headquartered in New York and hasexternal offices in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi.In 2000, the Secretariat employed a workforce of8,900 from 170 states (around 4,4000 in 2010). The Secretariat is the central administrativeorgan of the world organisation. It consists of the Secretary-General, who iselected on the recommendation of the SecurityCouncil by the General Assembly for a five yearrenewable period, and a hierarchically structuredadministrative apparatus
31The ICJ The ICJ is essentially different to normal courtsof justice. This is made quite clear by the fact thatonly states are permitted to go in front of the ICJ. Two main functions: (1) Contentious and(2)advisory opinion The ICJ is the only principal organ not to beheadquartered in New York, but in The Hague.
32UN Performance UN has many faces, and means different things todifferent people or groups To European journalists, UN implies peace keepingand security issues in central Europe To LA, and SEA countries UN means IMF/WB To international lawyers and human rightsadvocates, UN means legal texts and officesinvolved Universal Declaration of Human Rights To other critics, UN painted the picture of thebureaucracy, wasting taxpayers’ moneyPaul Kennedy, Foreign Affairs Sep/Oct 1995
33UN Performance During the Cold War Low Point 1970s-1980s End of the Cold War
34Cold War Period Any cooperation was difficult due to East-Westconflicts Activities limited to areas where major powersnot affected Expansion of UN Secretariat and affiliated bodies 1950 beginning of Peace Keeping Mission
35Cold War Period Decolonization resulted in increase in UNmembership, mostly developing countries Hence more emphasis on development policy atthe UN UNCTAD was founded to counter the BrettonWoods institutions Third world countries called on NIEO Issues on North-South gained momentum
36Cold War Period Berlin crisis in 1950, UN served as forum fordiscussion Korea crisis in 1950, an exception due to Sovietwalkout Suez crisis of 1956, peace keeping troopsdeployed Congo conflict of 1960-64, saw UN overburdened and UN troops became a party toconflicts Cuba crisis of 1962, UN played a mediation role
37Period of 1970s-1980s Securing Peace: UN failed in a series of peacekeeping missions A period of deep crisis, UN failed to preventconflicts or find solutions to conflicts inNicaragua, West Sahara, Cambodia,Afghanistan, and Iran-Iraq war
38The End of Cold War UN was back at center stage again End of ideological war made cooperation andconflict resolution easier Iraq/Kuwait conflict was through UN 14 new pk missions were undertaken between1988-1992 with mixed results
391990s and Global issues 1990s saw the UN involved more on globalissues of various kinds More participation of NGOs More involve in forum dealt with global problems More central role in global governance concepts
40UN Performance Mixed results at best Some success, some failure Issues dealt with if of political or ideologicalconcerns then most difficult Easier to handle issues are development,social, and environmental issues Budget constraint will be a limit to activities
UN Approach to PeaceAgenda for Peace (Boutros Boutros-Ghali)1. Preventive DiplomacyConfidence-building measuresFact-findingEarly warningPreventive DeploymentDemilitarized zones
2. Peacemaking The world court Assistance (good office, mediation…) Sanctions Use of military forces3. Peacekeeping Blue Helmets
II. UN Approach to Peace4. Post-conflict peacebuilding Disarmament and demobilizationRestoration of orderRepatriation of refugees and displaced peopleSupport for security personnel Monitoring electionsInstitutional capacity buildingHuman rights and democracySocio-economic development
The UN and Development Economic development as an instrumentalfactor for sustainable peace.“The United Nations cannot be a strong forcefor peace unless it is also strong force fordevelopment…[which cannot be separatedfrom the universal goals of] freedom, socialjustice and environmental quality.”Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda forDevelopment (1994) Why is economic development so importantfor peace?
ECOSOC: What are the major duties of ECOSOC? Has ECOSOC been successful? Why?
Regional Commissions: Economic Commission for the Europe –1947 Economic and Social Commission for Asiaand the Pacific – 1947 Economic Commission for Latin America –1948 Economic Commission for Africa – 1958
New Specialized Agencies and RegionalBanks: World Food Program (WFP), UN Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO), World Food Conference, International Fund for Agricultural Development(IFAD), Regional Banks: Inter-American DevelopmentBank (IDB), Asian Development Bank (ADB). Is ADB active in Cambodia???
The creation of United Nations Conference onTrade and Development in 1964 was shapedby Marxism and Dependency Theories. Why UNCTAD was established as the worldalready had existing mechanisms, such asGATT and World Bank? Successful?--- globalism versus regionalism
MDGs: What are the 8 goals? Do you think that MDGs will be achieved bythe agreed timeframe? Why and why not?International Conference on Financing forDevelopment or Monterrey Summit?
1972 Stockholm UN Conference on HumanEnvironment Creating UNEP Spaceship Earth “Think globally, and act locally” More involvement of NGOs, Scientists Moving toward Sustainable Development UNGA established Word Commission onEnvironment and DevelopmentThe UN and Environment
The United Nation Conference on the Environment andDevelopment (UNCED) was held in Rio in 1992, or theEarth Summit. RELEVANT! Agenda 21: Adoption of the two treaties: the Convention onClimate Change and the Convention on BiologicalDiversity. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997, enteredinto force in 2005, 5% reduction of GHG within(2008-2012) vis-à-vis 1990 level. Developed Countries agreed on “Common butDifferentiated Responsibilities.” Financial Pledge: 0.7 % of GNP of DevelopedCountries to foreign assistance by 2000. Pledge: US$607 annually to implementenvironment related conventions of the UN.
2002 Johannesburg Summit (PoA) Restoration of fisheries by 2015 Reduction of biodiversity loss by 2015 Better use of chemicals by 2020 More use of renewable energy COP15? COP16? COP17?
54Human RightsThe United Nations was establishedwith the primary goal of bolsteringinternational peace and preventingconflict. The essence of theseemerging human rights principles wascaptured in President Franklin D.Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the UnionAddress;…a world founded on four essential freedoms: freedom ofspeech and religion and freedom from want and fear…
55The calls came from across the globe for human rightsstandards to protect citizens from abuses by theirgovernments, standards against which nations couldbe held accountable for the treatment of those livingwithin their borders. These voices played a critical rolein the San Francisco meeting that drafted the UnitedNations Charter in 1945
56International Human Rights Lawand Organizations International Human Rights Law Geneva Conventions Universal Declaration of Human Rights International Bodies Regional Human Rights Systems
57 Charter of the United Nations (1945) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) The Covenants on Human Rights (1966)a) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rightsb) International Covenant on Economic, Social andCultural Rights International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofRacial Discrimination (1965) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of DiscriminationAgainst Women (1979) Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman andDegrading Treatment or Punishment (1984) Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of allMigrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990)Basic Instruments on Human Rights
58International Bodies The United Nations Human Rights Council Security Council Other UN Treaty Bodies Regional Human Rights Bodies
59The United NationsThe United Nations is the only multilateral governmental agencywith universally accepted international jurisdiction for universalhuman rights legislation.All UN organs have advisory roles to the United NationsSecurity Council and the United Nations Human Rights Council, and there are numerous committees within the UN withresponsibilities for safeguarding different human rights treaties.The most senior body of the UN with regard to human rights is theOffice of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
60Although human rights are fundamental to all functions of the UN,human rights issues mainly fall under the Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC). The Economic and Social Council oversees the work ofmany intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and certain UN commissions, such as the UN Commission on Human Rights.
61Human Rights CouncilThe Human Rights Council is a subsidiary body ofthe General Assembly and reports directly to it. Itranks below the Security Council, which is thefinal authority for the interpretation of the UnitedNations Charter. Forty-seven of the one hundred ninety-two member states sit on the council, elected by simple majority in a secret ballot of theUnited Nations General Assembly. Members serve amaximum of six years and may have their membership suspended for gross human rights abuses.The United Nations Human Rights Council, created at the 2005 WorldSummit to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights,has a mandate to investigate violations of human rights.
62The Human Rights Council may request thatthe Security Council take action when humanrights violations occur. This action may bedirect actions, may involve sanctions, andthe Security Council may also refer cases tothe International Criminal Court (ICC) evenif the issue being referred is outside thenormal jurisdiction of the ICCThe Council is based in Geneva, and meets three times a year; withadditional meetings to respond to urgent situations. Independentexperts (rapporteurs) are retained by the Council to investigatealleged human rights abuses and to provide the Council with reports.Human Rights Council
63Security CouncilThe United Nations Security Council has the primaryresponsibility for maintaining international peace andsecurity and is the only body of the UN that can authorizethe use of force (including in the context of peace-keeping operations), or override member nationssovereignty by issuing binding Security Councilresolutions.
64 The UN Charter gives the Security Council the power to hearsreports from all organs of the United Nations, and can takeaction over any issue which it feels threatens peace andsecurity, including human rights issues. It has been criticized for failing to take action to preventhuman rights abuses, including the Darfur crisis, theSrebrenica massacre and the Rwandan Genocide.
65Other UN Treaty BodiesThe UN has set up a number of treaty-based bodies tomonitor and study human rights, under the leadership of theUN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). Thebodies are committees of independent experts that monitorimplementation of the core international human rights treaties.They are created by the treaty that they monitor.