2. theoretical foundations of global governance


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2. theoretical foundations of global governance

  1. 1. Theoretical Foundations onTheoretical Foundations onGlobal GovernanceGlobal GovernanceBy: Cheunboran Chanborey
  2. 2.  What is theory? Why we need to study theory?Introduction
  3. 3. 1. Basic Ideas Human nature is basically good Injustice, aggression and war are products ofinadequate or corrupt social institutions These can be eliminated through collective ormultilateral actions and institutional building. The expansion of human freedom is a core liberalbelief that can be achieved through democracy andmarket capitalism.I. Liberalism
  4. 4. 2. Roots of Liberalism Hugo Grotius (1583-1645): Fatherof international law Enlightenment: Individuals are rational human beingsand have capacity to improve their condition by creatinga just society. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804):perpetual peace among democraticstatesI. Liberalism
  5. 5. 2. Roots of Liberalism Adam Smith: free trade could create interdependencies Woodrow Wilson: collectivesecurity, international institutionsI. LiberalismWoodrow Wilson, 28thPresidentof the US (1913-1921)
  6. 6. 3. Sociological Liberalism IR is not only about states and states relations, butabout transnational relations (pluralism). Karl Deutsch: Interconnecting activities helps createcommon values and identities among people fromdifferent state and paves the way for peace. James Rosenau: IR have been supplemented byrelations among private individuals, groups, and society,referred to as mobius-web of global governance.I. Liberalism
  7. 7. 4. Interdependence Through trade, investment, people-to-people contact,interdependence among states is increasingly high.War is more costly. Keohane & Nye:“even if … anarchy constrains the willingness ofstates to cooperate, states nevertheless can worktogether and can do, esp. with the assistance ofinternational institutions”I. Liberalism
  8. 8. 5. Institutional Liberalism With a high degree of interdependence, states often setup international institutions/rules to deal with commonproblems. Woodrow Wilson: transformation from a jungle ofchaotic power politics to a zoo of regulated andpeaceful intercourse through the building of IGOs.I. Liberalism
  9. 9. 6. Republic Liberalism Democracies never go to war with each other due tothree reasons: (1) peaceful conflict resolution (2)common moral values or ‘pacific union’ and (3)interdependence. Francis Fukuyama: “The End of History and the LastMan”- the triumph of Western democracies, which isthe final form of government.I. Liberalism
  10. 10. 1. Basic Ideas and Assumptions Human nature: bad, selfish, power-seeking Actors: Nation-states (rational and unitary) International system: anarchic and conflictualJohn Mearsheimer: International cooperation isimpossible due to the problems of cheating andrelative gain.Thucydides: … the standard of justice… is thefact that the strong do what they have the power to doand the weak accept what they have to accept… International Law and IOs: tools to maximize interestsII. Realism
  11. 11. Hans Morgenthau:IL and IOs are largely weak and ineffective, tool ofstates, and reflect the distribution of power. Main issues: national security, survival and existence,balance of power, security dilemma Future of IR: no progressive change
  12. 12. 2. Neo-realism/Structural Realism Kenneth Waltz:“Theory of International Politics” A basic feature of IR is the structure of anarchy. State leaders are prisoners of the structure as there isno room for foreign policymaking. All states are equal only in a formal-legal sense; theyare unequal, profoundly in a substantive or materialsense. To ensure peace and stability, it is needed to maintainthe balance of power. Bipolar system (CW system) is more stable.II. RealismFounder of Neorealism (1924)
  13. 13. 3. Hegemonic Stability Theory It is believed that international economic system is mostlikely to be open and stable when there is a singledominant or hegemonic state, which has a sufficientlylarge share of resources and is willing to take aleadership and provide public goods Pax Britannica during 19thcentury Pax Americana after the WWII Pax Sinica???II. Realism
  14. 14.  The evolution of the production process is a basis forexplaining how patterns of social relations developbetween those who control the production and thosewho execute the tasks of production. Every society divides into two main classes: a smallclass of those who own the means of production and alarge class with nothing. Ex. in the Capitalist system:bourgeoisie ><proletariat. So, IL and IOs are just products of a dominant group ofstates, dominant ideas, and the interests of the capitalistclass. Dependency Theory???III. Marxist Theory
  15. 15. Periphery
  16. 16. How the global governance can be seen throughthe lenses of the three conceptualframeworks?
  17. 17. Reading:Chapter 2, International Organizations: the Politics andProcesses of Global Governance, page 35-59