Nutrition review exam1

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Nutrition review exam1

  1. 1. Nutrition 101 Exam Review Session TAs: Helen Corless and Delma BettancourtPowerpoint Templates Page 1
  2. 2. Chapter 2 Planning a Healthy DietPowerpoint Templates Page 2
  3. 3. Which of the following is a healthclaim? a) Builds strong bones b) Diets adequate in calcium may reduce the risk of osteoperosis c) Excellent source of calcium Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  4. 4. Which of the following is a healthclaim? a) Builds strong bones b) Diets adequate in calcium may reduce the risk of osteoperosis c) Excellent source of calcium Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  5. 5. Explanation: A health claim characterizes the relationship between a nutrient in a food and a disease/health-related condition A structure-function claim characterizes the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body; cannot mention a disease or symptom; no FDA approval needed A nutrient claim characterizes the quantity of a nutrient in a food Powerpoint Templates Page 5
  6. 6. Lets try some more… Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  7. 7. « Good source of fiber » is whichof the following? a) Health claim b) Structure-function claim c) Nutrient claim Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  8. 8. « Good source of fiber » is whichof the following? a) Health claim b) Structure-function claim c) Nutrient claim Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  9. 9. « Boosts the immune system » iswhich of the following? a) Health claim b) Structure-function claim c) Nutrient claim Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  10. 10. « Boosts the immune system » iswhich of the following? a) Health claim b) Structure-function claim c) Nutrient claim Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  11. 11. Chapter 3 Digestion, Absorption, and TransportPowerpoint Templates Page 11
  12. 12. After food leaves the stomach itheads into which part of thedigestive system? a) Esophagus b) Pancreas c) Small Intestine d) Large Intestine Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  13. 13. After food leaves the stomach itheads into which part of thedigestive system? a) Esophagus b) Pancreas c) Small Intestine d) Large Intestine Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  14. 14. Explanation: Remember, the anatomy of the digestive system occurs in this order: Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Rectum Anus Powerpoint Templates Page 14
  15. 15. The periodic contraction ofcircular muscles in the smallintestine is called: a) Sphinter spasms b) Peristalsis c) Segmentation d) Colonic churning e) Mastication Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  16. 16. The periodic contraction ofcircular muscles in the smallintestine is called: a) Sphinter spasms b) Peristalsis c) Segmentation d) Colonic churning e) Mastication Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  17. 17. Explanation: Segmentation is the periodic squeezing of circular muscles in the intestines that helps to mix chyme and promote contact with digestive juices and absorbing cells of the intestinal wall. Peristalsis is wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that help push its contents along. Mastication is another word for chewing…and I made up those other two Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  18. 18. Which of the following is not arole of sphincters: a) Preventing reflux (back flow) b) Controlling movement of contents through GI tract c) Segmentation d) Preventing anal leakage Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  19. 19. Which of the following is not arole of sphincters: a) Preventing reflux b) Controlling movement of contents through GI tract c) Segmentation d) Preventing anal leakage Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  20. 20. Explanation: Sphincters located throughout the GI tract open and close periodically to control the movement of contents during digestion. Important sphincters to be aware of: upper & lower esophageal sphincters, pyloric sphincter, ileocecal valve, and anal sphincter. Segmentation is the periodic squeezing of circular muscles in the intestines that helps to mix chyme. Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  21. 21. Saliva plays a role in all but whichof the following: a) Making food easy to swallow b) Digestion of protein c) Sensation of taste d) Protection Powerpoint Templates Page 21
  22. 22. Saliva plays a role in all but whichof the following: a) Making food easy to swallow b) Digestion of protein c) Sensation of taste d) Protection Powerpoint Templates Page 22
  23. 23. Explanation: Saliva mixes with food, moistening it to make it easier to swallow. Also, by suspending the food in solution, saliva enables food to react with taste buds. Saliva also helps protect against tooth decay by neutralizing acid. No protein digestion takes place in the mouth. Powerpoint Templates Page 23
  24. 24. Carbohydrate digestion takesplace in: a) Mouth b) Stomach c) Small Intestine d) Both a and c Powerpoint Templates Page 24
  25. 25. Carbohydrate digestion takesplace in: a) Mouth b) Stomach c) Small Intestine d) Both a and c Powerpoint Templates Page 25
  26. 26. Explanation: An enzyme in the saliva called salivary amylase initiates the digestion of carbohydrate in the mouth. This enzyme is deactivated in the stomach, so no carbohydrate digestion occurs in the stomach. Pancreatic and intestinal enzymes continue carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine. Powerpoint Templates Page 26
  27. 27. The strong acidity in the stomachdoes all but which of thefollowing… a) Prepares protein for digestion b) Activates salivary amylase c) Activates stomach enzymes d) Prevents bacterial growth Powerpoint Templates Page 27
  28. 28. The strong acidity in the stomachdoes all but which of thefollowing… a) Prepares protein for digestion b) Activates salivary amylase c) Activates stomach enzymes d) Prevents bacterial growth Powerpoint Templates Page 28
  29. 29. Explanation: Salivary amylase is digested in the stomach along with other proteins. Stomach enzymes, however, work most efficiently in this highly acidic environment. Stomach cells protect themselves from damage by secreting mucus. Powerpoint Templates Page 29
  30. 30. What is the function of bile indigestion? a) Breaks down fat b) Neutralizes acidic chyme c) Enhances protein absorption d) Emulsifies fat Powerpoint Templates Page 30
  31. 31. What is the function of bile indigestion? a) Breaks down fat b) Neutralizes acidic chyme c) Enhances protein absorption d) Emulsifies fat Powerpoint Templates Page 31
  32. 32. Explanation: Bile is not an enzyme and does not break down fat (that is the role of pancreatic and intestinal lipases). Rather, bile is an emulsifier that brings fats into suspension in water, preparing them for digestion. Bicarbonate-rich juices released by the pancreas into the small intesting are responsible for neutralizing the acidic chyme. Powerpoint Templates Page 32
  33. 33. Where is bile produced? a) Liver b) Gallbladder c) Pancreas d) Small Intestine Powerpoint Templates Page 33
  34. 34. Where is bile produced? a) Liver b) Gallbladder c) Pancreas d) Small Intestine Powerpoint Templates Page 34
  35. 35. Explanation: Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile is secreted into the small intestine when the presence of fat triggers the release of CCK, which signals the gallbladder to contract. Powerpoint Templates Page 35
  36. 36. The majority of absorption occursin the… a) Stomach b) Small Intestine c) Liver d) Large Intestine Powerpoint Templates Page 36
  37. 37. The majority of absorption occursin the… a) Stomach b) Small Intestine c) Liver d) Large Intestine Powerpoint Templates Page 37
  38. 38. Explanation: The majority of absorption occurs in the small intestine (this includes macronutrients as well as vitamins and minerals). The many folds and villi of the small intestine dramatically increase its surface area, facilitating nutrient absorption. Powerpoint Templates Page 38
  39. 39. Explanation: Intestinal folds: Microvilli: Villi: Powerpoint Templates Page 39
  40. 40. Once absorbed, water solublenutrients and smaller products offat digestion… a) Cluster to form chylomicrons b) Enter the blood stream and travel to the heart c) Enter the hepatic portal vein and travel to the liver d) Enter the lymph and bypass the liver Powerpoint Templates Page 40
  41. 41. Once absorbed, water solublenutrients and smaller products offat digestion… a) Cluster to form chylomicrons b) Enter the blood stream and travel to the heart c) Enter the hepatic portal vein and travel to the liver d) Enter the lymph and bypass the liver Powerpoint Templates Page 41
  42. 42. Explanation: Water-soluble nutrients and smaller products of fat digestion are released directly into the bloodstream and are guided directly to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Because they are insoluble in water, larger fats and fat soluble vitamins cluster together with certain proteins to form chylomicrons. Chlyomicrons cannot pass into capillaries, so instead they are released into the lymphatic system, bypassing the liver and entering the bloodstream near thePowerpoint Templates heart. Page 42
  43. 43. Powerpoint Templates Page 43
  44. 44. Chapter 4 The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches and FibersPowerpoint Templates Page 44
  45. 45. How much energy does 1 gram ofcarbohydrate provide? a) 4 kCal b) 7 kCal c) 9 kCal Powerpoint Templates Page 45
  46. 46. How much energy does 1 gram ofcarbohydrate provide? a) 4 kCal b) 7 kCal c) 9 kCal Powerpoint Templates Page 46
  47. 47. Explanation: Carbohydrate, as well as protein, provides 4 kCal/gram. Fat provides 9 kCal/gram Alcohol provide 7 kCal/gram (but remember we don’t consider alcohol to be a nutrient) Powerpoint Templates Page 47
  48. 48. The Atkins Diet is an example ofa… a) Low fat diet b) Low carb diet c) Low protein diet Powerpoint Templates Page 48
  49. 49. The Atkins Diet is an example ofa… a) Low fat diet b) Low carb diet c) Low protein diet Powerpoint Templates Page 49
  50. 50. Explanation: The Atkins Diet recommends that carbohydrates should make up 15% of your total daily energy intake. This is very low, considering the RDA for carbohydrates is 45-65% of total daily energy intake. Ketosis is thus a risk with the Atkins diet if the body does not get enough carbohydrate for fat digestion. Powerpoint Templates Page 50
  51. 51. Sucrose is a disaccharidecomposed of which of thefollowing: a) Glucose and Glucose b) Glucose and Maltose c) Glucose and Fructose d) Glucose and Galactose e) None of the above Powerpoint Templates Page 51
  52. 52. Sucrose is a disaccharidecomposed of which of thefollowing: a) Glucose and Glucose b) Glucose and Maltose c) Glucose and Fructose d) Glucose and Galactose e) None of the above Powerpoint Templates Page 52
  53. 53. Explanation: Sucrose, commonly known as table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. Sucrose = glucose + fructose Maltose = glucose + glucose Lactose = glucose + galactose *NOTE: all three of the disaccharides contain glucose! Powerpoint Templates Page 53
  54. 54. The type of reaction that occurswhen two molecules cometogether to form a larger product: a) Combination b) Condensation c) Hydrophobic d) Hydrolysis Powerpoint Templates Page 54
  55. 55. The type of reaction that occurswhen two molecules cometogether to form a larger product: a) Combination b) Condensation c) Hydrophobic d) Hydrolysis Powerpoint Templates Page 55
  56. 56. A condensation reaction is… a) Anabolic b) Catabolic Powerpoint Templates Page 56
  57. 57. A condensation reaction is… a) Anabolic b) Catabolic Powerpoint Templates Page 57
  58. 58. Explanation: Condensation is a type ofchemical reaction in which water is released as two molecules bond together. • It is an anabolic reaction because you are building something up. Hydrolysis is a type of chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken down into its individual parts (water is added to break the bond) • It is a catabolic reaction because you are breaking something apart Powerpoint Templates Page 58
  59. 59. Explanation: Example of a condensation reaction • Glucose and fructose coming together to produce sucrose • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose +H20 Example of a hydrolysis reaction • Galactose being broken down into its components glucose and lactose with the addition of H20 • Galactose +H20 = Glucose+Galactose • NOTE: Hydrolysis reactions commonly occur during digestion Powerpoint Templates Page 59
  60. 60. Which of the following is not apolysaccharide? a) Glycogen b) Starch c) Stachyose d) Fiber Powerpoint Templates Page 60
  61. 61. Which of the following is not apolysaccharide? a) Glycogen b) Starch c) Stachyose d) Fiber Powerpoint Templates Page 61
  62. 62. Explanation: Stachyose is an example of an oligosaccharide. Oligosaccharides are short chain carbohydrates (3-10) and include raffinose, stachyose, and maltodextrin. Glycogen, starch and fiber are all polysaccharides, which are long chain carbohydrates (>10). • Glycogen: storage form of energy in animals • Starch: storage form of energy in plants • Fiber: contribute little to no energy to the body Powerpoint Templates Page 62
  63. 63. Which of the following is a goodsource of glycogen in the diet? a) Meat b) Fruits & vegetables c) Grain products d) None of the above Powerpoint Templates Page 63
  64. 64. Which of the following is a goodsource of glycogen in the diet? a) Meat b) Fruits & vegetables c) Grain products d) None of the above Powerpoint Templates Page 64
  65. 65. Explanation: Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals, however, it is found only to a limited extent in meats and not at all in plants -> food is NOT a significant source of this carbohydrate Instead, the body makes glycogen in the liver when excess glucose is consumed. Glycogen is formed via condensation reactions. Plants (fruits, vegetables, and grains) provide starch in the diet.. Powerpoint Templates Page 65
  66. 66. When blood sugar is low, thepancreas releases _____, whichtriggers the liver to break down______. a) insulin; glycogen b) insulin; fat c) glucagon; glycogen d) glucagon; fat Powerpoint Templates Page 66
  67. 67. When blood sugar is low, thepancreas releases _____, whichtriggers the liver to break down______. a) insulin; glycogen b) insulin; fat c) glucagon; glycogen d) glucagon; fat Powerpoint Templates Page 67
  68. 68. Explanation: When blood glucose is low, the PANCREAS releases GLUCAGON which triggers the LIVER to break down GLYCOGEN and release glucose into the blood. As a result, blood glucose begins to rise. When blood glucose is high, the PANCREAS releases INSULIN which triggers… • Uptake of glucose into cells • Storage as glycogen in muscles and liver • Conversion of excess glucose into fat for storage *This isPowerpoint Templates homeostasis called glucose Page 68
  69. 69. Adequate intake of fiber does allbut which of the following … a) Fosters weight management b) Lowers blood cholesterol c) Provides significant energy to the body d) Helps prevent and control diabetes Powerpoint Templates Page 69
  70. 70. Adequate intake of fiber does allbut which of the following… a) Fosters weight management b) Lowers blood cholesterol c) Provides significant energy to the body d) Helps prevent and control diabetes Powerpoint Templates Page 70
  71. 71. Explanation: Fiber cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes in the body (do not recognize the bonds between monosaccharides in fiber). Fiber contributes no monosaccharides, and therefore little or no energy. Bacteria in the large intestine (colon) can ferment some fibers, generating short-chain fatty acids, which provide some usable energy to the cells of the colon…BUT this is not a significant amount. Powerpoint Templates Page 71
  72. 72. Which of the following is anaction of insoluble fiber in thebody? a) Lowers blood cholesterol by binding bile b) Slows glucose absorption c) Yields small fat molecules after fermentation that the colon can use for energy d) Provides bulk and feeling of fullness Powerpoint Templates Page 72
  73. 73. Which of the following is anaction of insoluble fiber in thebody? a) Lowers blood cholesterol by binding bile b) Slows glucose absorption c) Yields small fat molecules after fermentation that the colon can use for energy d) Provides bulk and feeling of fullness Powerpoint Templates Page 73
  74. 74. Explanation: Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water, do not form gels, and are less readily fermented. They promote bowel movements, alleviate constipation, and prevent diverticular disease. Soluble fibers do dissolve in water, form gels, and are easily digested by bacteria in the colon. They are most often associated with protecting against heart disease and diabetes by lowering blood cholesterol and glucose levels, respectively. Powerpoint Templates Page 74
  75. 75. Glucose and galactose areabsorbed in the small intestineby… a) Simpe diffusion b) Facilitated diffusion c) Active diffusion d) Active transport Powerpoint Templates Page 75
  76. 76. Glucose and galactose areabsorbed in the small intestineby… a) Simpe diffusion b) Facilitated diffusion c) Active diffusion d) Active transport Powerpoint Templates Page 76
  77. 77. Explanation: Glucose and galactose enter the cells lining the small intestine by active transport (requires carrier molecule and energy). Fructose is absorbed by facilitated diffusion (requires carrier molecule, but no energy) Disaccharides are not absorbed until they are broken down into monosaccharides by intestinal enzymes on the outer membranes of the intestinal cells. Powerpoint Templates Page 77
  78. 78. If a person does not replenishdepleted glycogen stores byeating carbohydrate, the bodybreaks down ____ to makeglucose: a) Fat b) Protein c) Ketones d) None of the above Powerpoint Templates Page 78
  79. 79. If a person does not replenishdepleted glycogen stores byeating carbohydrate, the bodybreaks down ____ to makeglucose: a) Fat b) Protein c) Ketones d) None of the above Powerpoint Templates Page 79
  80. 80. Explanation: When glycogen stores are depleted & inadequate carbohydrate is consumed, body proteins are broken down (mostly from the liver & skeletal muscles) to make glucose to fuel the brain and other special cells This conversion of protein to glucose is called GLUCONEOGENESIS. Fat cannot be converted to glucose to any significant extent. Powerpoint Templates Page 80
  81. 81. Explanation: When there is an inadequate carbohydrate supply, fat takes an altermative metabolic pathway, where fat fragments combine to form KETONE BODIES. Ketone bodies provide an alternate fuel source during starvation, but when their production exceeds their use, they accumulate in the blood causing KETOSIS Ketosis is a dangerous condition because it disrupts the body’s acid-base balance. Powerpoint Templates Page 81
  82. 82. The condition in which the body’scells become resistant to insulinis called… a) Hyperglycemia b) Hypoglycemia c) Type 1 Diabetes d) Type 2 Diabetes Powerpoint Templates Page 82
  83. 83. The condition in which the body’scells become resistant to insulinis called… a) Hyperglycemia b) Hypoglycemia c) Type 1 Diabetes d) Type 2 Diabetes Powerpoint Templates Page 83
  84. 84. Explanation: Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the cells fail to respond to insulin; this condition tends to occur as a consequence of obesity Type 1 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the pancreas fails to produce insulin (autoimmune) Hypoglycemia refers to a state produced by an abnormally low blood glucose concentration Powerpoint Templates Page 84
  85. 85. TRUE OR FALSE: Sugar alcoholsprovide no calories. a) True b) False Powerpoint Templates Page 85
  86. 86. TRUE OR FALSE: Sugar alcoholsprovide no calories. a) True b) False Powerpoint Templates Page 86
  87. 87. Explanation: Products containing sugar alcohols claim to be ‘sugar free’ on their labels, but in this case, ‘sugar free’ does not mean free of kcalories. Sugar alcohols do provide calories, but fewer than sugars do. Because sugar alcohols yield energy, they are sometimes referred to as nutritive sweeteners. Powerpoint Templates Page 87

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