WOMEN IN TERTIARY EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE NEXUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT

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  • The Unpopular but Favourable Mindset (Having entrepreneurship linked to every discipline – focus projects and teaching towards wntreprenurtshipDo we have models – MIT, Chalmers, any project done in africa or Nigeriareport? Roles of internatiponal partners e.gcarnefgie; lesson that can be learnt
  • WOMEN IN TERTIARY EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE NEXUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT

    1. 1. WOMEN IN TERTIARY EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE NEXUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT Helen O. Aderemi, Ph.D (OAU, Ife), MNCS, MNIM Head, Technology Innovation and Enterprise Studies Department, Desk Officer, Gender Issues in Science and Technology Academic Adviser, Campus Entrepreneurial Initiative National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM) (Federal Ministry of Science & Technology) Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria1 © NACETEM 2012 Date: 3rd May, 2012
    2. 2. Outline of Talk  Preamble: Why Women? Why Tertiary Education? Why Entrepreneurship?  The Nexus between Entrepreneurship, Women and Tertiary Education  Entrepreneurial Mindset: Not popular but favourable  Do we have Models?  Roles for Stakeholders  Concluding remarks2
    3. 3. WHY WOMEN? WHY ENTREPRENEURSHIP? WHY TERTIARY EDUCATION?3
    4. 4. Why Women?  0-14 years: 40.9% (male  Women constitute a critical mass of 32,476,681/female unharnessed 31,064,539) potentials 15-64 years: 55.9%  Speedy contribution to (male national development 44,296,228/female  Greater efficiency if women participate in 42,534,542) the production of 65 years and technologies of which over: 3.1% (male they use. 2,341,228/female Source: http://www.indexmundi.com/nigeria/demograp 2,502,355) (2011 est.) hics_profile.html4
    5. 5. Why Entrepreneurship? Why Tertiary Education?  Entrepreneurship is acknowledged to be a significant driver of National wealth  While Tertiary Educational Institutions are believed to be a citadel where the younger generation are being developed to meet the human capacity need of the country  Competitiveness and relevancy  Therefore, the need to understand the role of tertiary educational institutions’ women in entrepreneurship and also to develop appropriate and high impact interventions to expedite their participation given the dictates of unemployment, globalization, changing business environment and new/emerging technologies.
    6. 6. Labour Force Statistics 2006 – 2010 (CBN, NBS, 2010) Unemployment rate by sex and age group (NBS, 2010)6
    7. 7. WOMEN IN TERTIARY EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP7
    8. 8. Education, Entrepreneurship and Significance for women  Educational empowerment of females especially at the tertiary level is the spring board to other forms of empowerment in the country  This education when combined with entrepreneurship brings about creativity, innovation, self-employment, job & wealth creation and socio-economic development8
    9. 9. Women in Enterprises (Aderemi, 2010) Type of Business Indicators non technological technological business business % No % Age 20 - 29years 13.2 18.9 30 - 39years 28.6 41.5 Women in 40 - 49years 36.3 30.2 Above 50years 22.0 9.4 commercial Mean Age = 41 entrepreneurship Educational None 1.0 5.4 background trade skill 34.7 46.4 were 64% compared Engineering 3.1 12.5 with manufacturing Sciences 43.9 10.7 Humanities 17.3 25.0 (36%) Level of no formal education 2.0 7.1 Education informal education primary education 3.6 secondary education 27.0 30.4 tertiary education 68.0 8.9 Women irrespective Financial Did not received 93.0 87.5 Support financial support of their education find from society/financial it easier to engage in system commercial Received financial 7.0 12.5 support from entrepreneurship society/financial (101 out of 156) system Pre-venture not satisfactory 21.0 32.1 Economic Average 73.0 57.1 Situation Satisfactory 6.0 10.7 Marital single 15.0 23.2 status separated 3.0 married 78.0 75.0 Widowed 3.0 1.8 divorced 1.0 Role Model No role model 25.4 74.69 Role model 43.6 56.4
    10. 10. The Gender Gap in Tertiary Institutions’ Entrepreneurship Propensity  An earlier study (NACETEM, 2010) reveal a negative correlation of Entrepreneurial Interest with gender  Male students were more likely to be entrepreneurial.  Also, female students were less likely to choose technological entrepreneurship over non- technological entrepreneurship, compared with their male10 counterparts.
    11. 11. Relationship among gender, EI and PBT Source: NACETEM (2010)  The results partly suggest the presence of a gender imbalance in entrepreneurship among Nigerian students, particularly with the females.11
    12. 12. ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET: NOT POPULAR BUT FAVOURABLE12
    13. 13. Is this all Entrepreneurial that we need? Mindset is Favourable –Why? Today, 61% of Meanwhile we have Nigerians are living in quality human capital, poverty, 100m less highest economic than $1/day (NBS, activities, good eye for 2010) business, voted the happiest people in the world13
    14. 14. Lecturers’ present involvement in Entrepreneurial practice Source: NACETEM (2010)14
    15. 15. Lecturers’ entrepreneurial disposition and risk perception Source: NACETEM (2010)  Majority (43%) of the sampled lecturers have high level of entrepreneurial disposition.  The significantly high risk-aversion presupposes a general attitude of indifference and sometimes repulsiveness towards the idea of entrepreneurship.15
    16. 16. DO WE HAVE MODELS?16
    17. 17. Case Studies:Promoting entrepreneurship building in Education Institutes (EIs) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)  (MIT) have, since 1880s, consciously provided their faculty and graduates orientation for entrepreneurship.  In the MIT Entrepreneurship Centre, students are allowed to submit business plans as theses.  In 2002, MIT began a program which had a phenomena impact on the US economy. This was the creation of companies by its alumni.  According to a report by BankBoston in 1997 (14 yrs ago), roughly 4000 companies were founded by MIT alumni and faculty members had created 1.1 million jobs and generated annual sales of $232 billion worldwide (New York Times, 2004).17
    18. 18. Case Studies: Chalmers in Sweden  The case of Chalmers is similar to that of M.I.T. Students are encouraged to pursue business ideas.  These ideas are transformed into genuine innovation projects with the goal of forming companies at the end of the students’ year and developing entrepreneurs.  Small groups of students conduct real innovation projects with the objective of starting a company when the training is over.  In Sweden, Chalmers University of Technology has18 created 240 companies from students’ projects within
    19. 19. ROLES FOR STAKEHOLDERS19
    20. 20. Some of these include:  Teachers: Get & deliver high quality education with skills development, mentoring  Regulators: Curriculum restructuring both in secondary school & Univ. levels to include entrepreneurial skills  Regulators 2: Conducive environment e.g. Business incubators, science parks, entrepreneurial centres, TTOs, business plan competition, CBN (2010) initiatives etc  Partners e.g. Carnegie: Financial20 support, scholarships, competitive
    21. 21. CONCLUDING REMARKS21
    22. 22.  There is a need to promote entrepreneurial mindset in our educational institutions and provide mentorship  We are missing opportunities; Chance meets the prepared mind and hand…. Are we prepared?  Education with an entrepreneurial focus is an economic investment that enhances growth  Conducive environment e.g. Business incubators, science parks, entrepreneurial centres, TTOs, business plan competition , reward system, etc  Partners e.g. Carnegie: Financial support, scholarships, competitive grants, etc….with special incentives for women.22
    23. 23. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION23

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