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Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]
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Copy optimizing industrial wastewater treatment and management- november 2012- 23 sept [compatibility mode]

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Advanced treatment processes are normally applied to industrial wastewater only, for removal of specific contaminants. Advanced treatment is commonly preceded by physicochemical coagulation and …

Advanced treatment processes are normally applied to industrial wastewater only, for removal of specific contaminants. Advanced treatment is commonly preceded by physicochemical coagulation and flocculation. Where a high quality effluent may be required for protection of public sewerage system containing sensitive biological treatment plants, wastewater reuse options and sludge used as fertilizer where the occurrence of toxic materials should not be present

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  • 1. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ ٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Industrial Wastewater The water or liquid carried waste from an industrial process Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. These wastes may result from any process or activity of industry, manufacture, trade or business, from the development of any natural resource, or from animal operations such as feedlots, poultry houses, or dairies The term includes contaminated storm water and leachate from solid waste facilities Waste material (solid, gas or liquid) generated by a commercial, industrial or nonresidential activity. Dr. Helalley Abdel Hady Helalley Chief of Industrial wastewater, Sludge and Reuse Sector. Drainage Co. Alexandria Sanitary ١ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Dr. Sama MZ ٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Advanced treatment processes are normally applied to industrial wastewater only, for removal of specific contaminants. Advanced treatment is commonly preceded by physicochemical coagulation and flocculation. Where a high Advanced Cost Effective technology and practices to treat toxic wastewater pollutants. quality effluent may be required for protection of public sewerage system containing sensitive biological treatment plants, wastewater reuse options and sludge used as fertilizer where the occurrence of toxic materials should not be present. Advanced treatment steps may also be added to the conventional treatment plant. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ٥ Some most frequently used treatment methods are gathered in Table 1. Many studies exist about the efficiency of single methods or in combination. As there is no unit specifically designed to remove these compounds, the elimination by most WWTPs seems to beinefficient (Castiglioni et al., 2006; Nakada et al., 2006; Castiglioni et al, 2006; Xu et al., 2007; Gulkowska et al., 2008). Advanced Cost Effective technologies Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 2. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ ٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Advanced Cost Effective technologies 1. Membrane filtration technologies Membrane filtration can be broadly defined as a separation process that uses semi permeable membrane to divide the feed stream into two portions: a permeate that contains the material passing through the membranes, and a retentate consisting of the species being left behind. More specifically, membrane filtration can be further classified in terms of the size range of permeating species, the mechanisms of rejection, the driving forces employed, the chemical structure and composition of membranes, and the geometry of construction. The most important types of membrane filtration are pressure driven processes including microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO). Table 1. Advances treatment techniques Process Abbreviation (or unit) Powdered activated carbon Granular activated carbon Membranes MF, UF, NF, RO Membrane bioreactors MBR Chlorination (As Cl2) Ozonation (As O3) Advanced oxidation processes Sonication US Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ PAC GAC AOP Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 1.a. Ultrafiltration/Nanofiltration. 1.b. Reverse Osmosis. Reverse osmosis is a membrane separation technology used by industrial facilities for chemical recovery and water recycling. Reverse osmosis removes ionic salts and other molecules by selective filtration. It appears to be a viable treatment for removal of most EDCs/PPCPs in drinking water, except for neutral low molecular weight compounds. Reverse osmosis achieved >90% removal of natural steroid hormones in one study. A combination of reverse osmosis with nanofiltration can result in very efficient PPCP removal, including a wide range of pesticides, alkyl phthalates, and estrogens. Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration foul quickly in the treatment of wastewater, making them prohibitively expensive. Water is forced through semipermeable membranes that filter out very small particulates (ultrafiltration) and dissolved molecules (nanofiltration). A study of 52 EDC/PPCPs in modeled and natural waters found that nanofiltration exceeded ultrafiltration in EDC/PPCP removal. Nanotfiltration removal efficiencies were between 44-93%, except for naproxen (0% removal), while ultrafiltration removal was typically less than 40%. Nanofiltration retains these compounds on the membrane both through hydrophobic adsorption and size exclusion, while ultrafiltration retention is typically due to hydrophobic adsorption. However, these systems foul quickly when used on wastewater systems, and are reserved for use in drinking water treatment. These techniques are also highly effective for the removal of pathogens. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 3. Advanced oxidation technologies Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been broadly defined as near ambient temperature treatment processes based on highly reactive radicals, especially the hydroxyl radical (·OH), as the primary oxidant. The ·OH radical is among the strongest oxidizing species used in water and wastewater treatment and offers the potential to greatly accelerate the rates of contaminant oxidation. ١١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 2. Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC). Water is passed through a bed of activated carbon granules that adsorb contaminants. GAC has been shown to be very effective at removing many pharmaceuticals, except for clofibric acid. Competition with organic matter in WWTP effluent for sorption sites can reduce EDC and PPCP removal rates. EDC and PPCP removal depends on the solubility of the compounds – more soluble, polar compounds are not removed efficiently. Powdered activated carbon has greater efficiencies of removal for some pharmaceuticals, but is typically used in episodically to treat a specific situation. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٢ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 3. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ ١٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. a. Ozonation Is an attractive and a well established technology for wastewater reuse purposes. We studied the ozonation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from the secondary clarifier of urban and domestic STPs by using alkaline ozone and a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Alkaline ozonation achieved only a moderate degree of mineralization essentially concentrated during the first few minutes; but the addition of hydrogen peroxide eventually led to a complete mineralization ١٣ AOPs can be broadly defined as redox methods which are based on the intermediacy ofreactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, •OH, superoxide radical anions, O2 •-, and perhydroxyl radicals HO2 •, to convert harmful organic and inorganic pollutants found in air, water and soil to less hazardous compounds. The most widely used AOPs include ozonation, electrochemical oxidation, Fenton’s and photo-Fenton’s reagent, heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis, wet air oxidation, and sonolysis, among others2. A brief description of these technologies is given below. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٥ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. c. Electrolytic Recovery Electrolytic recovery is an electrochemical process used to recover metal contaminants from many types of process solutions and rinses, such as electroplating rinse waters and baths. Electrolytic recovery removes metal ions from a waste stream by processing the stream in an electrolytic cell, which consists of a closely spaced anode and cathode. Equipment consists of one or more cells, a transfer pump, and a rectifier. Current is applied across the cell and metal cations are deposited on the cathodes. The waste stream is usually recirculated through the cell from a separate tank, such as a drag-out recovery rinse. b. Electrodialysis Electrodialysis is a process in which dissolved colloidal species are exchanged between two liquids through selective semipermeable membranes (11). The technology applies a direct current across a series of alternating anion and cation exchange membranes to remove dissolved metal salts and other ionic constituents from solutions. By using the electrodialysis cell, facilities remove impurities from the process bath, extending its life. Facilities can treat the removed concentrate stream on-site, or haul it off-site for disposal, treatment, or metals reclamation. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. d. Ion Exchange (in-process) Polishing Technologies Ion exchange is a commonly used technology within MP&M facilities. In addition to water recycling and chemical recovery applications, ion exchange is used to soften or deionize raw water for process solutions. Figure 8-6 shows a typical ion-exchange system. Ion exchange is a reversible chemical reaction that exchanges ions in a feed stream for ions of like charge on the surface of an ion-exchange resin. Resins are broadly divided into cationic or anionic types. Typical cation resins exchange H+ for other cations, while anion resins exchange OH-for other anions (10). Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٣ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 4. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ ٢٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 1. Multimedia Filtration Sand filtration and multimedia filtration systems typically remove small amounts of suspended solids (metal precipitates) entrained in effluent from gravity clarifiers. Sand and multimedia polishing filters usually are designed to remove 90 percent or greater of all filterable suspended solids 20 microns or larger at a maximum influent concentration of 40 mg/L. Polishing Technologies Wastewater is pumped from a holding tank through the filter. The principal design factor for the filter is the hydraulic loading. Typical hydraulic loadings range between 4 and 5 gpm/ft2 (9). These systems also can act as a temporary measure to prevent pollutant discharge should the primary solids removal system fail due to a process upset or catastrophic event. The following are descriptions of end-of-pipe polishing technologies that are applicable to industrial facilities. Sand and multimedia filters are cleaned by backwashing with clean water. Backwashing is timed to prevent breakthrough of the suspended solids into the effluent. Figure 8-16 shows a diagram of a multimedia filtration system. Polishing systems remove small amounts of pollutants that may remain in the effluent after treatment using technologies such as chemical precipitation and gravity clarification. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٢٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 3. Reverse Osmosis ٢١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 2. Activated Carbon Adsorption Reverse osmosis is a membrane separation technology used by industrial facilities as an in-process step or as an end-of-pipe treatment. In an end-of-pipe application, reverse osmosis typically recycles water and reduces discharge volume rather than recovers chemicals. The effluent from a conventional treatment system generally has a TDS concentration unacceptable for most rinsing operations, and cannot be recycled. Reverse osmosis with or without some pretreatment can replace TDS concentrations, and the resulting effluent stream can be used for most rinsing operations. Activated carbon adsorption is a common method of removing organic contaminants from electroplating baths. Process solution flows through a filter where the carbon adsorbs organic impurities that result from the breakdown of bath constituents. Carbon adsorption can be either a continuous or batch operation, depending on the site’s preference. Carbon treatment is most commonly applied to nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium electroplating baths but also can be used to remove organic contaminants from paint curtains. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٢٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ٢٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 4. Ion Exchange Choosing the right technology for the industry to meet discharge limits of the local sewer. Ion exchange is both an in-process metals recovery and recycle and end-ofpipe polishing technology. This technology generally uses cation resins to remove metals but sometimes uses both cation and anion columns. The regenerant from endof-pipe ion exchange is not usually amenable to metals recovery as it typically contains multiple metals at low concentrations. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٤ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 5. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ ٢٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ٢٥ Regulations Many industries discharge to a sanitary sewer that goes to a municipal treatment plant Industrial discharges regulated by authority operating the municipal treatment plant and Industry may be required to obtain a discharge permit or authorization, depending on type of waste . Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٢٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٢٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. EPA considers a number of different sub categorization factors during an effluent guidelines rulemaking, including the following: Manufacturing products and processes. Raw materials. Discharge limits of the local sewer. Wastewater characteristics. Facility size. Geographical location. Age of facility and equipment. Wastewater treatability. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٣٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Technology Selection for industries to meet limits of discharge of the local sewer. Choosing the right technology ٢٩ Egyptian Regulations of disposal of industrial effluent to public sewers. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٥ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 6. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Choosing the right technology ٣٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٣١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. The general criteria for technology selection comprise: - Average, or typical, efficiency and performance of the technology. Technology selection eventually depends upon industrial wastewater characteristics and on the treatment objectives as translated into desired effluent quality. Also the type of wastewater treatment technology selects depends on the manufacturing operations generating the wastewater. - Reliability of the technology. The process should, preferably, be stable and resilient against shock loading, i.e. it should be able to continue operation and to produce an acceptable effluent under unusual conditions. - Institutional manageability. - Financial sustainability. The lower the financial costs, the more attractive the technology. - Application in reuse schemes. Resource recovery contributes to environmental as well as to financial sustainability. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٣٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Considerations to be taken into account when determining best available techniques should bear in mind the likely costs and benefits of a measure and the principles of precaution and prevention. For instance, consideration should be taken of: Choosing the right technology ٣٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. The best available technology The best available technology is generally accessible technology, which is the most effective in preventing or minimizing pollution emissions. It can a. the use of low-waste technology also refer to the most recent treatment technology available. Assessing b. the use of less hazardous substances; c. furthering recovery and recycling of substances and waste (where appropriate) generated and used in the process; d. comparable processes, facilities or methods of operation which have been tried with success on an industrial scale; whether a certain technology is the best available requires comparative technical assessment of the different treatment processes, their facilities and their methods of operation which have been recently and successfully applied for a prolonged period of time, at full scale. e. technological advances and changes in scientific knowledge and understanding; Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٣٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٣٥ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Criteria that influence selection of the wastewater treatment process: •Reliability •Resistance to hydraulic shocks •Resistance to organic loading shocks •Coordination with local climate •Coordination with local facilities •Flexibility in operation •Simple in operation and maintenance •Capital cost •Land requirement •Operation and maintenance cost •Sludge disposal cost •Reach to treatment degree requirement •Odor generation •Risk •Amount of sludge generation •Environment impacts f. the nature, effects and volume of the emissions concerned; g. the commissioning dates for new or existing installations; h. the length of time needed to introduce the best available technique; i. the consumption and nature of raw materials (including water) used in the process and their energy efficiency; j. the need to prevent or reduce to a minimum the overall impact of the emissions on the environment and k. the risks to it; l. the need to prevent accidents and to minimize the consequences for the environment. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٦ Dr. Sama MZ
  • 7. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Choosing the right technology ٣٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Important factors that must be considered when evaluating and selecting unit operations and processes Factor Comment 1.Process applicability The process should be matched to the expected range of flowrate. For example, stabilization ponds are not suitable for extremely large flowrates in highly populated areas. 3.Applicable flow variation Most unit operations and processes have to be designed to operate over a wide range of flowrates. Most processes work best at a relatively constant flowrate. If the flow variation is too great, flow equalization may be necessary. ٣٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Introduction to Process Selection The applicability of a process is evaluated on the basis of past experience, data from full-scale plants, published data, and from pilot-plant studies. If new or unusual conditions are encountered, pilot-plant studies are essential. 2.Applicable flow range Choosing the right technology The purpose of process analysis is to select the most suitable unit operations and processes and the optimum operational criteria. Important Factors in Process Selection The first factor, ‘process applicability,’ stands out above all others and reflects directly upon the skill and experience of the design engineer. Available resources include performance data from operating installations, published information in technical journals, manuals of practice published by the Water Environment Federation, process design manuals published by EPA, and the results of pilotplant studies. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٤٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 8.Process sizing based on mass transfer rates or process loading criteria Reactor sizing is based on mass transfer coefficients, If mass transfer rates are not available, process loading criteria are used. Data for mass transfer coefficients and process loading criteria usually are derived from experience, published literature, and the results of pilot-plant studies. 9.Performance The types and amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous residuals produced must be known or estimated. Often, pilot-plant studies are used to identify and quantify residuals. 11.Sludge processing Are there any constraints that would make sludge processing and disposal infeasible or expensive? How might recycle loads from sludge processing affect the liquid unit operation or processes? The selection of the sludge processing system should go hand in hand with the selection of the liquid treatment system ٣٩ Performance is usually measured in terms of effluent quality and its variability, which must be consistent with the effluent discharge requirements 10.Treatment residuals Choosing the right technology 4.Influent characteristics Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. wastewater The characteristics of the influent wastewater affect the types of processes to be used (e.g.,chemical or biological) and the requirements for their proper operation. 5.Inhibiting and unaffected constituents What constituents are present and may be inhibitory to the treatment processes? What constituents are not affected during treatment? 6.Climatic constraints Temperature affects the rate of reaction of most chemical and biological processes. Temperature may also affect the physical operation of the facilities. Temperatures may accelerate odor generation and also limit atmospheric dispersion. 7.Process sizing based on reaction kinetics or process loading criteria Reactor sizing is based on the governing reaction kinetics and kinetic coefficients. If kinetic expressions are not available, process loading criteria are used. Data for kinetic expressions and process loading criteria usually are derived from experience, published literature, and the results of pilot-plant studies Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٤٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٤١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 12.Environmental constraints Environment factors, such as prevailing wind directions and proximity to residential areas, may restrict or affect the use of certain processes, especially where odors may be produced. Noise and traffic may affect selection of a plant site. Receiving waters may have special limitations, requiring the removal of specific constituents such as nutrients. 13.Chemical requirements What resources and what amounts must be committed for a long period of time for the successful operation of the unit operation or process? What effects might the addition of chemicals have on the characteristics of the treatment residuals and the cost of treatment? 14.Energy requirements The energy requirements, as well as probable future energy cost, must be known if cost-effective treatment systems are to be designed. The best way for Industry to control and treat wastes is subject to Best Management Practices (BMPs) .BMPs Goal is to prevent or reduce the discharge of pollutants to public seawares where Industry can look at: overall processes Scheduling of activities Prohibitions of practices Maintenance procedures Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٧ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 8. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Choosing the right technology ٤٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٤٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 1. Zero Exhaust Technology Zero waste is an integrated system approach that aims to eliminate rather than only manage waste. By encouraging waste diversion from landfill and incineration, it is a guiding design philosophy for eliminating waste at source and at all points down the supply chain. It rejects the current one-way linear resource use and disposal culture in favour of a closed-loop system modelled on strategies found in nature. Preferable technologies Therefore, the zero emission approach represents a shift from the traditional industrial model in which wastes are considered as the norm, to integrated systems in which everything has its use. It advocates an industrial transformation whereby businesses minimise the load they impose on the natural resource base and learn to do more with what the Earth produces. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٤٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. The zero waste approach envisions all industrial inputs being used in final products and product service systems or converted into value-added inputs for other industries or processes. In this way, industries will be organized in clusters in order that each industry's by-products are fully matched with the input requirements of another industry. Finally, the integrated whole system produces no waste. From an environmental perspective, the elimination of waste represents the ultimate solution to pollution problems that threaten ecosystems at global, national and local levels. In addition, full use of raw materials, accompanied by a shift towards renewable sources, means that utilization of the Earth's resources can be brought back to sustainable levels. Choosing the right technology ٤٥ Zero waste is an Targeting the whole system means striving for: · Zero waste of resources: Energy, Materials, Human; · Zero emissions: Air, Soil, Water; · Zero waste in activities: Administration, Production; · Zero waste in product life: Transportation, Use, End of Life; and · Zero use of toxics: Processes and Products. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٤٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٤٧ 2. Clean Production Technology Cleaner Production results from one or a combination of conserving raw materials, water and energy; eliminating toxic and dangerous raw materials; and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes at source during the production process. Cleaner Production aims to reduce the environmental, health and safety impacts of products over their entire life cycles, from raw materials extraction, through manufacturing and use, to the 'ultimate‘ disposal of the product. ٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 2. Clean Production Technology ‘Cleaner Production is the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes, products, and services to increase overall efficiency, and reduce risks to humans and the environment. Cleaner Production can be applied to the processes used in any industry, to products themselves and to various services provided in society. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 9. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Choosing the right technology ٥٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. All the previous techniques leads to sustainability Sustainability has been defined as the goal of sustainable development, which is ‘types of economic and social development that protect and enhance the natural environment and social equity’ (Diesendorf 2000: 23). Choosing the right technology ٤٩ Where practical, waste should be minimized (using cleaner production protocols and recycling techniques to a maximum practical extent) before consideration is given to allowing any discharge into the environment/disposal in the most environmentally acceptable manner. Some waste may require disposal at an authorized disposal site. Some of the benefits for adopting cleaner production practices include a reduction in expenditure for packaging, energy, waste treatment or disposal, water and materials, increased employee environmental awareness and an improved public perception of the business. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Choosing the right technology ٥٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Choosing the right technology ٥١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Pretreatment technologies of Industrial Wastewater Conventional technologies of Industrial Wastewater Treatment pH neutralization Temp regulations Solids separation Toxic metal removal Treatment needed will depend on the type and concentration of pollutants in the wastewater Oil and grease Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Environment-friendly technology ٥٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Environment-friendly technology ٥٣ The suitable environment-friendly technology selection to minimize the amount and toxicity of the industrial waste generated depends on the manufacturing operations generating the wastewater and the industrial waste water quality . Using environment-friendly technology to minimize the amount and toxicity of the industrial waste generated. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 10. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Environment-friendly technology ٥٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Environment-friendly technology ٥٥ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Waste Water hierarchy WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY A logical waste management hierarchy would be based on the principal that pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source wherever feasible, while pollutants that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner. In the absence of feasible prevention or recycling opportunities, pollution should be treated. Disposal or other release into the environment should be used as a last resort. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Environment-friendly technology ٥٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Environment-friendly technology ٥٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 1. Pollution prevention Recent and Preferable friendly options the The pollution prevention practices and wastewater treatment technologies are used to prevent the generation of wastewater pollutants and reduce the discharge of wastewater pollutants . most economical, feasible and environmental sound for industries minimizing toxicity of the industrial waste Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Environment-friendly technology ˿ ˹ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. pollution prevention measures include the following: a. Training and Supervision Training and supervision ensure that employees are aware of, understand, and support the company’s pollution prevention goals. Effective training programs translate these goals into practical information that enables employees to minimize waste generation by properly and efficiently using tools, supplies, equipment, and materials. b. Production Planning Production planning can minimize the number of process operation steps and eliminate unnecessary procedures (e.g., production planning can eliminate additional cleaning steps between process operations). Environment-friendly technology ٥٩ Pollution Prevention is generally defined as any in-plant process that reduces, avoids, or eliminates the use of toxic materials and/or the generation of pollutants and wastes so as to reduce risks to human health and the environment and to preserve natural resources through greater efficiency and conservation. The goal of pollution prevention is to minimize environmental risks by reducing or eliminating the source of risk (rather than reactively through treatment and disposal of wastes generated). There are significant opportunities for industry to reduce or prevent pollution at the source through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. The opportunities for source reduction are not often realized because existing environmental regulations, and the industrial resources they require for compliance focus upon treatment and disposal, rather than source reduction. Source reduction is different and more desirable than waste management and pollution control. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 11. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Environment-friendly technology ٦٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Environment-friendly technology ٦١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. c. Process or Equipment Modification Facilities can modify processes and equipment to minimize the amount of waste generated (e.g., changing rack configuration to reduce drag-out). f. Waste Segregation and Separation Facilities should avoid mixing different types of wastes or mixing hazardous wastes with nonhazardous wastes. Similarly, facilities should not mix recyclable materials with noncompatible materials or wastes. For example, facilities can segregate scrap metal by metal type, separate cyanide-bearing wastewater for preliminary treatment, and segregate coolants for recycling or treatment. d. Raw Material and Product Substitution or Elimination Where possible, facilities should replace toxic or hazardous raw materials or products with other materials that produce less waste and less toxic waste (e.g., replacing chromium-bearing solutions with non-chromium-bearing and less toxic solutions, or consolidating types of cleaning solutions and machining coolants). g. Closed-Loop Recycling e. Loss Prevention and Housekeeping Facilities can recover and reuse some process streams. For example, some facilities can use ion exchange to recover metal from electroplating rinse water, reuse the rinse water, and reuse the regenerant solution as process solution make-up. Loss prevention and housekeeping includes performing preventive maintenance and managing equipment and materials to minimize leaks, spills, evaporative losses, and other releases (e.g., inspecting the integrity of tanks on a regular basis; using chemical analyses instead of elapsed time or number of parts processed as the basis for disposal of a solution). Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Environment-friendly technology ٦٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Environment-friendly technology ٦٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 2. Source Reduction The most desirable option of the hierarchy and the most effective way to reduce risk is through source reduction. Source reduction is defined as any method that reduces or eliminates the source of pollution entirely. This includes any practice that: . Reduces the amount of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants entering a waste stream or otherwise released into the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and . Reduces hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants. The term source reduction includes equipment or technology modifications, process or procedure modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ٦٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Environment-friendly technology ٦٥ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 3. Improving chemical wastewater treatment plant efficiency and environmental compliance. 4. 5. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١١ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 12. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٦٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Applications of chemical unit process in wastewater treatment Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٦٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Chemical Unit Processes Role Of Chemical Unit Processes In Wastewater Treatment Application of Chemical Unit Processes Currently the most important applications of chemical unit processes in wastewater treatment are for: (1) the disinfection of wastewater, (2) the precipitation of phosphorus, (3) the coagulation of particulate matter, (4)oxidation and reduction of industrial pollutants. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٦٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Fundamentals Of Chemical Coagulation Colloidal particles found in wastewater typically have a net negative surface charge. The size of colloids (about 0.01 to 1 m and is such that the attractive body forces between particles are considerably less than the repelling forces of the electrical charge. Under these stable conditions, Brownian motion keeps the particles in suspension. μ Coagulation is the process of destabilizing colloidal particles so that particle growth can occur as a result of particle collisions. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Chemical Precipitation For Improved Plant Performance In current practice, chemical precipitation is used Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Chemical Precipitation For Improved Plant Performance Chemical precipitation, as noted previously, involves the addition of chemicals to alter the physical state of dissolved and suspended solids and facilitate their (1) as a means of improving the performance of primary settling facilities, (2) as a basic step in the independent physical-chemical treatment of wastewater, removal by sedimentation. Since about 1970, the need to provide more complete removal of the organic compounds and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) contained in wastewater has brought about renewed interest in chemical precipitation (3) for the removal of phosphorus, and (4) for the removal of heavy metals. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٢ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 13. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Alum. The insoluble aluminum hydroxide is a gelatinous floc that settles slowly through the wastewater, sweeping out suspended material Lime. Much more lime is generally required when it is used alone and producing other changes. The reaction is exactly analogous than when sulfate of iron is also used where industrial wastes when magnesium bicarbonate is substituted for the calcium salt. introduce mineral acids or acid salts into the wastewater. If less than this amount of alkalinity is available, it must be added. Lime is commonly used for this purpose when necessary, but it is seldom required in the treatment of wastewater. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٥ Independent Physical-Chemical Treatment In some localities, industrial wastes have rendered municipal wastewater difficult to treat by biological means. In such situations, physical-chemical treatment may be an alternative approach. This method of treatment has met with limited success because of its lack of consistency in meeting discharge requirements, high costs for chemicals, handling and disposal of the great volumes of sludge resulting from the addition of chemicals, and numerous operating problems. Because of these reasons, new applications of physical-chemical treatment for municipal wastewater are rare. Physical-chemical treatment is used more extensively for the treatment of industrial wastewater. Enhanced Removal of Suspended Solids in Primary Sedimentation With chemical precipitation, it is possible to remove 80 to 90 percent of the total suspended solids (TSS) including some colloidal particles, 50 to 80 percent of the BOD, and 80 to 90 percent of the bacteria. Comparable removal values for well-designed and well-operated primary sedimentation tanks without the addition of chemicals are 50 to 70 percent of the TSS, 25 to 40 percent of the BOD, and 25 to 75 percent of the bacteria. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Typical flow diagram of an independent physicalchemical treatment plant The filter is shown as optional, but its use is recommended to reduce the blinding and headloss buildup in the carbon columns. The handling and disposal of the sludge resulting from chemical precipitation is one of the greatest difficulties associated with chemical treatment. Sludge is produced in great volume from most chemical precipitation operations, often reaching 0.5 percent of the volume of wastewater treated when lime is used. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٣ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 14. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٧٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Comparison of Chemical Phosphorus Removal Processes Chemical Precipitation For Removal Of Heavy Metals And Dissolved Inorganic Substances Table: Advantages and disadvantages of chemical addition in various sections of a treatment plant for phosphorus removal The technologies available for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater include chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis. Of these technologies, chemical precipitation is most commonly employed for most of the metals. Common precipitants include hydroxide (OH) and sulfide (S2-). Carbonate (CO32-) has also been used in some special cases. Metal may be removed separately or co precipitated with phosphorus. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Table Solubility products for free metal ion concentrations in equilibrium with hydroxides and sulfides Precipitation Reactions Metals of interest include arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). In wastewater treatment facilities, metals are precipitated most commonly as metal hydroxides through the addition of lime or caustic to a pH of minimum solubility. In practice, the minimum achievable residual metal concentrations will also depend on the nature and concentration of the organic matter in the wastewater as well as the temperature. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Table Practical effluent concentration levels achievable in heavy metals removal by precipitation Chemical Oxidation Chemical oxidation in wastewater treatment typically involves the use of oxidizing agents such as ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H202), permanganate (MnO4), chloride dioxide (ClO2), chlorine (C12) or (HOC1), and oxygen (O2) Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) in which the free hydroxyl radical (HO.) is used as a strong oxidant to destroy specific organic constituents and compounds that cannot be oxidized by conventional oxidants such as ozone and chlorine are discussed in later chapters. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٤ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 15. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٥ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Table Standard electrode potentials for oxidation half reactions for chemical disinfection Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. While an oxidizing agent causes the oxidation to occur, it is reduced in the process. Half-Reaction Potentials. Of the many properties that can be used to characterize oxidation-reduction reactions, the electrical potential (i.e., voltage) or emf of the half reaction is used most commonly. The half-reaction potential is a measure of the tendency of a reaction to proceed to the 。 the left. , tend to proceed to the right as Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ , tend to proceed to 。 right. Half reactions with large positive potential, E written. Conversely, half reactions with large negative potential, E Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Preliminary Treatment of industrial Wastewater Streams Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Table Typical applications of chemical oxidation in wastewater collection, treatment, and disposal Preliminary treatment systems reduce pollutant loadings in segregated waste streams prior to combined end-of-pipe treatment. Wastewater containing pollutants such as Pollution Prevention and Wastewater Treatment Technologies cyanide, hexavalent chromium, oil and grease, or chelated metals may not be treated effectively by chemical precipitation and gravity settling without preliminary treatment. Proper segregation and treatment of these streams is critical for the successful treatment of process wastewater. Highly concentrated metal-bearing wastewater also may require pretreatment to reduce metal concentrations before end-of-pipe treatment. This subsection describes the following wastewater streams that typically undergo •Chromium-bearing wastewater; • Concentrated metal-bearing wastewater; •Cyanide-bearing wastewater; • Chelated metal-bearing wastewater; and • Oil-bearing wastewater Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٠ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٨٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Chemical treatment Since lime is a base it is sometimes used in the neutralization of acid wastes. Coagulation consists of the addition of a chemical that, through a chemical reaction, forms an insoluble end product that serves to remove substances from the wastewater. Polyvalent metals are commonly used as coagulating chemicals in wastewater treatment and typical coagulants would include lime (that can also be used in neutralization), certain iron containing compounds (such as ferric chloride or ferric sulfate) and alum (aluminum Consists of using some chemical reaction or reactions to improve the water quality. Probably the most commonly used chemical process is chlorination. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing chemical, is used to kill bacteria and to slow down the rate of decomposition of the wastewater. Bacterial kill is achieved when vital biological processes are affected by the chlorine. sulfate). Certain processes may actually be physical and chemical in nature. The use of activated Another strong oxidizing agent that has also been used as an oxidizing commonly disinfectant is ozone. carbon to "adsorb" or remove organics, for example, involves both chemical and physical processes. Processes such as ion exchange, which involves exchanging certain ions for others, are not used to any great extent in wastewater treatment. A chemical process used in many industrial wastewater treatment operations is neutralization. Neutralization consists of the addition of acid or base to adjust pH levels back to neutrality. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٥ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 16. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩١ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Chemical Precipitation Chemical precipitation is a highly reliable technology when properly monitored and controlled. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the types of equipment used and numerous operating factors, such as the characteristics of the raw wastewater, types of treatment reagents used, and operating pH. In some cases, subtle changes in operating factors (e.g., varying the pH, altering chemical dosage, or extending the process reaction time) may sufficiently improve the system’s efficiency. In other cases, modifications to the treatment system are necessary. Chemical precipitation is a treatment technology in which chemicals (e.g., sulfides, hydroxides, and carbonates) react with organic and inorganic pollutants present in wastewater to form insoluble precipitates. This separation treatment technology is generally carried out in the following four phases: 1. Addition of the chemical to the wastewater; 2. Rapid (flash) mixing to distribute the chemical homogeneously throughout the wastewater; 3. Slow mixing to encourage flocculation (formation of the insoluble solid precipitate); and 4. Filtration, settling, or decanting to remove the flocculated solid particles. These four steps can be performed at ambient conditions and are well suited to automatic control. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٣ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Hydrolysis The primary design parameter considered for hydrolysis is the half-life, which is the time Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which organic constituents react with water required to react 50% of the original compound. The half-life of a reaction generally and break into smaller (and less toxic) compounds. Basically, hydrolysis is a depends on the reaction pH and temperature and the reactant molecule (e.g., the destructive technology in which the original molecule forms two or more new pesticide active ingredient). molecules. In some cases, the reaction continues and other products are formed. Hydrolysis reactions can be catalyzed at low pH, high pH, or both, depending on the reactant molecule. In general, increasing the temperature increases the rate of hydrolysis. Identifying the best conditions for the hydrolysis reaction results in a shorter half-life, thereby Because some pesticide active ingredients react through this mechanism, hydrolysis can be an effective treatment technology for PFPR wastewater. reducing both the size of the reaction vessel required and the treatment time required. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Advanced chemical processes 1. Ion Exchange Ion exchange- although both natural and synthetic ion exchange resins are available, synthetic resins are used more widely because of their durability. Some natural zeolites (resins) are also used for the removal of ammonia from wastewater. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٥ coagulation Is an important operation in removing colloidal solids. In wastewater treatment, chemical such as lime, ferric salts and commercial alum are used as coagulants. This process removes suspended solids ( 60-80% ), BOD ( 50-70% ) phosphorus ( over 90%) and heavy metal ( over 80%) Chemical clarification of wastewater can be combined with the activated carbon adsorption process to provide complete physical – chemical wastewater treatment. the use of chemical clarification has restricted application in developing countries because of its constant requirement of consumable chemical and consequent higher running costs. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 17. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ٩٧ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 2. Electrochemical treatment 3. Electro dialysis Ionic components of a solutions are separated through the use of semi Wastewater is mixed with seawater and is passed into a single cell containing carbon electrodes. permeable ion-selective membranes. If the electrical potential is applied between the two electrodes, which in turn causes a migration of cations toward the negative electrode and migration of anions towards the positive electrode. Due to the alternate spacing of cation and anion permeable membranes, cells of concentrated and dilute salts are formed. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ١٠٠ ٩٩ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. 4. Oxidation and reduction Oxidation - Chemical oxidation is used to remove ammonia, to reduce the concentration of residual organics and to reduce bacterial and viral contents of wastewater. At present on of the few process for the removal of ammonical nitrogen , found operationally dependable , is chlorination. Ammonia can be removed chemically by adding chlorine or hypochlorite to form monochloramine and dichloramine as intermediate products and nitrogen gas and hydrochloric acid as end products. Problem associate with this method is the presence of various organic and inorganic compounds that will exert chlorine demand. Chemical oxidation of organic material in wastewater. . Principle of simple electrodialysis process. Diagram shows the membrane configuration with alternating cation-selective (1)and anion-selective (2) membranes between two electrodes ((3) and (4)), one at each end of the stack. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ١٠٢ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٠١ Optimization of Existing Chemical Precipitation Treatment System 5. Reduction Nitrates present in wastewater can be reduced electrolytically or by using strong reducing agents( e.g. ferrous oxide). The reaction must Facilities can optimize the performance of an existing chemical precipitation and clarification system using a variety of techniques such as adding equalization prior to treatment, conducting jar testing to optimize treatment chemistry, upgrading control systems, and providing operator training. usually catalyzed while using reducing agents. The two step processes using different reducing agents and catalysts are limited by the availability of chemicals at low cost, and the fact that the treated effluent and waste sludge may contain toxic compounds derived from the chemicals used for catalyzing various reactions. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٧ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 18. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ Improving chemical wastewater treatment Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ١٠٤ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٠٣ 1. Equalization Equalization is simply the damping of flow and concentration variations to achieve a constant or nearly constant wastewater treatment system loading (8). 2. Jar Testing The purpose of jar testing is to optimize treatment pH, flocculent type and dosage, the need for co precipitants such as iron or polymers , and solids removal characteristics. Facilities should conduct jar testing on a sample of their actual wastewater to provide reliable information. Equalization improves treatment performance by providing a uniform hydraulic loading to clarification equipment, and by damping mass loadings, which improves chemical feed control and process reliability. MP&M facilities implement equalization by placing a large collection tank ahead of the treatment system. All process water and rinse water entering this tank are mixed mechanically and then pumped or allowed to gravity flow to the treatment system at a constant rate. The size (volume) of the tank depends on the facility flow variations throughout the day. Operating data collected during MP&M sampling episodes indicate hydraulic residence times for equalization tanks average 4 to 6 hours. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ١٠٦ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٠٥ 3. Control System Upgrades Typical treatment system controls at MP&M facilities includes pH and ORP 4. Operator Training controllers on alkaline chlorination systems for cyanide destruction, pH Having operators trained in both the theory and practical application of controllers on chemical precipitation systems, flow and level monitoring wastewater treatment is key to ensuring the systems are operating at their best. equipment on equalization tanks, and solonoid valves and metering pumps on Many MP&M facilities send their operators to off-site training centers while chemical feed systems to provide accurate treatment chemical dosing. A others bring consultants familiar with their facility’s operations and wastewater number of MP&M facilities have computer hardware and software to monitor treatment system to the facility to train operators. Some of the basic elements and change treatment system operating parameters. For a number of MP&M of an operator training course should include (1): facilities, upgrading control equipment may reduce both pH and ORP swings caused by excess chemical dosing, resulting in consistent effluent metals concentrations. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ Improving chemical wastewater treatment Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. Improving chemical wastewater treatment ١٠٨ Optimizing The Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Management. ١٠٧ An explanation of the need for wastewater treatment, which emphasizes the benefits to employees and the community; An emphasis on management’s commitment to environmental stewardship; An explanation of wastewater treatment terminology in simple terms; An overview of the environmental regulations that govern the facility’s First-time training for new operators may require 4 to 5 days of classroom and hands-on study. Experienced MP&M wastewater treatment operators should consider attending at least 1 day of refresher training per year to update themselves on the chemistry and to learn about new equipment on the market that may help their system’s performance. wastewater discharges; A simple overview of wastewater treatment chemistry; Methods that can optimize treatment performance (e.g., how to conduct jar testing); The test methods or parameters used to verify the system is operating properly (e.g., control systems); and The importance of equipment maintenance to ensure the system is operating at its maximum potential. Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٨ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ
  • 19. ٠٥/٠١/١٤٣٠ ١١٠ References ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICRO-POLLUTANTS REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER Marjana Simonič Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, .Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, email: marjana.simonic@uni-mb.si Selection of wastewater treatment process based on the analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process methods 1*A. R. K arimi; 1N. Mehrdadi; 2S. J. Hashemian; 1 G. R. Nabi Bidhendi; 3R. Tavakkoli Moghaddam 1Faculty of the Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran 2Institute of Water and Energy, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran 3Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran ١٠٩ References Advanced technologies in water and wastewater treatment. H. Zhou and D.W. Smith ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT. Sixto Malato Rodríguez Investigation on improving efficiency of pre-precipitation process at Sjölunda wastewater treatment plant. Qianqian Zhou, February 2009 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle (the 3Rs) and Resource Efficiency as the basis for Sustainable Waste Management. 9 May 2011, New York EVALUATION OF OZONE WASTE WATER TREATMENTS AND STUDIES. EVALUATING THE REUSE OF TREATED EFFLUENTS. Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba. University of Almeria, Spain Tools to Promote Sustainable Waste Management. K. Fricke1, T. Bahr1, Commercial Printing Industry . Compliance & Pollution Prevention Workbook Received 30 June 2010; revised 19 November 2010; accepted 21 December 2010; available online 1 March 2011 Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ ١٩ Water and wastewater management and innovative solutions for a sustainable environment Conference, 5-6 November 2012 Dr. Sama MZ

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