First Americans landed in France in June 1917 Gen. Pershing kept his troops back until they could receive more training Joined an American Expeditionary Force to preserve identity and avoid Allied disagreements over strategy
American units helped block against Germans at several battles Sept. 12, 1918 half a million soldiers and a smaller number of French soldiers overran the German stronghold at Saint- Mihiel in 4 days
French offensive stalled Mutinies and desertions Flanders British offensive, but Germans pushed them back further from where started Southern Front Italians lost morale and started to desert
Spring of 1918 allied troops under French General Ferdinand Foch The Germans mounted their offensive wanted to split the Allies and drive the British to the sea came to within 37 miles of Paris before being stopped by the Allies they were low on reserves and morale the Allies had high morale and high reserves because of the US entering the war the Allied forces pushed the Germans back and slowly one by one the resistance of the Central Powers fell November 11 at 11am the Germans signed the Armistice The Germans had lost the war while its troops still held territory from France to the Crimean Peninsula
Europe is shattered Millions dead, more wounded Country boundaries changed People looked to President Woodrow Wilson for hope
Germany saw that Fourteen Points their time had come Peace plan whose and they wanted an terms included armistice international They hoped that recognition of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 freedom of the seas and trade, limitations points would be used of arms, an end to all secret alliances Settlements of colonial claims General assembly of nations created
Germany thought that the 14 points would be used in the peace process with them Britain wanted control of the seas, didn’t want freedom of the seas France wanted reparations (payment for damages) to be included in any and all peace settlements Allied leaders didn’t want them (14 points) French Premier Clemenceau “President Wilson and his 14 points bore me. Even God Almighty has only 10.”
116,500 Americans died 2.2 million Germans died 1.7 million Russians died 1.4 million French died 1.2 million Austro-Hungarians died 1 million British died Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 Victims literally died in their own bodily fluids 1/50 died, generally ages 20-34 years of age 25 million died world wide
Big Four= Pres. Wilson January 1919 delegates (US), Prime Minister from 27 nations gathered in Clemenceau (France), Paris to work out 5 Prime Minister David separate peace treaties Lloyd George (Britain), know as the Peace of Paris Prime Minister Vittorio Representatives from Orlando (Italy) Russia and the Triple Alliance were not invited France and Britain actually funded against them in the Civil War
The Germans had surrendered on the basis of Wilson’s 14 points, not knowing that the other sides had already divided Germany up in secret treaties When Wilson threatened to negotiate peace on his own, finally Allies agreed to terms Britain refused to hear anything about freedom of seas, only Germany had to disarm, and a “guilt clause” made the Germans responsible to pay off all war debts
German Punishments Territorially Military Reduced and restricted Army Alsace-Lorraine reduced, conscription returned to France prohibited Poland established Navy limited Danzig freed Forbidden to have an Barred from uniting air force or build with other German weapons of aggression speaking peoples Stripped of colonial possessions
Economically Pay property damages, costs of the war and soldiers pensions of the French and British Signed in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles June 28, 1919 Only 4 of Wilson’s original 14 points and 9 supplemental principles emerged intact in the treaty League of Nations “It is definitely a guarantee of peace” -Pres. Wilson
Separate peace treaties signed with Austria- Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey Greatest attention was territorial Broke up Austria and Hungary Austria was left small and economically weak Italy received from Austria territory near Brenner pass in the Alps New nations emerged: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslov akia, Yugoslavia Considered the “cordon sanitaire” or quarantine line France would use it as a buffer against any potential threat from Russia or Germany
While most Americans favored the League of nations, Wilson’s rival (Henry Cabot Lodge) was against it He was afraid the LON would force American to bend to the will of other nations March 3, 1919 Henry Cabot Lodge was able to get enough signatures to block the treaty Wilson’s only hope was compromise He went on campaign across the nation to tell people why it was necessary In 1919 he gave the best speech of his life, then had a stroke from which he never fully recovered
One of the major arguing points was Article X to aid League members, but Wilson refused to accept any changes March 1920 enough Democrats broke from the president to produce a majority, but not a required 2/3 The Treaty of Versailles was dead in the US. Not until July 1921 did Congress enact a joint resolution ending the war The US which had fought separately from the allies, made separate peace as well
Settlement left Europe and the world troubled Those who fought became the “lost generation” Peace settlements failed to heal old wounds and opened new ones as well No freedom of the seas Economic barriers not lowered Only defeated powers were required to disarm Provisions against Germany were too harsh to expect reconciliation with Britain and France, but not harsh enough to destroy Germany completely
How did/does your country feel as a result of the treaties? Were there any common goals? Were compromises made? Which country was most pleased with how the negotiations turned out? Most displeased? Does your country feel it achieved its most important goals? Were there any particular impasses or impediments to agreements?
May Day 1919 six months after the war ended mobs in a dozen cities broke up socialist parades, injured hundreds and killed 3 people Many Americans believed they were under attack by homegrown and foreign-sponsored radicals Menace of radicalism was overblown Radicals hoped that the success of the Russian Revolution would lead to better feelings in the US Most Americans found the idea of Bolsheviks threatening
1919 the left split Radical socialists formed the Communist Labor party Slavic radicals created a separate Communist party Together they had no more than 40,000 members April 28, 1919 Mayor Hanson received a small parcel which he thought was from an admirer of his tough patriotism Homemade bomb 20 such packages were sent (including to J. D. Rockafeller, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and the postmaster general )
June 2 bombs exploded simultaneously in 8 different cities One demolished the front porch of A. Mitchell Palmer, the attorney general of the US Bomb thrower was blown to bits but enough of him remained for identification Italian anarchist from Philadelphia Americans assumed that an organized conspiracy was being mounted to overthrow the government
In response to the bombing he launched raids in over 30 cities Invaded private homes, meeting halls, pool parlors taking several thousand alleged communists into custody without warrants and beating those who resisted Placed prisoners in jail and over 200 (with no criminal records) were deported to the USSR NY expelled 5 duly elected Socialists in 1919 Many people denounced the action
Palmer predicted an uprising in May, but nothing happened til Sept. Americans saw it as the work of a few demented radicals 35 deaths, 200 injuries
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