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The national state and democracy
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The national state and democracy

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  • 1. Revolution after Revolution
  • 2. Western Europe and Political Democracy  Great Britain  Two party constitutional monarchy France  Third Republic gained a republican constitution in 1875  President and a legislature with 2 houses  Frequent changes of government Italy  United national state with little unity
  • 3. Central and Eastern Europe  Pursued more of an older order sticking with monarchies Germany  Creation of a new imperialist government by Otto Von Bismarck led to a two-house legislature  By the reign of Wilhelm II (emperor 1888-1918) Germany had become the strongest military, and industrial power in Europe Austria-Hungary  Theoretically it was a constitutional monarchy but Emperor Francis Joseph ignored the system
  • 4. Central and Eastern Europe  Russia  Tsar Nicolas II believed that absolute power should be preserved  January 22, 1905 a procession of workers presented grievances to the tzar at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg  Troops opened fire on the demonstrators killing hundreds  “Bloody Sunday”  Tsar Nicolas II was forced to grant civil liberties and create a legislative assembly but by 1907 power had been curtailed
  • 5. United States and Canada  Between 1870-1914 the US became an industrial power with a foreign empire  Aftermath of the civil war  Switched from agrarian to industrial nation  Expanded  Alaska was added 1867  Hawaiian islands  Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philipines Canada  Distrust between the English-speaking people and French- speaking people  Immigration
  • 6. International Rivalries  1871 Otto von Bismark realized that Germany’s arrival as the most powerful state in Europe upset the balance of power  Worried about anti-Germany alliance  Created defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879, Italy joined in 1882  The Triple Alliance  Bismark maintained a separate treaty with Russia and tried to maintain good terms with Great Britain 1890 Emperor Wilhelm II fired Otto von Bismark and took over foreign policy  This involved an activist policy to find Germany’s “place in the sun”
  • 7. International Rivalries  The Emperor dropped the treaty with Russia  The ending of this alliance brought France and Russia together Over the next 10 years German policies abroad caused the British to draw closer to France  Triple Entente of Great Britain, France and Russia (1907) Europe was divided into two opposing camps that became more and more unwilling to compromise
  • 8. Crisis in the Balkans  1878 Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro became independent states  Bulgaria still operated under Russian protection  Balkan territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under the protection of Austria-Hungary 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina  Serbia was upset because it ended their hopes of creating a large Serbian kingdom that would include most of the southern Slavic speaking territory Backed by the Russians the Serbians prepared for war against Austria-Hungary
  • 9. Crisis in the Balkans  Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany demanded that the Russians accept the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina or face war with Germany Russia had been weakened by their defeat in the Russo-Japanese war of 1905 so they backed down but vowed revenge 1912-1913 two wars between the Balkan states At the beginning of 1914 all of the major players viewed each other with suspicion