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Enterprise Architecture - Creating Alignment - The Emirates Group - IT

Enterprise Architecture - Creating Alignment - The Emirates Group - IT


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  • Emirates!! Goood! Vida - Un mundo verde es lo que queremos, ayúdanos a mantener el planeta, ayúdanos a que nuestras generaciones futuras, nuestras familias puedan vivir en un planeta saludable: http://www.slideshare.net/javimarquez/vida-un-mundo-verde gracias por sus votos (FAVORITOS)
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  • Visuell umsetzbar
  • It’s not my intention to make this a text book session and bore you to death. But we should have a single way of understanding EA before we move on. This definition comes from The Open Group Architecture Framework which is the product a very large number of EA practioners and organisations – including myself. Think of structure as just the different pieces that exist to do something. Imagine you get a two line email from a significant business sponsor who you never want as an enemy. You know it’s serious as the email is all in UPPER case. The message reads, APPLICATION X IS NOT WORKING, RESOLVE IMMEDIATELY! What do you do in this scenario? Head for the hills til it blows over? The better thing to do would probably be to troubleshoot the problem. So firstly you’d want to know is it a functionality issue. Is the system failing to do something it should. Is their access incorrect for the task? Have we lost information? Has the application crashed or non-responding? Is the technology down? And after all these questions you find out the actual issue is power is out at their location. It’s only through differentiating the different parts that the correct problem can be ascertained. Similarly if we understand the different components that are needed, and how they should be structured we can more effectively put them together. I’m not sure why but a school scenario popped into my head to explain this further. There’s a certain structure within a class room of students. Generally the people who want to misbehave sit toward the back. And kids who want to focus on learning – or just avoid the kids at the back – site at the front. Bad students can then be brought to the front for more visibility. And from there they can also be removed entirely if there’s no hope for them. The teacher will also come to know the inter-relationships that exist between students. Some students may behave reasonably OK on their own but when they’re with certain others, they don’t work well together. I know I was always being separated from my mates for talking. I see this as the teacher learning what inter-relationships exist and how to manage them. The action may be to separate them and all is fine. Or it may be to totally remove the bad one with no hope. Architecture is treated the same way. In terms of principles, we’re talking generally about anything that guides us. In general life you often hear things being done as a matter of principle. It justifies any particular action cause it links to how we wish to live our life. Architecture principles are very similar. These influence us to make the correct decision between two different options. A good architecture principle you’ll see just about anywhere is “Reuse, before buy, before build”. There’s no sense in reinventing the wheel, so it contains three questions to confirm we’re only building what we absolutely must as there’s no alternative. Design speaks for itself, and I believe it’s the real value add for EA. We can buy the most expensive best of breed software, or introduce plenty of best practices, but essentially it’s how we’re able to design a complete solution, or design the enterprise itself so it’s able to fulfil its vision. Another view of enterprise architecture is that it exists anyway. Even if we don’t model a single process or standardise any technology, the enterprise still exists, and it will still have a collection of information systems which have some accidental organisation. There’s a structure there, it’s largely unknown, not optimal, we’re not sure how it works, we certainly don’t know what’s wrong when it doesn’t work. But it is an enterprise architecture. This definition sort of fits with building architecture. You can see some beautiful architecture around Dubai without having to check the blue prints or seeing the AutoCAD 3D designs.
  • phi Φ - also known as the golden ratio, or golden number or section ( 1·618034) - has a very strong architectural foundation especially in nature. A vast amount of information has been collected showing an extensive number of natural forms which employ the proportion of phi Φ . No specific number recurs throughout life on Earth with such regularity. Nature uses this architectural pattern to arrange seeds on seed heads, petals on flowers, leaves around the stem, and as pictured here the growth proportions of shells. Even the DNA molecule, the program for all life, is based on these ratios. The Emirates Group Enterprise Architecture Framework has been named phi Φ to emulate how a single and true foundation can be reused throughout an environment to build upon success.
  • An EA Framework is the set of necessary building blocks and the relationships required to glue the blocks together. Due to the all encompassing definition of enterprise architecture there is substantial cross-over with other frameworks, tools, processes, and people. This is not an issue, EA as a tool can bring together many different efforts. Areas to highlight: EA is Strategy driven EA has different architectural layers Business Architecture modelling of the business operation - particularly interested in visions, goals, strategies, operations, processes, roles, and rules Information Architecture data design, flows, and lifecycles to create, capture, store, retrieve and dispose of information assets Application Architecture significant software, excluding software technologies, which supports business and information needs Technology Architecture supports the application portfolio, includes software technologies, hardware, and network support Some argue that Security Architecture is a 5 th layer. However, security is better considered a vertical consideration as it has requirements across each EA layer. Any changes requires an understanding of the current baseline Where organisations want To-Be becomes a Target architecture Strategies must exist to address those gaps which exist – which include transition plans There is an EA lifecycle, which can integrate with existing project and development lifecycles There are a number of enterprise architecture artefacts Technology standards mandate which technologies are to be used within the portfolio. Standards aim to promote the adoption of a common set of tools to maximise existing efforts and investment, as well reuse technology that is known to work well within the portfolio, or support the organisation’s strategic directions. Principles are general rules and guidelines that inform and support the way in which an organization sets about fulfilling its mission. They’re intended to be enduring and seldom amended. Best practices are known to produce the best outcomes. They are a result of existing success and years of experience invested to solving existing problems. The methods of interest are repeatable processes that help to optimise architectures. They are the means to create consistent, optimised and aligned deliverables.
  • Once components and their services need to be realized we have to make the decision of HOW to realize them. This is not the straightforward build versus buy decision: others interesting options come into the picture. “Transform”-ation uses a combination of techniques including business rules extraction to pull out a segment of functionality to be used independently for the realization of the component’s service. “Integrate” is the “wrappering” of legacy functionality to achieve functionality; integration is invocation-based. Subscription is based on the availability of a publish-subscribe model (in a message-oriented middleware context) in which a consumer subscribes to the services provided by the provider. One of the options is to outsource (e.g., Payroll) the functionality out to some other business. As the web services and Business to business integration becomes more prevalent, this option will also be considered for use on a wider basis. Subscribe and integrate (composite or simple integration (wrap)) are within an enterprise; integration is more oriented towards direct invocation whereas Subscribe is more oriented towards a publish-subscribe model. This is a matrix that maps components/services to how they are going to be realized as seen on slide 23 and 24.
  • Transcript

    • 1.
      • Connecting Process Professionals
    • 2. Enterprise Architecture Creating Alignment Christine Stephenson Emirates Group -IT
    • 3. Agenda
      • The Emirates Story
      • IT Environment and Initial Situation
      • Enterprise Architecture Adoption
      • Creating Alignment with SOA
    • 4. Dubai’s Future = Emirates’ Future
    • 5. Emirates
      • Launched on 25 October 1985:
        • Three aircraft
        • Three destinations
          • Karachi
          • Delhi
          • Mumbai
      Emirates The International Airline of the U.A.E
    • 6. … and 20 years later
    • 7. Today: Over 100 Destinations in 60 Countries
    • 8. Current Fleet – 134 Aircraft 29 18 Airbus A330 Airbus A340 Airbus A380 5 Passenger & Freighter Aircraft Boeing 777 75 Boeing 747 7
    • 9. Fleet Expansion
      • 159 aircraft on order worth over US$55 billion
      • 28 x 777-300ERs
      • 53 x A380-800s
      • 70 x A350 XWBs
      • 3 x 777-F
      • 5 x 747-8F
    • 10. Emirates Group
    • 11. A selection of our external Customers
    • 12. EMIRATES D N A T A & GS CC Group Security Medical Legal & Facilities DN Revenue Accounts Finance HR & Group Training Central Services PD & CRM Group Safety DN Agencies DN Cargo DN Airport P&L Al Maha AA SD Engineering Flight Operations EKH EK Cargo Skywards Reservation Services NPSD & eCommerce STC EK Airport Pricing NCL & CER EK Revenue Accounts YM Planning CASA 114 111 101 103 104 107 105 110 112 115 116 118 121 124 126 201 202 203 210 211 657 222 229 300 302 303 304 305 306 307 310 312 313 315 318 400 401 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 417 419 421 422 426 500 501 502 503 505 506 509 510 511 517 520 526 527 506 529 531 532 534 535 537 538 539 541 542 546 549 550 551 552 541 604 610 614 615 618 619 626 628 630 631 125 608 602 606 609 616 621 623 627 632 635 632 611 640 600 642 100 645 613 646 647 624 637 653 654 641 655 223 629 667 668 622 634 670 671 673 676 679 680 605 672 800 801 803 805 903 904 905 906 908 909 910 911 912 917 918 919 920 921 900 922 678 806 923 924 926 908 932 952 954 956 957 959 820 821 826 829 823 830 846 847 864 865 828 831 839 837 851 854 853 823 861 862 824 841 845 751 754 765 766 767 772 431 439 441 444 446 447 449 475 479 482 1000 1002 1013 1017 1021 350 2029 2030 2064 4003 5015 5018 5019 5020 5021 6006 6011 6018 6022 6023 6028 6032 7004 7003 8018 8032 8034 8036 8074 8076 351 750 768 770 471 473 2000 2001 2005 2014 2028 2031 2067 2069 2070 3000 3007 3009 3014 3013 3023 3052 3053 3010 4004 483 4001 4002 4005 4009 6000 6003 6005 6007 6015 6017 6019 6021 6021 7002 7005 8001 8004 8007 8008 8009 8010 8030 8038 8042 8045 8046 445 486 476 477 478 490 474 480 487 APAS TARS Insight OPAT Emu 4000 4007 4008 8079 8077 5000 3012 CCTV TOMAS ATM Monitor Aurora GroupWorld Empower EKG Web Sites emirates.com Tridion BBC News Sentinel SAFE Qpulse RAT Medical System Aviation Medical Exam EGLMS Concept 500 FMS DRAS – BSP Reconciliation BRASS ERP FAPA TRACK MFR POWER FUWINT CPG COMET Budget System MLZ HR Recruit ERP-HR Payroll OTA TRACE ROS TER ERP Recruit Crew Feedback Org Chart Staff Feedback Bright Ideas Contract Mgmt Merit Pot Edu Benefits Staff Portal HR Direct Self Service ID Card Imaging Internal Vacancies Medical Benefits vTrack Ez_Post Driver Contact CLP Fulfilment ePACTS CSTMS Vehicle Tracking MACS ODS MACS DWH DFO IVR EKT Ocean Protas Tariff EKT Sub Systems Events PRO Corporate Discount Agency Deposits AxisHolidays.com ACD DN Rpts YM CAMSYS Celsius Logger DACS + Qpulse SAS Forecast TSS Telemagic BRS DMACS GUI RMS MACS AACS Marhaba Ops CUTE FIDS Infocaster Marhaba Web Site Plan Control RTA SP Expert Stand Monitoring Tetra TARS NOMAD DMIS ERP P&L RAPID IBML Imaging PMS CRM Smartel MICE OASIS FLEET MGMT AA-DSS AA Sub Systems AA-MIS Visa Messaging Subsystem SelfBill OneNetwork Call Centre Portal email IBE IBE Watchdog ACD Future Focus MARS PSS PC Systems EasyMARS MARS FQT CRIS Skywards.com Skywards Datamart PNR DW CISMIS ACD Solution Trade Net Supplier Net EK - DSS Ocean Messaging Subsystem Price Guide Ops Reports Airfare SuperOPS CVIEW RPS RI GYM GRMS Galaxy ePIP PROS OD Forecaster SPACE PNRODS YAS AQUA CDW Target.com PROMIS FACTS FRR LSOM PRISM ARS EMSA Route Planning System Market Research CONX Builder COSMOS LTP ENCOM AIFLITE CSR CORE MPP CRS Apollo LASS Evita EPR Pairing ACTS CrisCall iSaturn Trips STC Trips .NET Trips IRA Trips IVR Trips PEC SkyClaims CPD SkySales SkyMart SkyExpress SkyHub SkyLog SITAFastIV SkyChain MASS SkyCap SkyTrack LIDO EGDS AFTN FuelMON FCPortal FCIS ADOC MPI eSwap COLA DMS OGS Weather Monitor RAMS ATC Radar FOQA FO Management Portal Macroe OPERA CUSS KIOSK e-ticket handler MACS DMACS-GUI RMS KIS BGS LASS Catering Portal CC Portal DFS CCIMS CCPM Kiosks Galley Planning Caterlog Crew Records Crew Admin SD Management Portal Sickness Analysis A/c Cleaning Control EMPACS Buyer Equip Tracking Airman DELIA ADOC Engg - DWH Engg EMS PMA e-capability wrkflw Techlog Warranty wrkflw Integrated Reporting Library Mgmt Tools Calibration Quotation Scrap wrkflw Avionics wrkflw CASA -CRIS
    • 13. What is Enterprise Architecture really ?
      • The structure of components, their inter-relationships , and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time (TOGAF)
    • 14. PHI Φ Our EA Framework
    • 15. EA Φ Framework Quality Management Business Analysis Configuration Management Project Management IT Mgmt / Customer Service Service Management Software Development Strategic Sourcing
    • 16. Strategic Directions for IT to enable Growth Standardisation Centralisation Integration
      • Reduce complexity,
      • leverage synergies,
      • remove duplications,
      • enhance scalability,
      • reduce cost
      • Centrally managed IT strategy, architecture and infrastructure
      • reduce complexity and risks
      • improve availability and performance
      • Reduce interfaces and redundant systems/data,
      • improve collaboration and reusability, reduce cost
    • 17. IT Change Project – Getting ready for Growth
      • Managed and measurable IT services and measurement framework
      • Best practice processes (ITIL & CMMI) and structured approach
      • Redefine processes how IT interacts with the business
      • Re-align IT organisation to business
      • Repositioning of IT organisation within Group
      Get close to the business Implement end-to-end IT service processes
      • Positioning and identity of IT within Emirates Group
      • High performance culture, ownership, leadership
      • Strategic sourcing model
      • Strategic direction and priorities driven by business
      • Framework for enterprise IT architecture and standards
      IT governance framework People Project Scope
    • 18. Design : Process Map IT Solutions and Customer Services IT Production IT Strategic Sourcing and Development IT Strategy and Architecture IT Architecture & Standards IT Strategy Portfolio Management Financial Management Quality Management Organisational Development IT Performance Measurement Security & Risk Management Business Info. Architecture Communication Governance Relationship Management Service Level Management Customer Relations Project Planning Proj. Monitoring & Control Risk Management Req. Mgmt & Req. Dev. Design & Development Program Management Product Integration Validation Verification Proj. Config Management Production Service Req. Management Inventory & Stores Mgmt Identity & Access Mgmt Capacity Management Availability Management Continuity Management Operations Management Release Management Configuration Management Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Security Management People Performance Management Training & Development People Life Cycle Resource Planning Recruitment Projects Supplier Relations External Supplier Mgmt
    • 19. What is SOA? Agility Reusability Loosely Coupled Better Time To Market Design Philosophy Integration Architecture Style Higher Productivity ROI TCO Flexibility Visibility Methodology Services
    • 20. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Service : Is a logical representation of a repeatable business activity that has a specified outcome (e.g., check customer credit; provide weather data, consolidate drilling reports) Is a “black box” to consumers of the service Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) : is a way of thinking or an architecture style in terms of services and service-based development and the outcomes of services
    • 21. SOA Benefits
      • Reduced Operational Cost/Efficiency
      • Improved Productivity
      • Reduce TCO and increased ROI
      • Greater Re-use
      • Quick Response to Customer Demands
      • Better Integration (internal and external)
      • Protecting existing assets
      • Flexibility - Agility
    • 22. SOA Challenges
      • The cultural shift – Think Differently
      • This project is different. Share Services – Why ?
      • Need to think in terms of services and services sharing.
    • 23. SOA Challenges
      • Product Development hurdles
      • Product development hurdles – applications are tightly coupled
      • No documented business process. The value chain is not known
      • No Holistic / Enterprise view
      • Technology and Benefits are not proven and unknown
      • Multiple versions of services can coexists - results in more complexity
      • Integration between applications with different service level agreements
      • Security Concerns – Service is open and shared
      • Sharing the infrastructure lead to capacity issues
    • 24. SOA Strategies
      • Top down: Business architecture development with a top-down view.
      • Bottom up: New projects development will be developed as SOA based applications. Projects will publish and discover services.
      • Middle out: Identify and Modify existing services. These are quick wins.
      Middle Out
    • 25. SOA Strategies
      • Top down: Business architecture development with a top-down view.
      • Bottom up: New projects development will be developed as SOA based applications. Projects will publish and discover services.
      • Middle out: Identify and Modify existing services. These are quick wins.
      Middle Out
    • 26. SOA Adoption Programme
    • 27. SOA Service Lifecycle Service Identification Service Classification Service Litmus Service Specification Estimation / Funding Assign Ownership Service Development Quality Assessments Production Promote SLA Monitoring Service Portfolio Business Case Business Analysis Existing System Analysis Business Use cases Service Portfolio Business Modeling Requirement Specification System Specification Service Specification Application Architecture Design Models Service Framework Service Configurations Service Monitoring
    • 28. Service Planning Process
      • Activities
      • Define system context (or business context) model.
      • Identify gaps with the current service portfolio
      • Estimate for SOA based development
      • Agree on ownership with stakeholders
      • Agree on the funding aspects
      • Inputs
      • Business Case
      • High Level Requirements
      • Service Portfolio Plan
      • Business Use cases
      • Business Analysis
      • Deliverables
      • Updated Portfolio Plan
      • Objectives
        • Identify the services ( at high level) , get funding and assign ownerships
      • All necessary Stakeholders
      • Project Team
      • Project Portfolio Office
      • SOA Team
    • 29. Service Modelling – Top down Business Analysis
      • SOA Service Modeling includes :
        • Service Identification
        • Classification & Catalogue
        • litmus
        • service specification
      • Top down domain decomposition approach for service modeling.
      • Service Modeling will be done during the requirement analysis and solution design phase
    • 30. Service Identification Reserve Vehicle Check-out Vehicle Check-in Vehicle
      • Function Domain in this example is Rent Vehicle. Consider it as a black box
      1
      • Identify Business Services – Why people are coming to the system ?
      2 Reserve Vehicle Vehicle Delivery
      • Identify Business Processed
      3 Source : IBM Fleet Management Promotions Management Customer Service Vehicle Availability Location Promotions Customer Profile Location Information Rentals & Reservations Vehicle Availability Reserve Vehicle Check Rates Check-In Vehicle Check-Out Vehicle Customer Profile Location Promotions Location Information Rent Vehicle Offered Service Consumed Service Rent Vehicle Rent Vehicle
    • 31. Service Catalogue & Classification 1.2 Check-out Vehicle 1.3 Check-in Vehicle 0.Rent Vehicle 1.1.2 Make Reservation 1.1.1 Check Rates 1.2.1 Locate Reservation 1.2.2 Modify Reservation 1.2.3 Create Rental Agreement 1.2.4 Sign-out Vehicle from Lot 1.3.1 Locate Rental Agreement 1.3.2 Process Return Information 1.3.3 Process Payment 1.3.4 Return Vehicle to Lot 1.1 Reserve Vehicle 1.1.1.1 Get Location (pick-up/ drop-off) 1.1.1.2 Get Date / time (pick-up/ drop-off) 1.1.1.3 Choose Vehicle 1.1.1.4 Get Options Information 1.1.1.5 Check Vehicle Availability 1.1.1.6 Offer Rates For Selection 1.1.2.1 Confirm Rental Information 1.1.2.2 Get Customer Information 1.1.2.3 Get Payment Information 1.1.2.4 Confirm Reservation 1.1.2.5 Create Reservation
      • Catalogue all the services identified.
      • Classify them as
        • Application Services
        • Infrastructure Services
      • How do I decide which one is an application service - Service Classification Framework
        • Transactional Services, Query and Content Services, Data Service etc.
      Source : IBM
    • 32. Service Litmus Test- IBM Proposed Approach
      • “ From all the candidate services, which ones should we expose?”
      • Not all candidate services should be exposed
      • Every implemented service has costs and risks
      • “ Service Litmus Test ” helps make exposure decisions
      Source : IBM
    • 33. Service Litmus for Rent A Car 1.1.2.1 Confirm Rental Information 1.1.2.2 Get Customer Information 1.1.2.3 Get Payment Information 1.1.2.4 Confirm Reservation 1.1.2.5 Create Reservation 1.1.1.1 Get Location (pick-up/ drop-off) 1.1.1.2 Get Date / time (pick-up/ drop-off) 1.1.1.3 Choose Vehicle 1.1.1.4 Get Options Information 1.1.1.5 Check Vehicle Availability 1.1.1.6 Offer Rates For Selection 1.2 Check-out Vehicle 1.3 Check-in Vehicle 0.Rent Vehicle 1.1.2 Make Reservation 1.1.1 Check Rates 1.2.1 Locate Reservation 1.2.2 Modify Reservation 1.2.3 Create Rental Agreement 1.2.4 Sign-out Vehicle from Lot 1.3.1 Locate Rental Agreement 1.3.2 Process Return Information 1.3.3 Process Payment 1.3.4 Return Vehicle to Lot 1.1 Reserve Vehicle = Service to be exposed Legend Source : IBM
    • 34. Service Strategy Source : IBM Transform Integrate Subscribe Build Buy Time to decide on how we are going to get those services Outsource Integrate: Wrapping a legacy system’s function Build New Component Functionality (“Roll your own”) Transform legacy to enable functionality exposure for this service to reuse Buy : Integrate with third party product
    • 35.
    • 36. SOA Do you want to go further down or come up?
    • 37. Discussion Topics
      • SOA – is this really working?
      • System integration - challenges in practice
      • Skills – do we have the right skill set to support an ‘aligned’ organisation
      • Business Process Management – what does this mean for organisations today
      • Challenges to gaining alignment
    • 38. Thank You