PEERSAn in depth study as it relates to socialization.By Alex A, Cheyenne H, and Laura E.
Overview: What is Socialization?• Socialization is a process where people learnbehaviors, attitudes, skills, knowledge, and valuesappropriate for members in their individualsociety/culture.• There are many socialization agents, such asschool, peers, media/technology, etc.• Institutions, such as government agencies,service industries, and hospitals help socializationin the household.• Although peers aren’t very influential at a youngage, it is still a huge agent in a child’s socialization
Overview: What is a “Peer”?• Children in the neighborhood, at the park, orat school can become friends and beconsidered peers.• Peers can be controlled by parents bycreating play dates• Children can set up their own peer groups byplaying with them at school or in theneighborhood
Development of Friendships• Early Childhood– Most children under age 4 are in their first stage, Momentary Playmateship. Unable toconsider viewpoints of other people and only think about them selves in friendships.• Early Middle Childhood– One Way Assistance Stage, between age 4-9, children can distinguish the differencebetween their own perspectives and those of others. Friendship is based on whether ornot someone wanted to do what you wanted them to.• Middle Childhood– Two Way/Fair-Weather Cooperation stage, children between 6-12, acknowledge thatfriendship involves give and take. At this age, children emphasize similarities betweenfriends.• Middle Childhood to Adolescence– Intimate, Mutually Shared Relationship-stage. Children between 9-15 can viewfriendship as an entity. A relationship that incorporates more than just doing things foreach other. Involves jealousy.• Adolescence to Adulthood– Autonomous Interdependent Friendship, Stage. At about 12 years old, children arecapable of respecting their friends need for both dependency and autonomy.
Overview: How do Peer groups begin?• Most children don’t play in groups at first.• Children often play side-by-side, mimicking andacknowledging other peers around them.• Children influence actions during play, but stay in theirown bubble.• Eventually the children begin to interact, forminggroups of twos or three that involve activities,interests, norms, rules, etc.• Most peers prefer to hang out with those of theirgender.
Influences of Peer Socialization: Behavior• Behavior Contagion: behavior that is exhibitedby one person, then copied by others.• A child begins screaming for joy oversomething. A few seconds later, the wholeclass is screaming with them as well.• Peers establish activities, interests, norms,rules, expressions, traditions, gestures, andmany more action.
Influences of Peer Socialization:Peers teaching Pretend• Most adults don’t teach children how to playpretend.• Children learn from each other how to setroles for their imaginary characters.• They agree with each others rules and setout to accomplish their imaginary-play-timegoals, which is why it can be hard for adultsto understand what is going on.
Influences of Peer Socialization: Someoneto lean on• Taboo topics such as sex, religious beliefs,adulthood and other topics can be shunned inthe household• Kids/Teens can learn about these topics fromtheir friends—whether parents like it or not.• Peers help create new concerns, not bound toadult norms.• Friends offer sympathy and advice on how tohandle issues.
Influences of Peer Socialization: UnderstandingGenerations through Peers• Peers help place us in history• Growing up with peers of our age group, wecan look back at the next generation andcategorize the generation we feel we fit in.
Method of Peer Socialization• Peer group’s function is to teach how to giveand take, equally.• Younger peer groups modify behavior withthe use of rewards and punishments– “Let me ride the bicycle or else you can’t comeover anymore!”• Learning to get along with peers is a lotdifference than getting along with familymembers, it’s a choice with peers.
Method of Peer Socialization:Rejection and Approval• Children with poor socialization skills are less likely toform healthy bonds as adults, and more likely toexperience rejection from peers.• Having acceptable characteristics and acting inappropriate manner will provide rewards throughoutit’s peers.• Children come to look at them selves from the point ofview of it’s peers.• Peer groups rewards sociability and rejects deviations.• Victimization and bullying is possible
Peer Topic: Bullying• An extreme example of social hierarchies in peergroups• An aggressive behavior intended to cause harmor distress.• Occurs frequently in an uncontrolled relationshipof power and strength• Bullying occurs in many forms• Middle school is when bullying is most common.• Almost all students are affected by bullyingdirectly or indirectly.
Bullying: Physically• Physical bullying occurs often in school,though it can occur from school and afterschool.• More likely to occur in males, but still seen infemales as well.• Victims of physical bullying are usuallyphysically and socially weak.
Affects of Physical Abuse• Many negative affects such as fighting, sexualharassment, stealing--maybe even death.• Forms of physically bullying involve– Hitting– Pushing– Tripping– Slapping– Spitting– Stealing/destroying personal belongings.
Bullying: Verbally• Bullying goes beyond physical• Verbal bullying can be just as harmful, but indifferent ways, as physically bullying.• The goal of verbal bullying is to make theother person look weak.• More common bullying technique for femalesbut very common for males.
Affects of Verbal Abuse• Can effect one’s self image in psychologicaland emotional ways.• Leads to low self esteem, depression, badeating habits, and many other problems.• Can cause a student to fail school due to fear.• Substance abuse, or in very extreme cases,death!
Bullying: Cyber Bullying• When a child or teen is harassed,embarrassed, threatened, or tormented viadigital technology.• Cell phone use and internet is most common.• Leaving mean messages on Facebook,uploading embarrassing photos, spreadinggossip, exposing someone etc…
Amanda Todd: Victim of Bullying• Amanda used an online videochat service where she met aman and decided to expose herself.• The man blackmailed Amandaand threatened to show all herfriends and family her pictures.• Amanda eventually movedschools, but the bully found hervia Facebook and showed all herfriends the nude pictures.• Amanda was bullied verbally,physically, and on the internet.• She eventually committedsuicide by hanging her self.
2013 Bullying Statistics• 160,000 students don’t attend school, everyday,from fear of being bullied.• 8% of students miss class because of bullies.• Every 7 minutes a child is bullied on theplayground.• 43% of harassment happens in the bathroom.• About 35% of kids have been threatened online.• A poll taken of teens between 12-17 said theybelieved violence increased at their school.
Signs of Bullying• Arriving home with bruises or cuts• Often “losing” belongings at school• Skipping school or certain classes• Withdrawn from everyone else• Mood swings• Trying to take weapons to school• Talking about violence of suicide
Put a Stop to BullyingTalk about bullyingParents, school staff, adults, and friends have a role toprevent bullying. Encourage others to model kind andrespectful attitudePrevent Bullying At SchoolBullying threatens students physically and emotionally.Stop it before it startsWork With CommunityThink of strategies with the community. Help identifyand support those who are bullied.
Conclusion• Peer groups enable children to become independent, away fromadults.• As children get older, peers become more important as socialsupport• Peers provide validation, encouragement, opportunities forcomparison, enable self-disclosure, and help figure out one’sidentity.• Issues such as bullying become more noticeable between beersaround middle school and above• Bullying has become a huge issue in and out of school, but there areways to prevent and stop them• Thanks to Peers, Socialization is established through the friendshipscreated throughout ones lives. Peers effect the way we act withstrangers, and they teach us what norms are acceptable.