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Research skills final revision

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For the first year students in the Eglish Language and Literature Department, 2013-2014

For the first year students in the Eglish Language and Literature Department, 2013-2014

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  • 1. Section F Spring 2014
  • 2. What is a summary? According to Oxford Dictionaries a summary is a “a brief statement or account of the main points of something” (oxforddictionaries.com).
  • 3. Therefore, it should be shorter than the original passage, and it should include the main ideas of the passage
  • 4. How to write a summary? Before you start writing your summary: 1- Underline the Topic Sentence (usually the first sentence that carry the main idea of the passage) 2- Underline the main supporting sentences 3- Underline the concluding sentence 4- Circle the main KEYWORDS
  • 5. Example: • Summarize the following passage: Studying foreign literature is not easy, yet many students pursue it for many reasons. Studying the literature of another country entails learning about this country’s culture and even history. It helps the students understand the human nature in another context and it enriches their cultural background. In addition, it gives the students the chance to practice their analytical skills in comparing and contrasting their native literature to the foreign one. The critical reading leads to a better understanding of one’s native culture. In conclusion, the study of foreign literature adds a lot to one’s literary knowledge, that it gradually moves from being a study to a hobby.
  • 6. Example: • Underlining main ideas: Studying foreign literature is not easy, yet many students pursue this study for many reasons. Studying the literature of another country entails learning about this country’s culture and even history. It helps the students understand the human nature in another context and enriches their cultural background. In addition, it gives the students the chance to practice their analytical skills in comparing and contrasting their native literature to the foreign one. The critical reading leads to a better understanding of one’s native culture. In conclusion, the study of foreign literature adds a lot to one’s literary knowledge, that it gradually moves from being a study to a hobby.
  • 7. Example: • Circling keywords: Studying foreign literature is not easy, yet many students pursue this study for many reasons. Studying the literature of another country entails learning about this country’s culture and even history. It helps the students to understand the human nature in another context and enriches their cultural background. In addition, it gives the students the chance to practice their analytical skills in comparing and contrasting their native literature to the foreign one. The critical reading leads to a better understanding of one’s native culture. In conclusion, the study of foreign literature adds a lot to one’s literary knowledge, that it gradually moves from being a study to a hobby.
  • 8. What next? • Change the structure of the main sentences by: 1. Replacing words with their synonyms (e.g. important > significant) 2. Changing parts of speech (e.g. It is important to study literature > Studying literature is important) 3. Combining sentences using connecting words or the other way round (e.g. and, but, in addition, yet..) 4. Changing active structure into passive (e.g. They study literature > Literature is studied) 5. Making a positive verb into a negative verb (e.g. trivial > not important) 6. Changing the order of the sentence parts (e.g. Studying literature is important to enhance analytical skills > Because it enhances the analytical skills, it is vital to study literature)
  • 9. Would you try and analyze our passage now?
  • 10. A Model Summary Numerous students prefer to study foreign literature for two reasons. They learn to understand the foreign country’s different culture and civilization, and they understanding better their own literature. It eventually becomes a leisure pursuit more than just a study.
  • 11. How to refer to Sources? • Refer to a source when you need to verify or emphasize your perspective. This source should support your point of view and not replace it. • Use quotations for short references and significant words or quotes that would be more powerful if stated verbatim. (Refer to author + “quotation marks”) • Use paraphrases to add variety to your reference style. To paraphrase is to write the quotation in your own words. (Refer to author) • Use summaries to recapitulate a long quotation and re-writing it in your own words briefly. (Refer to author) • Check Chapter 3, 8 and Appendix E in your textbook.
  • 12. How to refer to the author’s words or ideas? • According to Oshima and Hogue (2006), “to introduce borrowed information … use the phrase according to or a reporting verb such as: assert, insist, report, suggest, claim, maintain, say, write, declare, mention, state” (p. 43). • Example: In his article "Michael Dell turns the PC world inside out," Serwer (1997) describes how Michael Dell founded Dell Computers and claims that Dell’s low- cost, direct-sales strategy and high quality standards account for Dell’s enormous success.
  • 13. In-text & End-of-text • In-text citation: Your reader needs to know right away who said what, even if his/her words are paraphrased or summarized. • In MLA, write the author’s name + page number, while in APA, write the author’s name + year of publication +page number. • End-of-text citations come at the end of your essay under the title “works cited” or “references”. The function of this list is to give your reader all the info. needed to get back to your source.
  • 14. Example: Citing a book MLA APA In- text According to Bruce, “….” (50). Or Because, ….. (Bruce, 50) According to Bruce (2001), “…..” (p. 50). Or Because, ….. (Bruce, 2001, p.50). End- of- text Bruce, Dickson D. The Origins of African American Literature, 1680- 1865. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001. Bruce, D. D. (2001). The origins of African American literature, 1680-1865. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
  • 15. Citing a book: A- APA Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher. B- MLA Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
  • 16. Citing a website: A- APA: Last Name, F. M. (date).Page title. Website Title. Retrieval date, from URL. Smith, J. (1 Sep. 2012). The Sky is Blue. ObviousObservations.com.Retrieved 3 Sep. 2013, from www.obviousobservations.com/JohnSmith. B- MLA: Last Name, First Name. "Page Title." Website title. Sponsoring Institution/Publisher . Last date. Retrieval date, from URL. Smith, John. “The Sky is Blue.” ObviousObservations.com. Captain Obvious Inc., 1 Sep. 2012. Web. 3 Sep. 2013.
  • 17. Citing articles: A- APA Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896. B- MLA Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Poniewozik, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time 20 Nov. 2000: 70-71.
  • 18. Useful Sources: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/
  • 19. Works Cited Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (2006). Writing academic English. White Plains, NY: Pearson/Longman.
  • 20. Best of luck 

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