(Caribbean Community and Common Market) Heavon Brown, Final Year Bachelor of Technology Degree, Agriculture & Food Systems...
What is Food Security? <ul><li>According to FAO </li></ul><ul><li>“ Food security exists when all people at all times have...
12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
Dimensions of Food Security <ul><li>Food Security has FOUR dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Access:  The physical and economi...
What is CARICOM? <ul><li>CARICOM  means CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY .  </li></ul><ul><li>CARICOM replaces CARIFTA as the Caribbean...
WHAT IS CARICOM? <ul><li>In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders at the Seventh Heads of Government Conference decided to ...
What is CARICOM? <ul><li>Between 1993 and 2000, the Inter-Governmental Task Force (IGTF)  </li></ul><ul><li>which was comp...
OBJECTIVES OF CARICOM <ul><li>The objectives of the Community, identified in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty, are: to impr...
OBJECTIVES OF CARICOM <ul><li>ENCOURAGE enhanced levels of international competitiveness; organization for increased produ...
SOME CHALLENGES CARICOM FACES <ul><li>Caribbean is disadvantaged; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small size and small economies tha...
12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
THE CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY <ul><li>15 full Member Countries, population +/- 15million </li></ul><ul><li>5 Associate Member St...
12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security Grenada full 133 102,638 (2002) English 7-Feb-74 1-May-74 11.0 (2007) 67.1 ...
12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
CARICOM AND FOOD SECURITY Edwin W. Carrington, T & T CARICOM Secretary General His Excellency, Bharrat Jagdeo 12/13/09 Hea...
IS CARICOM RESPONSIBLE FOR INSECURITY? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
KEY CAUSES OF FOOD INSECURITY 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
ROLE OF CARICOM 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
TRADE BARRIERS…IMPACT? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
EXPORTS VERSUS IMPORTS OF COUNTRIES 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
THEN WHY CARICOM CREATES SUCH AN IMPACT? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
WHAT ABOUT OTHER TRADING BODIES? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
TACKLING  FOOD SECURITY  HOW? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
CAN JAMAICA BE FOOD SECURE? How or Why Not? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
THE FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS OF JAMAICA <ul><li>Agricultural sector largest employer of labour – low productivity </li></ul>...
FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS <ul><li>Over $250 million import food bill annually </li></ul><ul><li>Jamaica’s food security  is t...
FOOD SECURITY BASED ON GLOBAL/SOCIAL  PROBLEMS <ul><li>Constant pressure from environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>...
KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN JAMAICA’S FOOD SECURITY? <ul><li>CASE </li></ul><ul><li>KNOCKALV AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li...
CASE’S  role in Jamaica’s food security <ul><li>Mandated to do teaching, research and outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Situated ...
PROBLEMS AT KNOCKALVA  AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL <ul><li>Land cut off for secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>Under – Capitalizat...
Problems at Dinthill T.H.S. <ul><li>Under-capitalization  </li></ul><ul><li>Squatting - Jack Stevens initiatives: 12.16 he...
PROBLEMS AT HOLMWOOD T.H.S. <ul><li>Under - capitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Denham farm with all its elements </l...
PROBLEMS AT CASE, PASSLEY GARDENS <ul><li>Ministry of Education not realizing the true worth of the institution </li></ul>...
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Caricom Impact On Food Security

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Caricom Impact On Food Security

  1. 1. (Caribbean Community and Common Market) Heavon Brown, Final Year Bachelor of Technology Degree, Agriculture & Food Systems College of Agriculture, Science & Education Email: [email_address] Tel: 715 4367/831 3143 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  2. 2. What is Food Security? <ul><li>According to FAO </li></ul><ul><li>“ Food security exists when all people at all times have physical and economic access to safe, sufficient and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active healthy life.” </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  3. 3. 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  4. 4. Dimensions of Food Security <ul><li>Food Security has FOUR dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Access: The physical and economic access to enough food for an active, healthy life. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability: The availability of good quality, nutritious food from local, regional and international sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilisation: The safe and healthy utilisation of the food consumed by individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Stability: The stability or sustainability of food supplies, access to that food and the utilisation of the food consumed. Anything that interrupts food supply and access or interferes with the utilisation of food will lead to food insecurity </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  5. 5. What is CARICOM? <ul><li>CARICOM means CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY . </li></ul><ul><li>CARICOM replaces CARIFTA as the Caribbean’s bargaining body on trade. </li></ul><ul><li>CARICOM was established on May 1, 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Major objectives include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to create conditions to increase output of agricultural & manufacturing products in member countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To encourage trade among members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop common trade policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate charges on imported goods which originate in member countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as bargaining body when negotiating with outside forces </li></ul></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  6. 6. WHAT IS CARICOM? <ul><li>In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders at the Seventh Heads of Government Conference decided to transform the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the Caribbean Community, of which the Common Market would be an integral part. </li></ul><ul><li>Although a free-trade area had been established, CARIFTA did not provide for the free movement of labour and capital, or the coordination of agricultural, industrial and foreign policies </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  7. 7. What is CARICOM? <ul><li>Between 1993 and 2000, the Inter-Governmental Task Force (IGTF) </li></ul><ul><li>which was composed of representatives of all Member States, produced nine Protocols, for the purpose of amending the Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>These nine Protocols were later combined to create a new version of the Treaty, called formally, The Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing the Caribbean Community, including the CARICOM Single Market and Economy. </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  8. 8. OBJECTIVES OF CARICOM <ul><li>The objectives of the Community, identified in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty, are: to improve standards of living and work; the full employment of labour and other factors of production </li></ul><ul><li>accelerated, coordinated and sustained economic development and convergence; expansion of trade and economic relations with third States </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  9. 9. OBJECTIVES OF CARICOM <ul><li>ENCOURAGE enhanced levels of international competitiveness; organization for increased production and productivity; achievement of a greater measure of economic leverage </li></ul><ul><li>ENCOURAGE effectiveness of Member States in dealing with third States, groups of States and entities of any description and the enhanced co-ordination of Member States’ foreign and foreign economic policies and enhanced functional co operation </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  10. 10. SOME CHALLENGES CARICOM FACES <ul><li>Caribbean is disadvantaged; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small size and small economies that limit resources and investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural hazards, such as flooding and hurricanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular strain on the economies and health sector that slows down development and causes setbacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased competition both inter-regional and intra-regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and free movement of persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages in continued cooperation in health as well as other social and economic developmental areas. The CSME brings new challenges but also enables the region to become more competitive in global developments. </li></ul></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  11. 11. 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  12. 12. THE CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY <ul><li>15 full Member Countries, population +/- 15million </li></ul><ul><li>5 Associate Member States, population +/- 164,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The populations are of different sizes and are diverse in people, language, skills and levels economic and social of development </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  13. 13. 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security Grenada full 133 102,638 (2002) English 7-Feb-74 1-May-74 11.0 (2007) 67.1 70.5 EC$ 10,559 (2002) 11% (2001) Republic of Guyana full 83,000 774,800 (2002) English 26-May-66 1-Aug-73 22.0 (2005) 64.6 70.3 G$ 2,530 (2002) 9.1% (2001) Republic of Haiti full 10,714 8,357,000 (2000) French and Creole 1/1/1804 2-Jul-02 57.0 (2006) 59.4 63.2 Gourde 1,534 (2000) 70% in informal sector Jamaica full 4,244 2,641,200 (2002) English 6-Aug-62 1-Aug-73 19.0 (2001) 70.1 75.3 J$ 8,743 (2002) 15% (2001) Montserrat full 40 4,501 (2002) English   1-May-74 0 (2002) 76.9 81.5 EC$ 22,808 12.1% (2001) Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis full 104 46,710 (2002) English 19-Sep-83 26-Jul-74 12.5 (2001) 70.1 76.0 EC$ 20,396 (2002) 5% (1998) Saint Lucia full 238 159,133 (2002) English 22-Feb-79 1-May-74 15.0 (2007) 72.0 75.8 EC$ 11,612 (2002) 16.4% (2000) St. Vincent and the Grenadines full 150 109,164 (2002) English 27-Oct-79 1-May-74 26.2 (2006) 69.7 74.0 EC$ 8.931 (2002) 28.2% (1999) Republic of Suriname full 63,251 504,257 (2006) Dutch 25-Nov-75 4-Jul-95 19.1 (2006) 67.2 73.7 SRD 10,260 (2006) 12.3% (2006) Trinidad/Tobago full 1,980 1,276,000(2002) English 31-Aug-62 1-Aug-73 16.5 (2004) 68.2 72.1 TT$ 19,736 10.8% (2001)
  14. 14. 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  15. 15. CARICOM AND FOOD SECURITY Edwin W. Carrington, T & T CARICOM Secretary General His Excellency, Bharrat Jagdeo 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  16. 16. IS CARICOM RESPONSIBLE FOR INSECURITY? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  17. 17. KEY CAUSES OF FOOD INSECURITY 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  18. 18. ROLE OF CARICOM 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  19. 19. TRADE BARRIERS…IMPACT? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  20. 20. EXPORTS VERSUS IMPORTS OF COUNTRIES 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  21. 21. THEN WHY CARICOM CREATES SUCH AN IMPACT? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  22. 22. WHAT ABOUT OTHER TRADING BODIES? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  23. 23. TACKLING FOOD SECURITY HOW? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  24. 24. CAN JAMAICA BE FOOD SECURE? How or Why Not? 12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  25. 25. THE FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS OF JAMAICA <ul><li>Agricultural sector largest employer of labour – low productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is third largest foreign exchange earner for Jamaica – suffering from “back burner” policy </li></ul><ul><li>Recent threat of international trade agreements [research the EPA etc] </li></ul><ul><li>Imports cheaper than locally produced foods </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers cannot compete </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  26. 26. FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS <ul><li>Over $250 million import food bill annually </li></ul><ul><li>Jamaica’s food security is threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Poor image of agriculture, & alternate (illegal) lifestyles pursued </li></ul><ul><li>Poor land utilization policy – competition from housing interests </li></ul><ul><li>Praedial larceny </li></ul><ul><li>Squatting </li></ul><ul><li>Farm size </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  27. 27. FOOD SECURITY BASED ON GLOBAL/SOCIAL PROBLEMS <ul><li>Constant pressure from environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Changing lifestyles - many of our cultivars may be disappearing, since young people drift to urban areas, and farming population is aging thus certain cultivars are disappearing </li></ul><ul><li>There is pressure on the land from housing and other “developments” - bona fide agriculture is suffering </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  28. 28. KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN JAMAICA’S FOOD SECURITY? <ul><li>CASE </li></ul><ul><li>KNOCKALV AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>MINISTRY OF EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY SCHOOLS: TECHNICAL SCHOOLS </li></ul>12/13/09 Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security
  29. 29. CASE’S role in Jamaica’s food security <ul><li>Mandated to do teaching, research and outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Situated on some 700 acres of land of varying topography-mountain (ridge) to coastline (reef) </li></ul><ul><li>Represents some typical agronomic conditions in Jamaica-excellent setting to do research </li></ul><ul><li>Awesome potential for agro-tourism- orchards, plantation house, nature trails, bird sanctuary, natural forests, beaches etc. </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  30. 30. PROBLEMS AT KNOCKALVA AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL <ul><li>Land cut off for secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>Under – Capitalization {cutting the budget every year} </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Education not realizing the true worth of the institution </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  31. 31. Problems at Dinthill T.H.S. <ul><li>Under-capitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Squatting - Jack Stevens initiatives: 12.16 hectares lost to squatters at “capture land” </li></ul><ul><li>Squatting- NHDC initiative: 18.22 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Little support from MOE </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of farm hands </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Boarding </li></ul><ul><li>School currently has only 20.24 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Education not realizing the true worth of the institution </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  32. 32. PROBLEMS AT HOLMWOOD T.H.S. <ul><li>Under - capitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Denham farm with all its elements </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of agri programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Agri Education relegated to rocky escarpment on which school campus stands </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Education not realizing the true worth of the institution </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
  33. 33. PROBLEMS AT CASE, PASSLEY GARDENS <ul><li>Ministry of Education not realizing the true worth of the institution </li></ul><ul><li>Hilly terrain with uncontrollable rainfall patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Land dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Rampant squatting </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted take-over of Tutorial Farm lands and water resources for housing development </li></ul><ul><li>Poor support for commercial farm at Spring Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to land tenure (litigation) </li></ul>Heavon Brown, CARICOM & Food Security 12/13/09
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