In November 1918 Germany surrenders to the Allied countries. The most powerful ones, being France, USA and Britain, wanted to create a treaty that clearly explained what Germany would now have to do. BUT WHAT SHOULD THEY DO? PUNISH? REBUILD? TAKE OVER? REVENGE!
<ul><li>Allied countries could not agree on what the treaty should include, but... </li></ul><ul><li>They could agree on WHERE it should take place: A French palace in a city called Versailles (near Paris) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After World War I, leaders from countries involved in the war met here to write a treaty ( peace talks ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty outlined the terms of the winners and what they expected of the losing country </li></ul></ul>W H Y
Many Historians believe that disagreements happened because the war affected the countries in many different ways. WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED...
BRITAIN 750,000 men died Spent nearly $8 billion of which $1 billion was borrowed from the USA Some British people blamed Germany for the war and wanted revenge The British Prime Minister thought that if the Treaty was too harsh, then Germany might one day start another war. I don’t want to cripple Germany in the Treaty. I think that this could start another war in the future, but people in Britain want Germany to pay.
USA They joined in 1917 and lost 113,000 men. USA’s homeland was never attacked USA wanted a ‘softer’ treaty because they thought Germany was important for the future... Woodrow Wilson: I don’t agree with France. Its probably because we didn’t suffer nearly as much as the French. However, I want to focus upon setting up the League of Nations . US did not join the League of Nations for fear of being drawn into more wars. This also means the US did not sign the Treaty of Versailles.
FRANCE Most of the fighting took place in Northern France. 1,250,000 men died Germany stole 90% of France’s coal and iron in 1914 Many roads and factories had been destroyed I want to make sure that Germany pays for the problems it has caused us. We suffered the most in WW1 and we demand revenge and reparations Clemencau
FRANCE USA BRITAIN “ SIGN THE TREATY OR WE WILL INVADE YOU……ITS YOUR CHOICE!” The treaty was dictated to Germany-- they did not have a say in it.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS MASSIVE ARMY CUTS The Army was cut to just 100,000 men, the Navy could only have 6 battleships, and they were not allowed to build any new planes, tanks, or submarines. GERMAN LAND GIVEN AWAY Germany lost land to France, Poland, Belgium, and Denmark. An area of Germany was even separated from the mainland. GERMANY’S EMPIRE All of Germany’s colonies were taken away and given away to the Allied countries. PAY COMPENSATION This was know as reparations. Germany had to pay $33 billion dollars. WHAT DID THE TREATY ACCOMPLISH? This organization of nations would cooperate to keep peace. Treaty of Versailles
Not only did Germany lose about 10% of its land, it also consequently lost 10% of its population. German people were now living in foreign countries. Land taken away from Germany under the treaty of Versailles
“ Today in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles the disgraceful Treaty is being signed. Do not forget it. The German people will press forward to reconquer the place among nations to which we deserve. Then will come revenge for the shame of 1919.” Excerpt from a German newspaper on the day the treaty was signed...
Germany was a proud country due to its military strength and strong traditions of dominance within that area of Europe. However, the treaty of Versailles created different feelings: Humiliation Bitterness Embarrassment Revenge
The war had left Germany almost bankrupt. As its people starved and the country lay in chaos, the Allies gave them a bill (Treaty of Versailles) that they simply could not afford to pay... RESULT: German money become worthless German m on ey was only good for starting fires…
<ul><li>The Dawes Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced the amount Germany owed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set payments Germany could handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loaned Germany $200 million </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Germany wasn’t the only country who suffered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1930s, countries around the world fell into a worldwide economic depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHY?... </li></ul>
<ul><li>1929—USA experienced a stock market crash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of stocks began to drop so stockholders began to sell their stocks as fast as they could </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Businesses could no longer sell their goods because people had less money to spend, so many had to close & workers lost their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>People couldn’t repay their loans to the bank, so they lost everything (homes, farms, etc.) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Businesses around the world traded with the US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the US stopped buying goods, it hurt businesses in other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When US banks closed, banks in other countries were hurt too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholders in other countries could no longer sell their stocks to American companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As businesses and factories around the world closed one by one, buying and selling almost stopped… </li></ul>