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European Exploration and Empire Building
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European Exploration and Empire Building

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European Exploration and Empire Building European Exploration and Empire Building Presentation Transcript

  • Europe Influences the World
  • Why are people willing to risk everything to explore unknown territory?
    • To find a sea route to the spices of Asia.
    • To find gold, silver, and precious stones.
    • To expand their knowledge of the world.
    • To control a larger empire and have other markets to sell goods.
    • To expand Christianity.
    • To find natural resources such as animal furs.
    • The 1400s were a time of discovery as European countries began exploring the world in search of wealth.
    • Main countries involved in exploration:
      • Portugal
      • Spain
      • England
      • France
  •  
  • PORTUGAL
    • First Europeans to explore the unknown New World (not counting the Vikings)
    • First to sail around the tip of Africa
    • King of Portugal was very supportive of his son who was interested in ship building and map making.
    • Prince Henry the Navigator…
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
    • 1418: started the first school for navigation
    • 1434: sent an expedition to sail around dangerous West African
    • coast.
    • This set the stage for
      • Portugal’s later involvement
      • in the slave trade.
    • According to legend, beyond this point in an area known as the "Green Sea of Darkness," the sun was so close to the Earth that a person’s skin would burn black, the sea boiled, ships caught on fire, and monsters hid waiting to smash the ships and eat the sailors. It took fourteen voyages over a period of 12 years until a ship finally reached the equator.
  • Spain, England and France
    • During the 1400-1500s, while the Portuguese explored Africa, the Spanish, English and French explored America.
    • To increase trade, Europeans set up colonies.
  • Christopher Columbus
    • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (Spain) sent him to find another way to Asia
    • 1492: first expedition--landed in the Caribbean and called it “ the Indies”
    • Made 4 trips to the Caribbean from 1492-1504
  • CC ’ s Route …
  • Columbian Exchange
    • Exploration and trade led to a worldwide exchange of products, people, ideas, and diseases.
    • When Europeans arrived in America, they were carrying germs that could kill Native Americans.
    • Many diseases, including small pox, measles and malaria swept across the Americas killing millions of people.
  • 1500s
    • Spain had a huge empire that spanned the globe
    • Spanish conquistadors conquered the Inca and Aztec civilizations in the 1500s (South America)
      • --Looking for gold & spices
      • --Used missionaries to convert natives to Christianity
    • Claimed huge areas of North & South America & ruled over them for 300 years
  • 1600s
    • Beginning in the 1600s, the French, English, and other European countries established colonies in North America while Spain focused on the Caribbean, Mexico, and South America.
    • The Portuguese settled in the eastern part of South America per an agreement called the Treaty of Tordesillas.
  • 1700’s
    • North America came under British control in the 1700s
      • --Lost American colonies in 1776
    • Great Britain colonized Australia in 1788
      • --Used it as a penal (prison) colony to relieve overcrowded jails in England
    • Great Britain maintained control over Canada until 20 th century
  •  
  • 1800s
    • European nations built empires to help their economy and to spread their ideas.
    • European nations ruled almost all of Africa.
    • The United States joined European powers in the race for colonies.
  • Impact of European Colonization
    • Primary reasons for colonization:
      • Competition for raw materials
      • Market for products
      • Cheap Labor (slaves)
    • ***By the late 19th century most of the world had been divided by the Europeans into colonial powers. Fierce rivalries developed between European powers over colonial territories and they built up strong armies and navies to protect their interests.
  • World War I
    • How did European empire building lead to World War I?
  •