EQ: Explain the similarities and differences between the world’s three largest
monotheistic religions.
UNIT 1 NOTES
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major faiths that are examples of
monotheism, or belief in one supreme god.
MONOTHEISM
•First practiced by a small group of
people in Southwest Asia called the
Israelites.
•Followers today are known as Jews.
•...
• Believe that they descended from Abraham
and Sarah, the first people to worship
Yahweh (God). Abraham lived at least
3,7...
ABRAHAM AND SARAH MOVING
TO PALESTINE:
• Abraham’s Israelite descendants believed they
would be blessed if they followed God’s laws.
• According to the Torah, Mo...
JERUSALEM, ISRAEL
•Passover: festival that retells the story
of the Israelites fleeing Egypt.
•Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year’s
Day.
•Yom Ki...
•Arose from Judaism in Southwest Asia.
•A Jew named Jesus began preaching in what
today is Israel, the West Bank, and Jord...
JESUS
•A.D. 30, Jesus and his disciples, or followers,
went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover.
•Many Jews greeted him as the me...
THE LAST SUPPER
Disciples proclaimed that Jesus had risen from the dead.
•They began preaching that Jesus
was the Son of God, and they cal...
•A.D. 300: Christians were persecuted
until Roman emperor Constantine became
one and proclaimed it a lawful religion.
•Chr...
Emperor
Constantine
•Christmas: Jesus’ birthday.
•Good Friday: day Jesus was crucified.
•Easter: most important day of Christian calendar;
bel...
• Began in the A.D. 600s in the Arabian
Peninsula (Southwest Asia).
• In Arabic, Islam means “surrender” to the
will of Al...
•Born A.D. 570 in Makkah (Mecca), city in
western Arabia.
•A.D. 610, he heard the voice of angel Gabriel
telling him to pr...
Two letters written by
Muhammad…so old!
Muhammad’s swords
Muhammad’s hat,
robe, and staff
A piece of Muhammad’s hair!
One of Muhammad’s sandals
• Muhammad’s message angered the rich
merchants of Makkah.
• A.D. 622, he was forced to flee for safety to
Madinah.
• His ...
MAKKAH TO MADINAH
THE GREEN DOME IN MADINAH
Muhammad’s grave
lies under the Green
Dome. (Above is his
casket.)
• The Muslim holy book is the Quran.
• Describes the Five Pillars of Faith (obligations
all Muslims must fulfill).
THE QUR...
1. Confession, or statement, of faith.
2. Pray 5 times a day, facing Makkah.
3. Give charity to people in need.
4. Fast du...
THE GRAND MOSQUE IN
MAKKAH
3 religions powerpoint 2013 14
3 religions powerpoint 2013 14
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3 religions powerpoint 2013 14

  1. 1. EQ: Explain the similarities and differences between the world’s three largest monotheistic religions. UNIT 1 NOTES
  2. 2. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are major faiths that are examples of monotheism, or belief in one supreme god. MONOTHEISM
  3. 3. •First practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the Israelites. •Followers today are known as Jews. •Holy book is the Torah. JUDAISM
  4. 4. • Believe that they descended from Abraham and Sarah, the first people to worship Yahweh (God). Abraham lived at least 3,700 years ago in what is now Iraq. • Torah says that God made an agreement, or covenant, with Abraham (move to Canaan [Palestine] and he will be blessed). • Because of this, Jews believe they are God’s “chosen people”. JEWISH BELIEFS:
  5. 5. ABRAHAM AND SARAH MOVING TO PALESTINE:
  6. 6. • Abraham’s Israelite descendants believed they would be blessed if they followed God’s laws. • According to the Torah, Moses moved the Israelites out of Egypt, where they were slaves. At the top of Mt. Sanai in the desert, Moses received the Ten Commandments. • “All people –whether rich or poor – were to be treated fairly.” All Jews were to abide by the ten commandments. MOSES THE PROPHET: TEN COMMANDMENTS
  7. 7. JERUSALEM, ISRAEL
  8. 8. •Passover: festival that retells the story of the Israelites fleeing Egypt. •Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year’s Day. •Yom Kippur: known as the Day of Atonement. People fast (go without food) and pray on this day. HOLY DAYS
  9. 9. •Arose from Judaism in Southwest Asia. •A Jew named Jesus began preaching in what today is Israel, the West Bank, and Jordan. • Taught that God loved all people, even those that have sinned. •Some Jews greeted him as the messiah, or savior, who would deliver them from the Romans. II. CHRISTIANITY
  10. 10. JESUS
  11. 11. •A.D. 30, Jesus and his disciples, or followers, went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover. •Many Jews greeted him as the messiah, and this worried other Jews and Romans. •Jesus was convicted of treason under Roman law and crucified, or executed. JESUS
  12. 12. THE LAST SUPPER
  13. 13. Disciples proclaimed that Jesus had risen from the dead. •They began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God, and they called him Christ (Greek for “messiah”). •They spread Jesus’ teachings throughout the Roman world and beyond. •The holy book of the Christians is the Bible; stories about Jesus became the New Testament. JESUS
  14. 14. •A.D. 300: Christians were persecuted until Roman emperor Constantine became one and proclaimed it a lawful religion. •Christianity later divided into Roman Catholics (Pope in Italy), Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants (Martin Luther). •Has more followers than any other religion. CHRISTIANITY SPREADS…
  15. 15. Emperor Constantine
  16. 16. •Christmas: Jesus’ birthday. •Good Friday: day Jesus was crucified. •Easter: most important day of Christian calendar; believed to be the day that Jesus rose from the dead. HOLY DAYS
  17. 17. • Began in the A.D. 600s in the Arabian Peninsula (Southwest Asia). • In Arabic, Islam means “surrender” to the will of Allah (God). • Followers of Islam are called Muslims. • Believe that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet of Islam, following Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. III. ISLAM
  18. 18. •Born A.D. 570 in Makkah (Mecca), city in western Arabia. •A.D. 610, he heard the voice of angel Gabriel telling him to preach about God. •Told the people there is only one God, Allah, and all believers in him are equal. •Urged the rich to share with the poor. •Saw life as a preparation for the Day of Judgment (when Allah would reward the good and punish the bad). MUHAMMAD
  19. 19. Two letters written by Muhammad…so old!
  20. 20. Muhammad’s swords Muhammad’s hat, robe, and staff
  21. 21. A piece of Muhammad’s hair! One of Muhammad’s sandals
  22. 22. • Muhammad’s message angered the rich merchants of Makkah. • A.D. 622, he was forced to flee for safety to Madinah. • His departure is known as the Hijrah, or migration. • His forces eventually defeated armies who came to Madinah. • Made Madinah the center of Islam. • By the time of his death in A.D. 632, most of Arabia had accepted Islam. HIJRAH
  23. 23. MAKKAH TO MADINAH
  24. 24. THE GREEN DOME IN MADINAH Muhammad’s grave lies under the Green Dome. (Above is his casket.)
  25. 25. • The Muslim holy book is the Quran. • Describes the Five Pillars of Faith (obligations all Muslims must fulfill). THE QURAN
  26. 26. 1. Confession, or statement, of faith. 2. Pray 5 times a day, facing Makkah. 3. Give charity to people in need. 4. Fast during daylight during Ramadan (the month in which God began to reveal the Quran to Muhammad). 5. Make the hajj, or journey, to Makkah to pray (once in each Muslim’s lifetime). FIVE PILLARS OF FAITH:
  27. 27. THE GRAND MOSQUE IN MAKKAH
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