Oromia Green Revolution Relieving Malnutrition in Oromia Region,                 Ethiopia        Global Health Competition...
Acute Malnutrition• Affects up to 800,000,000 people globally• 36,000,000 of them will die• 18,000,000 are born mentally d...
Acute Malnutrition in Perspective• US $16; cost to treat malnutrition in Africa perperson per year• Malnutrition is comple...
Causes of Acute                     Malnutrition• Diet    – Primarily cereal diet    – Lack of necessary vitamins and mine...
Finding a Solution• “If you want to develop Africa, you must develop the  leadership of African women.” ~ Sekenya Ba,  Sen...
Obstacles to Education• Education not stable or effective when people  are malnourished• Opportunity cost of sending child...
Intervention from the Ground Up• Our proposal entails a green revolution for the  empowerment of women in Ethiopia.• Women...
Intervention through Education• While biscuits temporarily meet nutritional needs,  we plan to teach women how to meet the...
Immediate ReLEAF• Leaf concentrate: immediate relief for malnutrition• Nutritious food made by mechanically separating  vi...
Target location: Jimma Zone• Location: 354 km SW of Addis Ababa• Total population: 126,000 total,  60,000 female• Water So...
Finding a Solution• Community education center targeting  women  – Build in cooperation with Oromia Development    Associa...
Program Incentives• 20 families headed by women for  two years• Incentives:   – Labor payment ($1 per day)   – Import Leaf...
Applied Agriculture• Cultivate indigenous plants in community  garden• Teach modern agricultural techniques by  example: i...
Agriculture Project: Ethiopian KaleWhy Ethiopian Kale?• Native• Can supply edible leaves all year round• Germination in 5 ...
Agriculture Project: Ethiopian Kale• A nutritious (high protein, vitamin A and C) green-  leafy food source• The seed can ...
Cultivating Ethiopian Kale• Needs nitrogen  – Enrich with manure  – Intercropping with legumes• Needs water to produce hea...
Drying the Leaves• Dried leaves used in dishes as dietary  supplement• Wooden frame• Stretch UV-treated   polyester film a...
Leaf Protein Extraction Procedure1. Wash and cut leaves2. Grind the leaves into a   pulp3. Press juice out of pulp4. Heat ...
Nutrition ComparisonThe Effect of a Leaf Concentrate Supplement onHemoglobin Levels in Malnourished Bolivian Children: A P...
Feasibility: Budget•   Leaf Concentrate•   $44600 – seeds (20 families headed by women and having 6 children each) – 2 yea...
Remaining Budget for Continued  Agricultural Development andEducation of Women and ChildrenInternational Community School ...
Summary: Plan of Action• 1. Inspect the region, develop relationships with the natives to  identify most urgent needs• 2. ...
Long-term plans• As modern agricultural techniques  gain cultural acceptance, branch  out into other community centers• Pa...
Low Cost: High Return Investment• Preventative health care: birth defects, mental  deficiencies• Improves quality of life ...
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Team6

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  • 350,000 children will lose their sight 1,600,000,000 people suffer from reduced productivity
  • 350,000 children will lose their sight 1,600,000,000 people suffer from reduced productivity
  • The independence of African women is smothered enough by their patriarchal and impoverished society. Handing out biscuits increases their reliability on others. We desire to strengthen their independence rather than promote dependence. Biscuits may cure malnutrition for a time; bnut, as soon as the biscuits are gone, the malnutrition will appear again.
  • Address temporary solution: leaf protein extraction from France Costs Emphasize that it is temporary
  • Diet of one person supplemented by land of 11 square meters, football field of Ethiopian Kale will supplement the diet of 485 people
  • Transcript of "Team6"

    1. 1. Oromia Green Revolution Relieving Malnutrition in Oromia Region, Ethiopia Global Health Competition Team 6Janis Cho, Jeong-Hwa Seo, Jacquelyn Ford, Seamus McDonald, and Jessica Ford
    2. 2. Acute Malnutrition• Affects up to 800,000,000 people globally• 36,000,000 of them will die• 18,000,000 are born mentally deficient• 150,000 are born with severe birth defects•350,000 children will lose their sight•1,600,000,000 people suffer from reduced productivity(www.un.org)
    3. 3. Acute Malnutrition in Perspective• US $16; cost to treat malnutrition in Africa perperson per year• Malnutrition is completely preventable andtreatable
    4. 4. Causes of Acute Malnutrition• Diet – Primarily cereal diet – Lack of necessary vitamins and minerals: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Iron, Protein, Beta-carotene, Folic acid, Vitamin E, Magnesium, Calcium, Copper, Zinc• Lack of Education• Harmful, ancient agricultural techniques• Environmental degradation• Cyclical drought• Crop diseases
    5. 5. Finding a Solution• “If you want to develop Africa, you must develop the leadership of African women.” ~ Sekenya Ba, Senegal Role of women: • 70% food production • 50% domestic food storage • 100% food processing • “Women head about 31 per cent of households in urban and rural areas across Africa, often with no working resident males .” (http://www.un.org)
    6. 6. Obstacles to Education• Education not stable or effective when people are malnourished• Opportunity cost of sending children to school when they could be helping collect fuel and water is too great.• Women and children are not concerned about ABC’s when they do not know when, where, or what their next meal will be.
    7. 7. Intervention from the Ground Up• Our proposal entails a green revolution for the empowerment of women in Ethiopia.• Women and children often cannot go to school for an education so we decided to take education to them in the fields by: – Teaching wise agricultural practices – Using nutritious, native plants – Implementing Intercropping
    8. 8. Intervention through Education• While biscuits temporarily meet nutritional needs, we plan to teach women how to meet their own needs and the needs of their families.• Hand-outs are temporary; only knowledge is sustainable.• Helping women help themselves – Preserves their dignity – Provides them with a sense of fulfillment – Promotes independence
    9. 9. Immediate ReLEAF• Leaf concentrate: immediate relief for malnutrition• Nutritious food made by mechanically separating vitamins and minerals from indigestible plant elements• SOYNICA/APEF Study• In 3 months: 86% children, pregnant women, and nursing mothers no longer anemic• Solution: – Just 5-15 grams of LC per day is enough to replace the animal products, the vegetables, and fruits. – Acute Treatment: Cost of 5g a day= 3 euros (US $ 4.09) per year (from France) – Socially acceptable because it is native
    10. 10. Target location: Jimma Zone• Location: 354 km SW of Addis Ababa• Total population: 126,000 total, 60,000 female• Water Source - River (Gilgal Gibe)• Formerly a food-exporting area, poor crop harvests and and crop diseases have led to malnutrition, crime, begging, reduced enrollment in schools• Electricity and safe water available to nearly all Jimma Town households• Rich soil available• Plan to start here and expand outward
    11. 11. Finding a Solution• Community education center targeting women – Build in cooperation with Oromia Development Association (ODA) • Indigenous • Non-formal education project: construction and implementation of 90 basic adult and child education centers • Center: at least 2 classrooms and an office • Cost of each center: 30,000 birr or approx. U.S. $2,000 (http://www.oda.org.et/Pages/proj.htm/Formalfrset.htm)
    12. 12. Program Incentives• 20 families headed by women for two years• Incentives: – Labor payment ($1 per day) – Import Leaf Extract from France to address acute malnutrition – Primary education for children (partner with ODA) – After 2 years, first generation of native trainees will be paid to train other women (peer to peer)
    13. 13. Applied Agriculture• Cultivate indigenous plants in community garden• Teach modern agricultural techniques by example: intercropping, avoiding soil depletion, etc.
    14. 14. Agriculture Project: Ethiopian KaleWhy Ethiopian Kale?• Native• Can supply edible leaves all year round• Germination in 5 days (can harvest starting at 5 cm)• Can grow in any soil, any acidity• Semi-shade or no-shade tolerant• Pest tolerant• Self-fertile (AVRDC Fact sheet)
    15. 15. Agriculture Project: Ethiopian Kale• A nutritious (high protein, vitamin A and C) green- leafy food source• The seed can be used to produce edible oils and mustard• Dried Powder• Leaf Protein Extract• Excellent for oil seed, fermentation, salted food• One football field of kale is enough to supplement the food of 485 people for one year.
    16. 16. Cultivating Ethiopian Kale• Needs nitrogen – Enrich with manure – Intercropping with legumes• Needs water to produce healthy leaves – Target locations with water first – Use reservoir irrigation or ditch irrigation if needed
    17. 17. Drying the Leaves• Dried leaves used in dishes as dietary supplement• Wooden frame• Stretch UV-treated polyester film and insect/dust cloth over cover frame and base(The film lasts 4 years)(Source: http://www.leafforlife.org/)
    18. 18. Leaf Protein Extraction Procedure1. Wash and cut leaves2. Grind the leaves into a pulp3. Press juice out of pulp4. Heat juice, remove curd5. Leaf concentrate remains: 10 lbs of leaves yields ½ lb leaf concentrate6. Can be kept in concentrate form or dried in oven into powder (Source: http://www.leafforlife.org/)
    19. 19. Nutrition ComparisonThe Effect of a Leaf Concentrate Supplement onHemoglobin Levels in Malnourished Bolivian Children: A Pilot Study (Ceri A. Lowe) •Significant weight gains in children •Raise in blood hemoglobin levels •Decreased child mortality rate •Over 1 million lives have been saved by vitamin A alone
    20. 20. Feasibility: Budget• Leaf Concentrate• $44600 – seeds (20 families headed by women and having 6 children each) – 2 years period• $23840 – equipment per family• $14,600 – labor fee (paying women $1 a day)• $447 – others including solar box•• Total: $83,487•• Education system:•• $2000 – Center building• 1,080 to hire teachers• $480 – 120 children from participating families (France import)• $320 – 20 women from participating•• Inter-cropping broad beans (vicia faba):• $173 for 29 hectares and 20 tons
    21. 21. Remaining Budget for Continued Agricultural Development andEducation of Women and ChildrenInternational Community School at Addis Baba, EthiopiaTuition for New students:
    22. 22. Summary: Plan of Action• 1. Inspect the region, develop relationships with the natives to identify most urgent needs• 2. Procure and distribute leaf concentration extraction from France• 3. Cooperate with ODA to build community education centers• 4. Select primary women candidates (5) for initial training in leaf concentrate extraction with Ethiopian Kale.• 5. Partner with AVRDC (World Vegetable Center in Africa) to train staff.• 6. Train women in sustainable agricultural techniques, pursue training in other educational areas as needed (US $1080 per year for two teachers).• 7. Develop community garden at the community center to demonstrate agricultural techniques and to be a central location for leaf concentrate extraction.
    23. 23. Long-term plans• As modern agricultural techniques gain cultural acceptance, branch out into other community centers• Partner with other NGOs (USAID, Farmers to Farmers, Food for Work)• Follow-up and evaluate– Pursue partnerships with agricultural students in Ethiopian universities to help evaluate and encourage the continuance of training and techniques– Offer scholarships/fellowships, or pursue class credit
    24. 24. Low Cost: High Return Investment• Preventative health care: birth defects, mental deficiencies• Improves quality of life in communities• Better health, fewer deaths, encourages commerce• Empowered women• Educated women and children
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