Lake Michigan’s Changing Nearshore: Understanding Type E Avian Botulism Outbreaks at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshor...
Photos: A.Van Zoeren
GLRI Project #91Predict and prevent avian botulism outbreaks                    • Beach monitoring for                    ...
Beach Monitoring    3 study sites    monitored every 7-10 days , June-November    Door County      NWHC & Wisconsin DNR (2...
Bird Mortality Monitoring
Potential Pathways                             Sediment                                        SedimentD. Blehert, USGS (2...
Where are some likely micro-habitats for C. botulinum?                                                                    ...
Botulism outbreaks and environmental conditions1. Water temperature + hydrodynamics                                       ...
3. Transport of Cladophora, sediment, invertebrates
4. Dissolved oxygen conditions
4. Dissolved oxygen conditions
Benthic Habitat Mapping            • Highlights depositional              areas               – Cladophora Graveyard      ...
AcknowledgementsUWM-Bootsma Lab    National Park ServiceHarvey Bootsma     Brenda Moraska LafrancoisBen Turschak       Ali...
Growth           Deposition                  Decay                Re-suspension                   Depositiongrowing condit...
BODM                  Distribution of anoxic areas                                                                        ...
animated version                                                                                  low                     ...
Great Lakes Restoration at National Parks-Tyner, 2012
Great Lakes Restoration at National Parks-Tyner, 2012
Great Lakes Restoration at National Parks-Tyner, 2012
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Great Lakes Restoration at National Parks-Tyner, 2012

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Unbeknownst to some, our Great Lakes national parks play a significant role in the effort to restore the great waters they represent. Each panelist will highlight a GLRI-supported project at a different park: restoring historic wetlands at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, researching changes in nearshore ecosystem dynamics at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, and planning for wetland and stream improvements at Cuyahoga Valley National Park. Discussion will explore how national parks can best contribute to Great Lakes restoration – given their abilities to serve as “living laboratories” and to directly engage the public (i.e., park visitors) through education and volunteerism, and will facilitate a debate on “research vs. on-the-ground restoration” in the context of GLRI funding allocations.

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  • LMI changing with introduction of invasive speceisnturient depositionStudying botulism issue is one mechanism to see how invasives are changing food web structure, on-ground impacts of invasives
  • Notice 2007 and 2010 peaks, low water level and warm temperaturesLed season die-off events: storms, Fall peak
  • Where would c. bot grow
  • Hypothesis 1a: Toxin produced in sediment after sloughed Cladophora settles.Hypothesis 3. Toxin is transported during resuspension events.
  • Hypothesis 1e: Toxin produced in Cladophora-mussel bed under certain conditions.
  • Great Lakes Restoration at National Parks-Tyner, 2012

    1. 1. Lake Michigan’s Changing Nearshore: Understanding Type E Avian Botulism Outbreaks at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore Emily Tyner1,2, Brenda Moraska Lafrancois1, Harvey Bootsma2, Chris Otto2 1. UWM-School of Freshwater Sciences 2. National Park Service-Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
    2. 2. Photos: A.Van Zoeren
    3. 3. GLRI Project #91Predict and prevent avian botulism outbreaks • Beach monitoring for avian mortality • Investigate toxin pathways • Confirm links between botulism outbreaks and environmental conditions • Targeted benthic habitat mapping
    4. 4. Beach Monitoring 3 study sites monitored every 7-10 days , June-November Door County NWHC & Wisconsin DNR (2010), AMBLE Volunteers (2011) Eastern Upper Peninsula Common Coast biologist w/ support from Seney NWR Sleeping Bear Dunes NL Volunteers & park staff Photo credit: Sharon CobbJenny Chipault, USGS-NWHC (2012)
    5. 5. Bird Mortality Monitoring
    6. 6. Potential Pathways Sediment SedimentD. Blehert, USGS (2008)
    7. 7. Where are some likely micro-habitats for C. botulinum? Clostridium cells and spores (<1 µm size) At the base of mussel aggregates Sediments below where At the base of any of these pseudofeces mussel/Cladophora materials and organic aggregates substrates collect Under mats of sloughed CladophoraSheridan Haack, USGS Michigan Water Science Center, 2012 Cladophora with marl deposits
    8. 8. Botulism outbreaks and environmental conditions1. Water temperature + hydrodynamics 2. Mussel, round goby, invertebrate counts
    9. 9. 3. Transport of Cladophora, sediment, invertebrates
    10. 10. 4. Dissolved oxygen conditions
    11. 11. 4. Dissolved oxygen conditions
    12. 12. Benthic Habitat Mapping • Highlights depositional areas – Cladophora Graveyard – Sleeping Bear Point • Anoxic Cladophora mats documented in these areas Sleeping Bear Point, 65 ft, Oct 2011
    13. 13. AcknowledgementsUWM-Bootsma Lab National Park ServiceHarvey Bootsma Brenda Moraska LafrancoisBen Turschak Alicia HighamErin Wilcox Dan RayLisa DeGuire Chirs Otto Sue Jennings Emily Kobernik Emma Kelly Chris Johnson Dave Schroeder
    14. 14. Growth Deposition Decay Re-suspension Depositiongrowing conditions storms, seiche, upwelling, turnover currents currents, temp bathymetry disturbance (D.O.) Cladophora grows Cladophora Cladophora sloughs and decays Nearshore settles and/or offshore Sediment, toxin toxin Sediment, Sediment, food webs C. botulinum, intoxicated invertebrates C. botulinum, C. botulinum, invertebrates, invertebrates invertebrates particles toxin Birds Fish seasonal migration; feeding habitsUWM, NPS, GLSC
    15. 15. BODM Distribution of anoxic areas BGM Air temperature Wind Sloughed Cladophora C. botulinum distribution distribution TPM Water temperature Current Cladophora settling Toxin distribution (velocity, direction) CGM CDM Nutrients Cladophora sloughing Carcass distribution (P, N, O2) Light Hydrodynamic model Cladophora growth Bathymetry Cladophora maps (Depth, lake level) ??? Loons Dreissenid nutrient inputs Fish PathogensLisa Fogarty and Riley
    16. 16. animated version low lake levels Dreissena Point Sources Burial, (now) (historically)temp unburial Cladophora light storms, epiphyte deposits substrate nutrients currents burden [ON SHORE] high temps competition epiphytes invertebrates mussels storms, Cladophora Cladophora Cladophora seiche Biomass Peaks senesces sloughs & drifts toxin epiphytes ↑ DOM ↑ epiphytes invertebrates↑ Temps Hi Cladophora invertebrates Prod:Resp ↓ mussels deposits DO ↓ [IN LAKE] toxin epiphytes toxin invertebrates invasions mussels Burial, toxin unburial Cladophora epiphytes Fish re-growth invertebrates mussels Birds migration Jun feeding habits Jun-Jul (Sep-Oct) Jul-Dec Jul-DecNPS (Oct)

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