Assessment of Beneficial Use        Impairments for    Benthos and Plankton inWisconsin’s Lake Michigan AOCs              ...
Background• All of the AOCs along Wisconsin’s Lake  Michigan shoreline have degraded benthos and  three (not Menominee) ha...
Questions• What is the current state of benthic invertebrate  and plankton communities in Wisconsins Lake  Michigan AOCs?•...
Sampling Design• 10 Sites/3 times in 2012    – 4 Wisconsin Lake Michigan AOCs           •   Menominee River           •   ...
Area of Concern            Non-AOCUS Geological Survey          5
Sampling Scheme• Plankton    – Water Depth Profile    – 63 µm Plankton Tow• Benthos    – Hester-Dendy Sampler    – Ponar D...
Water Depth Profile Sample• Water sample (about 1 liter) from each meter  of water depth down to 5 meters• 3 times during ...
Plankton Tow Samples• Vertical tow with 63-µm plankton net• 1-5 tows to obtain total of 5 meters of depth• Identification/...
Hester Dendy Samples• 3 per sampling location (15 total)• Deployed end of April    – Retrieved June, redeployed    – Retri...
Ponar Dredge Samples• 3-5 dredges composited per sampling location  (depending on substrate) near Hester Dendys• 3 times d...
Data Analysis• Once data come back from lab (fall/winter  2012)    – Macroinvertebrate Community assemblage      analysis ...
Data Analysis• Site to site comparison    – Benthos using WI Larger River IBI    – Plankton using Shannon Diversity Index ...
Data Analysis• Overall comparison    – Multivariate analyses designed for multiple sites with      similar multiple sample...
Future Questions• Is there a significant difference in the plankton  (and benthos) communities between each AOC  and the n...
Questions?US Geological Survey     Manitowoc River   15
Contact Info• Amanda Bell    – US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI    – ahbell@usgs.gov    – 608-821-3882US Geological Sur...
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Evaluating Degraded Benthos and Plankton Communities-Bell, 2012

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Assessment tools to remove BUIs are inconsistent across the Great Lakes’ AOCs. This study assesses two BUIs, Degraded Benthos and Degraded Plankton Communities, using a design that compares AOCs to non-AOCs. Using non-AOC sites to determine if BUIs are still degraded, decisions can be made based on “control” sites.

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Evaluating Degraded Benthos and Plankton Communities-Bell, 2012

  1. 1. Assessment of Beneficial Use Impairments for Benthos and Plankton inWisconsin’s Lake Michigan AOCs Amanda Bell US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI In cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesUS Geological Survey Menomonee River 1
  2. 2. Background• All of the AOCs along Wisconsin’s Lake Michigan shoreline have degraded benthos and three (not Menominee) have degraded plankton• Consistent/comparable legacy community data for these sites doesn’t exist• Stage 2 RAPs were due and TACs needed to identify projects that would address targets• Wisconsin DNR and USGS designed a comparative study to assess plankton and benthos communities in AOCs and non-AOCSUS Geological Survey Fox River 2
  3. 3. Questions• What is the current state of benthic invertebrate and plankton communities in Wisconsins Lake Michigan AOCs?• How do the benthos and plankton communities in these AOCs differ from rivers that are not considered AOCs?• What community measures (i.e. IBI, richness, abundance, diversity) can be used as guides for determining benthos and plankton impairment in the AOCs?US Geological Survey Milwaukee Harbor 3
  4. 4. Sampling Design• 10 Sites/3 times in 2012 – 4 Wisconsin Lake Michigan AOCs • Menominee River • Fox River/Green Bay (two river sites) • Sheboygan River (Replicate) • Milwaukee Estuary (two river sites, one harbor site) – 6 Lake Michigan non-AOCs • Escanaba River • Oconto River • Anapee River (Algoma) • Kewaunee River • Manitowoc River (Replicate) • Root River (Racine)US Geological Survey Sheboygan River 4
  5. 5. Area of Concern Non-AOCUS Geological Survey 5
  6. 6. Sampling Scheme• Plankton – Water Depth Profile – 63 µm Plankton Tow• Benthos – Hester-Dendy Sampler – Ponar DredgeUS Geological Survey Oconto River 6
  7. 7. Water Depth Profile Sample• Water sample (about 1 liter) from each meter of water depth down to 5 meters• 3 times during growing season – June, July/August, September• Identification/Enumeration at WSLH (soft algae) and by Paul Garrison, WDNR (diatoms)• Chlorophyll a and Biomass analyzed at WSHLUS Geological Survey Menominee River 7
  8. 8. Plankton Tow Samples• Vertical tow with 63-µm plankton net• 1-5 tows to obtain total of 5 meters of depth• Identification/Enumeration by Paul Garrison, WDNRUS Geological Survey Milwaukee River 8
  9. 9. Hester Dendy Samples• 3 per sampling location (15 total)• Deployed end of April – Retrieved June, redeployed – Retrieved July/August, redeployed – Retrieved September• Identification/Enumeration at UW SuperiorUS Geological Survey Menominee River 9
  10. 10. Ponar Dredge Samples• 3-5 dredges composited per sampling location (depending on substrate) near Hester Dendys• 3 times during growing season – June, July/August, September• Identification/Enumeration at UW Superior• Sediment size analysis at WSLH• Volatile on Ignition analysis by USGSUS Geological Survey Kewaunee River 10
  11. 11. Data Analysis• Once data come back from lab (fall/winter 2012) – Macroinvertebrate Community assemblage analysis • IBI Scores • Determine species composition differences between sites • Multivariate statisticsUS Geological Survey Anapee River 11
  12. 12. Data Analysis• Site to site comparison – Benthos using WI Larger River IBI – Plankton using Shannon Diversity Index – For each season, if the AOC is less than 10% OR one stand deviation (of all non-AOC sites) of selected comparison sites, then the seasonal sampled will be deemed degraded. – If it is degraded two or more seasons, the benthos or plankton for the site is deemed degraded.US Geological Survey Milwaukee River 12
  13. 13. Data Analysis• Overall comparison – Multivariate analyses designed for multiple sites with similar multiple samples (seasons) • Tests if there is difference between groups (AOC vs. non- AOC sites) • Tests if there is difference between multiple groups (sites or seasons) – Determine what species/metrics differ between AOC and non-AOC – Deemed significantly different with a 90% confidence cut-off (p-value <10%)US Geological Survey Escanaba River 13
  14. 14. Future Questions• Is there a significant difference in the plankton (and benthos) communities between each AOC and the non-AOCs?• Which species, whether their present or absent, are indicative of systems that are NOT considered “degraded”?US Geological Survey Kewaunee River 14
  15. 15. Questions?US Geological Survey Manitowoc River 15
  16. 16. Contact Info• Amanda Bell – US Geological Survey, Middleton, WI – ahbell@usgs.gov – 608-821-3882US Geological Survey Root River 16

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