Substance Abuse Ppp

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  • 1. Substance/drug abuse
    a painful path … to the death
  • 2.
  • 3. Substance/drug abuse: Definitions
    Drug misuse: inappropriate use of medicines, intentionally or not, including not following right directions, lending prescribed medicine to other people, and suing old medicine for current problems.
    Substance abuse: ingestion of any substance that leads to deleterious effects, physically, psychologically or both.
  • 4. Substance abuse: Reasons
    Reasons for substance abuse:
    Low self esteem
    Peer pressure
    Adult modeling
    Mood alteration
    Boredom and curiosity
    Alienation
  • 5. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body
    Drugs: are chemicals that work in a predictable pattern, by mimicking, facilitating or antagonizing body’s normal functions.
    The effect of drugs depend on substance reaching the desired site, and on the body chemistry… other factors are:
    Route of administration
    Distribution
    Dosage
    Expectations of the user
    Frequency of use
  • 6. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: route of administration
    Drugs: orally, pills, capsules or liquids.
    Injected: intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
    Could be inhaled
  • 7. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: distribution
    Drugs are carried to the body parts through the bloodstream, some drugs could be absorbed and then excreted quickly, and some others remain a long time in the system.
  • 8. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: dosage
    Dosage: amount of the drug administered, it serves to determine the effect of the substance on the body, through a dose response relationship. The larger the amount, the greater the chance to obtain different results.
    Threshold dose: the minimum dosage required to obtain to produce a therapeutic effect.
    Effective dose: dose needed to obtain a desired effect.
    Lethal dose: amount which will produce death, LD.
  • 9. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: expectation of the user
    If the substance is expected to produce a particular effect, then the probability of that effect is greater. Even the effect could still take place under Placebo.
  • 10. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: frequency of use
    When some drugs are used frequently, larger doses are required to maintain the effect, this is tolerance.
    Whereas addiction is a term that could be used interchangeably with dependence, and some times it could mean substance abuse.
  • 11. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: alcohol
    Ethyl alcohol is the active ingredient in beer, wine, and other distilled beverages like whiskey.
    Effects of alcohol:
    Small doses: mellowing/tranquilizing effect.
    Large amounts: impair of brain activity, muscular control, coordination, memory, reaction time and judgement. Heavy intake in a short period of time could lead to coma and death.
  • 12. Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: alcohol: drinking and accidents
    Alcohol is involved in more than 50% of the all fatal traffic accidents… therefore drinking and driving should not mix at all…
    8000 teenagers are killed each year in accidents involving alcohol
  • 13.
  • 14. Substance/ drug abuse: Tobacco
    Tobacco can be sniffed, chewed placed between the gum and lips or simply smoked which is the most popular type.
    Effects of tobacco smoking:
    The primary drug in smoking is nicotine. 90% of the nicotine is inhaled while smoking. Nicotine acts as a stimulant on the heart and nervous system, causing an increased heartbeat and elevated blood pressure. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals such as Tars, they are carcinogens, and they contribute to other malignancies as well.
  • 15. Substance/ drug abuse: Tobacco, but why???
    Why do people smoke?
    Stimulation
    Relaxation
    Crutch
    Handling
    Craving
    Habit
  • 16. Substance/ drug abuse: Tobacco, second hand smoking
    Side stream smoke: is the smoke that comes from a burning cigarette.
    Second hand smoke: is exhaled from the smoker.
    such smoke has much higher concentrations in CO2, than smoking, or side stream smoking.
    Solution: the easiest one is to stop smoking.
  • 17. Substance/ drug abuse: Over The Counter drugs (OTC drugs).
    They are drugs that can be purchased without prescription, that’s why they are called so.
    Ex: aspirin, other analgesics, cold remedies, antihistamines and allergy products, vitamins, laxatives, antacids and mild sedatives.
  • 18. Substance/ drug abuse: depressants
    They drugs that slowdown, inhibit or depress the nervous system.
    Such as alcohol…
    These could be tranquilizers, sedatives and/or anesthetics
  • 19. Substance/ drug abuse: Narcotics
    They are drugs produced form opium and its derivatives… such drugs act on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. They are excellent pain killers, highly addictive… morphine, codeine and heroin come from the same source
  • 20. Substance/ drug abuse: Stimulants
    They are drugs that stimulate or speed up the nervous system, they increase also heart rate, blood pressure and amount of circulating sugar.
    Ex: caffeine in coffee, chocolate and soft drinks.
    Amphetamines
    cocaine
  • 21. Substance/ drug abuse: hallucinogens
    They are substances that occur naturally or produced synthetically, distorting, perception of reality…
  • 22. Watch out…
    Watch out…