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Substance/drug abuse: Definitions Drug misuse: inappropriate use of medicines, intentionally or not, including not following right directions, lending prescribed medicine to other people, and suing old medicine for current problems. Substance abuse: ingestion of any substance that leads to deleterious effects, physically, psychologically or both.
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body Drugs: are chemicals that work in a predictable pattern, by mimicking, facilitating or antagonizing body’s normal functions. The effect of drugs depend on substance reaching the desired site, and on the body chemistry… other factors are: Route of administration Distribution Dosage Expectations of the user Frequency of use
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: route of administration Drugs: orally, pills, capsules or liquids. Injected: intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Could be inhaled
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: distribution Drugs are carried to the body parts through the bloodstream, some drugs could be absorbed and then excreted quickly, and some others remain a long time in the system.
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: dosage Dosage: amount of the drug administered, it serves to determine the effect of the substance on the body, through a dose response relationship. The larger the amount, the greater the chance to obtain different results. Threshold dose: the minimum dosage required to obtain to produce a therapeutic effect. Effective dose: dose needed to obtain a desired effect. Lethal dose: amount which will produce death, LD.
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: expectation of the user If the substance is expected to produce a particular effect, then the probability of that effect is greater. Even the effect could still take place under Placebo.
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: frequency of use When some drugs are used frequently, larger doses are required to maintain the effect, this is tolerance. Whereas addiction is a term that could be used interchangeably with dependence, and some times it could mean substance abuse.
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: alcohol Ethyl alcohol is the active ingredient in beer, wine, and other distilled beverages like whiskey. Effects of alcohol: Small doses: mellowing/tranquilizing effect. Large amounts: impair of brain activity, muscular control, coordination, memory, reaction time and judgement. Heavy intake in a short period of time could lead to coma and death.
Substance/ drug abuse: Effects on the body: alcohol: drinking and accidents Alcohol is involved in more than 50% of the all fatal traffic accidents… therefore drinking and driving should not mix at all… 8000 teenagers are killed each year in accidents involving alcohol
Substance/ drug abuse: Tobacco Tobacco can be sniffed, chewed placed between the gum and lips or simply smoked which is the most popular type. Effects of tobacco smoking: The primary drug in smoking is nicotine. 90% of the nicotine is inhaled while smoking. Nicotine acts as a stimulant on the heart and nervous system, causing an increased heartbeat and elevated blood pressure. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals such as Tars, they are carcinogens, and they contribute to other malignancies as well.
Substance/ drug abuse: Tobacco, but why??? Why do people smoke? Stimulation Relaxation Crutch Handling Craving Habit
Substance/ drug abuse: Tobacco, second hand smoking Side stream smoke: is the smoke that comes from a burning cigarette. Second hand smoke: is exhaled from the smoker. such smoke has much higher concentrations in CO2, than smoking, or side stream smoking. Solution: the easiest one is to stop smoking.
Substance/ drug abuse: Over The Counter drugs (OTC drugs). They are drugs that can be purchased without prescription, that’s why they are called so. Ex: aspirin, other analgesics, cold remedies, antihistamines and allergy products, vitamins, laxatives, antacids and mild sedatives.
Substance/ drug abuse: depressants They drugs that slowdown, inhibit or depress the nervous system. Such as alcohol… These could be tranquilizers, sedatives and/or anesthetics
Substance/ drug abuse: Narcotics They are drugs produced form opium and its derivatives… such drugs act on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. They are excellent pain killers, highly addictive… morphine, codeine and heroin come from the same source
Substance/ drug abuse: Stimulants They are drugs that stimulate or speed up the nervous system, they increase also heart rate, blood pressure and amount of circulating sugar. Ex: caffeine in coffee, chocolate and soft drinks. Amphetamines cocaine
Substance/ drug abuse: hallucinogens They are substances that occur naturally or produced synthetically, distorting, perception of reality…