Birth control: Contraception 6 billion people on one small earth…
Contraception: definition Contraception refers specifically to mechanisms which are intended to reduce the likelihood of the fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon.
Contraception: methods Physical methods:Barrier methods: condom, female condom, diaphragmHormonal methods: pills such as progestogensIntrauterine methodsEmergency contraception:“morning after pill”Induced abortionSterilization: tubal ligation and vasectomy
Contraception: methods Behavioral methods:Fertility awareness: recording of woman’s fertility signs to determine fertile and infertile phases.Coitus interruptus: ending sexual intercourse before ejaculationAvoiding vaginal intercourse: sex without vaginal penetration, such as oral and anal sex.Abstinence: refrain from all sexual activities.Lactation: period of infertility after birth, and during lactation.
Contraception: methods Methods in development:Females: Praneem is a polyherbal vaginal tablet being studied as a spermicide, and a microbicide active against HIV.Males: As of 2007, a chemical called Adjudin is currently in Phase II human trials as a male oral contraceptive.
Contraception: misconceptions The suggestion that douching with any substance immediately following intercourse works as a contraceptive is untrue. It is a myth that a female cannot become pregnant as a result of the first time she engages in sexual intercourse. Having sex in a hot tub does not prevent pregnancy, but may contribute to vaginal infections Although some sex positions may encourage pregnancy, no sexual positions prevent pregnancy. Urinating after sex does not prevent pregnancy and is not a form of birth control, although it is often advised anyway to help prevent urinary tract infections. Toothpaste cannot be used as an effective contraceptive.
Contraception: effectiveness Effectiveness is measured by how many women become pregnant using a particular birth control method in the first year of use. Thus, if 100 women use a method that has a 12 percent first-year failure rate, then sometime during the first year of use, 12 of the women should become pregnant. For example: Condoms and cervical barriers such as the diaphragm have similar typical use first-year failure rates (14 and 20 percent, respectively), but perfect usage of the condom is more effective (three percent first-year failure vs. six percent) and condoms have the additional feature of helping to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as the HIV virus.
Contraception: Religious views Roman Catholic Church accepts only Natural Family Planning. Protestants maintain a wide range of views from allowing none to very lenient. Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect to the more relaxed Reformed sect. In Islam, contraceptives are allowed if they do not threaten health or lead to sterility, although their use is discouraged.
There is a vicious circle relating fertility to poverty???!!! Does abortion increase crime rate?!
Contraception: Societal problems Contraception is highly related to many societal problems:Environmental degradation/sustainabilityEducation, and drop out rateCrime ratesocial security and servicesChild laborIlliteracy rate …