Birth control: Contraception<br />6 billion people on one small earth…<br />
Contraception: definition<br />Contraception refers specifically to mechanisms which are intended to reduce the likelihood of the fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon.<br />
Contraception: methods<br />Physical methods:Barrier methods: condom, female condom, diaphragmHormonal methods: pills such as progestogensIntrauterine methodsEmergency contraception:“morning after pill”Induced abortionSterilization: tubal ligation and vasectomy<br />
Contraception: methods<br />Behavioral methods:Fertility awareness: recording of woman’s fertility signs to determine fertile and infertile phases.Coitus interruptus: ending sexual intercourse before ejaculationAvoiding vaginal intercourse: sex without vaginal penetration, such as oral and anal sex.Abstinence: refrain from all sexual activities.Lactation: period of infertility after birth, and during lactation.<br />
Contraception: methods<br />Methods in development:Females: Praneem is a polyherbal vaginal tablet being studied as a spermicide, and a microbicide active against HIV.Males: As of 2007, a chemical called Adjudin is currently in Phase II human trials as a male oral contraceptive.<br />
Contraception: misconceptions<br />The suggestion that douching with any substance immediately following intercourse works as a contraceptive is untrue.<br />It is a myth that a female cannot become pregnant as a result of the first time she engages in sexual intercourse.<br />Having sex in a hot tub does not prevent pregnancy, but may contribute to vaginal infections<br />Although some sex positions may encourage pregnancy, no sexual positions prevent pregnancy.<br />Urinating after sex does not prevent pregnancy and is not a form of birth control, although it is often advised anyway to help prevent urinary tract infections.<br />Toothpaste cannot be used as an effective contraceptive.<br />
Contraception: effectiveness<br />Effectiveness is measured by how many women become pregnant using a particular birth control method in the first year of use. Thus, if 100 women use a method that has a 12 percent first-year failure rate, then sometime during the first year of use, 12 of the women should become pregnant.<br />For example: Condoms and cervical barriers such as the diaphragm have similar typical use first-year failure rates (14 and 20 percent, respectively), but perfect usage of the condom is more effective (three percent first-year failure vs. six percent) and condoms have the additional feature of helping to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as the HIV virus.<br />
Contraception: Religious views<br />Roman Catholic Church accepts only Natural Family Planning.<br />Protestants maintain a wide range of views from allowing none to very lenient.<br />Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect to the more relaxed Reformed sect.<br />In Islam, contraceptives are allowed if they do not threaten health or lead to sterility, although their use is discouraged.<br />
There is a vicious circle relating fertility to poverty???!!!<br />Does abortion increase crime rate?!<br />
Contraception: Societal problems<br />Contraception is highly related to many societal problems:Environmental degradation/sustainabilityEducation, and drop out rateCrime ratesocial security and servicesChild laborIlliteracy rate …<br />
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