C:\fakepath\3 method student_fa10

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C:\fakepath\3 method student_fa10

  1. 1. Research Methods in Social Psychology I hope this works ..
  2. 2. Quiz <ul><li>1. People in a sad mood are less likely to help others than are people in a neutral mood. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quiz <ul><li>2. If 10 people are all telling you the same thing you are more likely to conform publicly to their opinion than if just 5 people are telling you the same thing. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quiz <ul><li>3. The greater the cohesiveness or solidarity of a group, the better its decisions will be. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quiz <ul><li>4. Physically attractive people are usually seen as less intelligent than physically unattractive people. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Quiz <ul><li>5. Promising and delivering rewards to people for doing an enjoyable activity should, in the long run, make them enjoy the activity even more. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is Common Sense Enough? <ul><li>“Day after day, social scientists go out into the world. Day after day, they discover that people’s behavior is pretty much what you’d expect.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cullen Murphy (editor, Atlantic Monthly ) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Why bother with “Science”? <ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“I knew it all along!” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. It’s all just common sense… <ul><li>Opposites attract </li></ul><ul><li>The pen is mightier than the sword </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t teach an old dog new tricks </li></ul><ul><li>Forewarned is forearmed </li></ul><ul><li>Absence makes the heart grow fonder </li></ul><ul><li>Birds of a feather flock together </li></ul><ul><li>Actions speak louder than words </li></ul><ul><li>You’re never too old to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Look before you leap </li></ul><ul><li>Out of sight, out of mind </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bias in Research <ul><li>As scientists, we aim to be objective seekers of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Even scientists are human. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to understand research methods to be able to evaluate research </li></ul>
  11. 11. So How do we Study Social Psychology? <ul><li>Correlational Research </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Research </li></ul>
  12. 12. Testing Theories and Hypotheses <ul><li>Theory: Color of clothing can influence aggression levels </li></ul>
  13. 13. Correlational Research <ul><li>Goal: Understand how variables are associated with one another </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: There will be a positive correlation between the number of times people wear black clothes and their aggression level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Correlational Research <ul><li>Ask participants how often they have worn black and ask how aggressive they feel </li></ul>
  15. 15. Correlational Research <ul><li>Ask participants how often they wear black and ask how kind they feel </li></ul>
  16. 16. Correlational Research <ul><li>Ask participants how often they wear black and how much they like Pina Coladas </li></ul>
  17. 17. Correlation: A Tasty Example <ul><li>Ice cream sales are positively correlated with murder rates. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Correlational Research <ul><li>IRON LAW of CORRELATION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A -> B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B -> A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C -> A and B </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Activity </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Heat </li></ul>
  21. 21. Experimental Research <ul><li>2 key features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation of independent variable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All other variables kept constant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random assignment of representative sample of participants </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Experimental Research <ul><li>Hypothesis: People wearing black will be more aggressive than people wearing white </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomly assign participants to wear Black or White Shirts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure aggression by measuring how hard they hit a punching bag </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Experimental Research <ul><li>Independent Variable: shirt condition </li></ul>
  24. 24. Experimental Research <ul><li>Random Assignment: people have equal chance of being assigned to either shirt condition </li></ul><ul><li>Heads you wear Black; Tails you wear White </li></ul>
  25. 25. Experimental Research <ul><li>Dependent Variable: how hard they hit punching bag </li></ul>
  26. 26. Experimental Research <ul><li>Example: How might we make an experiment that assesses the effect of temperature on hunger? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IV? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DV? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Operational Definitions are Important! <ul><li>Some constructs are easier to define than others </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean “to wear black clothes”? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by “aggression”? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Validity <ul><li>Construct </li></ul>Number of hits Aggression Measure of construct How much does our measure… measure our construct?
  29. 29. Validity number of hits Aggression What we are measuring Error What we aren’t measuring
  30. 30. Reliability <ul><li>Consistency in results </li></ul><ul><li>Across items </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How aggressive are you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How violent are you?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How much do you want to hurt me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Across time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer today the same as answer tomorrow? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Evaluating Research <ul><li>Validity – how close to the bullseye? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Evaluating Research <ul><li>Validity – how close to the bullseye? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Evaluating Research <ul><li>Reliability – hitting the same spot </li></ul>
  34. 34. Evaluating Research <ul><li>Reliability – hitting the same spot </li></ul>
  35. 35. Experimental Research – Interpreting Results <ul><li>Dating Study </li></ul>Smoking Hot! Average Kind Rude Date? Date? Date? Date?
  36. 36. Experimental Research – Interpreting Results Likelihood to Date (Higher Scores = Greater Likelihood) Interaction : when the effect of one IV on the DV, depends on the value (or level) of the other IV
  37. 37. Experimental Research – Interpreting Results Likelihood to Date (Higher Scores = Greater Likelihood) Main Effect : when an IV has an effect of similar magnitude and direction across levels of the other IV
  38. 38. Experimental Research – Interpreting Results Likelihood to Date (Higher Scores = Greater Likelihood)
  39. 39. Experimental Research – Interpreting Results Likelihood to Date (Higher Scores = Greater Likelihood)

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