How did the local people respond to the British Rule after World War 2? Done by: Charlotte Chua (6) Khairulhariza(20) NurHazirah(29) NurNaazilah(30) M.Shalini(32)
Condition of Singapore in1945 Lack of jobs and poverty Shortage of food, water, electricity and housing Diseases due to overcrowded living conditions, poor sanitation and lack of health services
How did the local people respond to British rule after World War 2? Organised Strikes Staged Riots Maria HertoghRiots Anti-National Service Riots Demanded Self Governance Formed Political Parties
The year of strikes Strikes occurred due to the difficult living conditions More than 300 strikes occurred in 1947 by almost 70, 000 workers Strikes were started by the communists. It got worse after the involvement of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP)
What DID the communist do? The communists stirred up people’s feeling through the trade unions They blame the British for all the Post-war troubles Encouraged people to join communist-controlled trade unions to fight for better working conditions and higher pay
Protest Against NS On 13 May 1954 500 students led a protest against National Service Government House(Istana) Riot Squad stepped in and the event turned violent. 26 people were injured, 48 students arrested(mostly chinese students The Chinese students felt that it was unfair to them, as they saw no future in the British-ruled state. They were under the influence of the Malaya Communist Party In the end National Service was introduced in 1967
The Riots In Early 1950’s(Maria Hertogh,Anti-National Service)
Maria Bertha Hertogh was born to
Parents imprisoned; Maria came under custody
of CheAminah brought her up as a muslimnamed Nadra
When her original mum wanted to claim her back,CheAminah made it a court case. The court ruled that she had to be returned to her parents.
The Riots In Early 1950’s(Maria Hertogh,Anti-National Service)
After CheAminahappealed, the court gave Nadra back To her.
Nadra underwent a marriage(only 13 then) with teacher, but dutch law did not recogniseit.
This caused an uproar in the Muslim Community as they felt that the court was prejudiced against them and thenthey started rioting.
How the British governed
The people thought Some were concerned about their livelihood while others feel that it was time for the British to leave as they had failed to protect Singapore Some also felt that since other countries had gained independence, why not Singapore?(Eg. India) So the British called for change.
Pro-British and believed in gradual self-government
1st Elections In 1948, Elections were introduced and the British allowed some Locals to be elected to the Legislative Council People who share similar ideas on a running of a country should form a political party Then this groups would promote themselves through rallies, speeches etc; Then, residents are allowed to vote and the party with the most numbers wins.
Democracy The elections did not really help British as not many people took part in it as only Singaporeans are allowed to vote. Also, only one party took part in the 1948 elections, the Singapore Progressive Party(SPP) SPP won 3 out of the 6 Seats, the other 3 were won by Independents A Mere 13 800 people voted out of a population of 940 000, this was partly because many were not eligible to vote(only those born in Singapore could vote)
Rendell Constitution In 1955 the Rendell Constitution came into effect(although proposed in 1953) It was a comission led by British Diplomat Sir George Rendel It gave the local population more power to determine the government but the colonial administration still held most of the authority over internal matters. Areas The elected Local Ministers handled: Housing, Health, Trade, Industry and Education It was an important step to full self-governance.
The Two Political Parties-Labour Front Formed in July 1954 Led by David Marshall, Lim Yew Hock and Francis Thomas Comprised of mostly low income and English-educated trade union leaders Supported immediate independence Promised to bring about more equality for Singaporeans within the civil service Called for the extention of Singaporean citizenship to China born inhabitants Promoted the introduction of multilingualism
The Two Political Parties-People’s Action Party(PAP) Established on 21 November 1954 Founded by Lee Kuan Yew, GohKengSwee, Toh Chin Chye, S Rajaratnam, K M Byrne Demanded immediate independence Felt a strong political organisation was needed to exert pressure on the British Called for all anti-colonial forces to co-operate in this struggle Aimed to win the support of the workers, trade unions and students in the Chinese Schools
1955 Elections 79 Candidates, 25 elected seats in the legislative assembly They made house to house visits to garner votes Distributed newspapers and pamphlets Organised rallies Gave Speeches to win the people’s support The Elections mainly focused on anti-colonialism Succeeded in making ordinary people believe that they could put an end to British colonial rule.
Situation of 1955 Elections The electoral fight was on . The people of Singapore were treated to a performance of the antics of political parties It was as if the party that could shout the loudest would be the most convincing.
Polling Day 160 000 People voted Results: -Labor Front -10 seats -SPP – 4 -AP – 3 -PAP – 3 -Independents - 3 -Democrats – 2 David Marshall – First Chief Minister(as his party won the most seats)
Brief history of The; Legislative council Judiciary Branch Executive council
1946-1948 The Singapore Colony Order-in-Council of 1946 to 1948, provided for a partly elected Legislative Council of 6 non-officials elected by adult British subjects. In this first Legislative Council election of 1948, only British subjects were allowed to vote. Eligible voters had to register themselves as voters
1955 The first Legislative Assembly election was a lively affair. Automatic registration expanded the number of voters and for the first time it included a large number of Chinese
1959 Singapore attained full self-government. The Legislative Assembly election was won by the People's Action Party (PAP) and PAP's party leader, Lee Kuan Yew, became the first Prime Minister
1963 Singapore was allocated 15 of 127 seats in the new federal legislature and retained her own legislative assembly and executive government. The Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore (State Constitutions) Order-in-Council was enacted to effect this change in status. On 16th September 1963, the Malaysian Proclamation announced the merger of Singapore with Malaysia
1965 The Independence Act was passed by Parliament to provide for the continuity of the existing laws and the adoption of some provisions of the Malaysian Constitution after Singapore left the Federation of Malaysia.
1984 A constitutional amendment was passed in 1984 to ensure that there will always be a minimum number of members from the opposition parties allowed the best "losers" (maximum of 6) from among the opposition candidates in a General Election (based on percentage of votes cast), to sit in Parliament as a Non-Constituency Member of Parliament.
1988 to introduce group representation constituencies (GRCs) in the General Elections. In a GRC
1990 President based on the recommendation of a Special Select Committee, NMPs serve the function of presenting independent and non-partisan views on policies
1991 The Constitution was amended to provide for a directly-elected Head of State who would be provided with veto powers to safeguard Singapore's foreign reserves, ensure the integrity of the public service and to act as a check on certain powers of the Government.
Judiciary Branch Branch of the government that interprets law determines whether acts are under the law and pronounces them