Building Material Assignment 2


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Building Material Assignment 2

  1. 1. 1 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) Assignment 2: Site research report and presentation board(50%) Lecturer: Puan Hasmanira Mokhtar NAME STUDENT ID KHOR SEEM LENG 0315208 VIVIAN TAN FUI VUN 0318270 LAU SII 0319027 CHUA JIA CHENG 0315160 MUHAMMAD HAZIQ BIN HJ ABD ZARIFUL 0314131
  2. 2. 2 Table of Content Content Pages Part 1 : Introduction 3 - 6 Part 2 : Windows 7 - 13 Walls 14 - 16 Floorings 17 - 20 Ceilings 21 - 22 Staircase 23 Part 3 : Compare and Contrast 24 - 31 References 32 - 34
  3. 3. 3 Part 1 FUNCTION OF THE BUILDING THE LIBRARY LEVEL 3 IN TAYLOR UNIVERSITY LAKESIDE CAMPUS The main function of this building ( library ) is for the students studying in this university to enjoy the facilities provided in the library by the school authorities .A library is an organized collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing .Besides borrowing and references in the library ,students also get to used the different types of facilities provide in the library .For instances ,the discussion rooms ,mini movie theater and etc. Level 3 of the library Quiet Study Area Main Collection Multimedia room Mac Lab P.O.D Computer Lab
  4. 4. 4 This diagram shows the floor plan of Level 3 in the library, which is the scope of research for our assignment in the campus. The discussion room: There are in total 4 different size of discussion room provided for students to discuss their works or assignment in between 4 to 7 person.
  5. 5. 5 Main Collection: where students get their references from books and magazine. MINI MOVIE THEATER: The movie theater made with carpet flooring and walls to reflect sounds .It was an ideal place for student to chill and watch movie without any noise interruption . COMPUTER LAB : The computer lab is cover with carpet flooring , glass doors and windows to allow natural lights pass through.
  6. 6. 6 Location of the Building The subject of research for our group assignment is the four-storey library in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus. It is located in Block C Level 2 to Level 5 of the campus. To be more specific, the area of research is Level 3 in the library. Library is a crucial part of the University’s daily academic life. It provides state-of-the-art facilities for students, creating a conducive and comfortable environment for students to do their self-study, research and also group discussions. This is the location map of Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus.
  7. 7. 7 Part 2 1. GLASS WINDOW INTRODUCTION Glass has become one of the most popular and complex building materials used today by offering virtually unlimited aesthetic options, combined with outstanding performance. However, designing with glass does require special considerations – especially during the selection and specification process. It is also the only building material that not only insulates us from temperature extremes, it can also control the passage of light and heat into and out of the building. There are 3 main areas to consider about window ad glazing:  Natural light  Solar heat gain  Thermal conductivity CHARACTERISTICS OF GLASS Thermal insulation Thermal insulating glass for windows and facades, also known as "low-E" (for low-emissivity) glass, usually forms the inner pane of an insulating glass unit (IGU). A transparent metallic coating reflects heat back into the room rather than allowing it to escape through the windows. At the same time, low-E glass
  8. 8. 8 allows solar heat to pass into a building and warm the interior (this is known as "passive solar heat gain"). Diagram 1: Solar control Solar control glass is glass designed to reduce or prevent solar heating of buildings. There are two approaches that can be used: the glass is either tinted (coloured) throughout the material (called a "body tint"), or else it has a microscopically thin and transparent coating on one side. In the body tint approach, the colour causes the glass to absorb solar energy, which is then re-radiated back out and away from the building. Coated glasses immediately reflect the heat away. These technologies reduce the solar heating that tends to take place in large buildings, and thus reduce the need for air conditioning. It is therefore an energy-saving technology. Diagram 2:
  9. 9. 9 Safety and security To improve its resistance to impact and breakage, glass can be either toughened or laminated, depending on where and how it is being used. Laminated glass can be made so strong that it is practically impossible to break, making it feasible to use glass wherever desired, even where high security requirements apply, including bullet-resistant applications. In the case of breakage, fragments adhere to the flexible "interlayer" between glass layers, reducing the chance of injuries. Fire resistance A range of fire-resistant glass types is available that offers increasing levels of protection, which is measured in defined time periods (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minutes). Fire-resistant glass must meet strict levels of integrity and insulation, or integrity only which are set down by European CE standards. Fire-resistant glass must always be specified as part of a tested and approved glazing system and installed by specialists to be sure of reaching expected fire performance, if required. Diagram 3 :
  10. 10. 10 Noise control Acoustically insulating glazing can be a major contributor to comfort levels in buildings and houses. Its benefits are greatest for people living or working near busy high streets, urban traffic, motorways or railway lines and airports. The acoustic glass in a double-glazed unit uses a special interlayer that acts as a dampening core so that sound energy is effectively blocked from passing from the outside to the inside pane of glass. Diagram 4: Decorative: interior design Glass can transform living spaces and work environments. A wide range of effects, patterns and colors allows interior designers endless possibilities in look and atmosphere. Glass can be combined with stone, wood or metal for a strong visual and tactile effect. In offices and other professional settings, glass offers a fresh, light yet serious aesthetic. Diagram 5 :
  11. 11. 11 Self-cleaning glass Self-cleaning glass has been coated with a special dual function layer that harnesses the elements to which windows and facades are exposed - namely the sun and rain - to break down and wash away dirt. This first function is photo-catalytic; in other words, it is activated by light to break down the dirt that collects on it. The second function is to spread rain water evenly over the glass. The hydrophilic self-cleaning coating prevents this beading into droplets, causing water to run across the entire surface, washing away the components that the dirt has been broken down into. Diagram 6 : TYPES OF GLASS USED IN WINDOWS There are multiple ways of treating glass to enhance its strength, energy efficiency, or appearance. Types of Glass Used in Windows Float Glass Annealed Glass Heat Strengthened Glass Fully Tempered Glass Heat Soaked Tempered Glass Laminated Glass Wire Glass
  12. 12. 12 TYPES OF WINDOW FRAMES Improving the thermal resistance of the frame can contribute to a window's overall energy efficiency. There are advantages and disadvantages to all types of frame materials, but vinyl, wood, fiberglass, and some composite frame materials provide greater thermal resistance than metal. Advantages Types of window frames Aluminium or metal frames Composite Frames Fiberglass Frames Vinyl Frames Wood Frames
  13. 13. 13 1.Transparency  It offers superior Transparency has to be balanced with its relatively low R-value (energy saving). R-value is considered as one of the most important factors. 2.Re cyclic use  Glass can be reused for the production of new, different glasses products (external recycling). 3.Insulation  Low -E improves the insulation qualities. Disadvantages  Mining of glass sand results in particulate emissions, soil erosion, and pollutant runoff.  Air pollution associated with energy consumption for mining, processing, and transporting materials.  Glass manufacturing release air pollutants that contribute to numerous environmental problems.  Manufacturing is high energy consuming due to high temperature required for processing the raw materials.  After demolition much glass is disposed of in landfill without reuse or recycle.
  14. 14. 14 Walls 1. CERAMIC Ceramic tile is used for library’s toilet walls with sealed grout. Ceramic is made up of clay and other materials such as glass, stone and cements. The manufacture of ceramic requires a very high pressure to compress the clay into different shapes such as squares, rectangles or ovals. Normally, ceramic is used for bricks, roof tiles, glazed tiles for internal wall, some sanitary appliances, floor tiles, hollow wall, sinks and others. Ceramic tile has a high degree of resistance to moisture. Ceramic tile is dense. It has a hard surface and does not absorb water well. Therefore, humidity in the toilet can be decreased. Ceramic tile also has stain resistant. The visible colors can be removed easily from the ceramic tile surface. Hot water or a fabric can be used to remove and make the surface clean. Furthermore, the ceramic tiles have chemical resistance too. The tiles resist to the chemical solutions such as acid solutions or alkali solutions. The advantages of using ceramic tile in the toilet are it is durable, stain resistant, easy to clean and environmentally friendly. Ceramic tile is not as strong as porcelain tiles because it lacks in strength. Therefore, the cost of ceramic tile is lower than porcelain tiles. Ceramic tile is suitable
  15. 15. 15 and sustainable for the toilet walls. Although the aesthetical value of ceramic tile is not high enough, it is still clean and bright. It performs well in the toilet as it has stain resistant. A white nylon scrub brush and a little soap can be used to maintain the performance of ceramic tile in the toilet. 2. CONCRETE The interior walls of the library are made up of concrete walls. Concrete is made up of water, cement, aggregates, reinforcement and chemical admixtures. Concrete has high compressive strength and low tensile strength. Concrete is suitable to use in buildings, roads, bridges, tunnels, dams, runways and sewerage systems pavements. The concrete wall has low maintenance because it is non-porous and it may not loss its main properties over time. The advantage of using concrete wall in the library is fire-resistant. Concrete wall forms a highly effective barrier to fire spread. However, concrete wall may crack sometimes. Cracking, shrinkage cracking and tension cracking may occur during setting or use. Concrete walls are suitable and sustainable for library walls due to its fire-resistant. It is safe. The aesthetic value of concrete walls can be increased by applying paint. Solvent borne paint can be used because it can provide glossy appearance. A regular dishwashing soap and a nylon bristle brush can be used to maintain the surface of concrete walls.
  16. 16. 16 3. PAINTS Water-based paints are usually used for the building. Water-based paints are easy to clean up with water. Furthermore, water-based paints can be dried quickly. It is also an elastic and flexible finish which can resist to cracking. Water-based paints also have stable color for a long period and it will not turn color into yellow. Furthermore, water-based paints also have a lower Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). It does not produce toxic fumes. Water-based paints are very easy to apply. It can be applied just like other regular paint. A roller, sprayer or brush can be used to apply the paint. Although water-based paint is easy to apply, it doesn't go onto slick surfaces easily.
  17. 17. 17 Floorings Introduction of Carpets Carpet is the flooring used in the library of the campus. Carpet is a popular feature in home decorating, and it is often incorporated into a home's interior design. There are many types of carpet and the function depends on the type of carpet selected. Uses of Carpets  Wall-to-wall and area carpet are popular to cover floors and enhance a room's decor. There are many styles and types of carpet meant for decorative and pragmatic purposes. Cut-pile carpet is a popular choice as it is very durable. Plush carpets are softer and often show footprints when someone walks across them. Berber carpet is made of looped fibers and is extremely durable and resistant to tracking. Frieze carpets are made of twisted fibers and are also extremely durable.
  18. 18. 18  Carpets meant for the outdoors are often both decorative and practical. Carpet may be used to cover a porch, walkway or the edges of a garden. This type of carpet is made of plastic derivatives and must be waterproofed for the best durability. Outdoor carpet comes in a variety of designs and is often as easy to install as gluing tiles to a concrete surface.  There are many uses for carpet scraps left over from projects. Carpet scraps may be used as cushions for your knees when gardening, or to slip under heavy furniture to protect the floor while moving it. They may be used to clean window screens and scrapers while working on a project. Pieces of carpet may be placed underneath washers and dryers to eliminate thumping noises. They are also useful to pet owners, as carpet scraps may be used to make a scratching post for a cat or a bed for a dog. Properties of Carpets  Quick and easy to be installed.  Non-slippery.  Soft to step on and has cushioning effect.  Able to absorb sound.  Have dust-trapping properties. Advantages of Carpet  Decorating element Carpet is a great decorating element. In carpeting, there is a fabulous array of colors and styles. When incorporated into a room decor, a contemporary textured carpet increases the perception of quality and value and offers a delightful contrast to smooth surface areas such as walls and furniture.
  19. 19. 19  Reduce noise levels Carpet is able to reduce noise levels by sound absorption. Library is a quiet place for people to study and the sound absorbing ability of carpet makes it suitable to be used as flooring material in the library.  Improve indoor air quality Carpet is beneficial to indoor air quality by keeping the dust content of the indoor air low. Dust settles quickly and is then securely held by the pile fibers of the carpet until it is vacuumed again.  Comfort The comfort factor is also one of the most appealing aspects of carpeting as carpet is soft to walk on. Carpeting prevents injury in the event of a fall by absorbing the shock as compared to hard flooring.  Save energy Carpet can retain the warmth by effectively insulate against cold. Carpets act as a heat barrier and thermal insulator by having low heat conduction. This property of carpet can save more energy. Disadvantages of Carpets  Health risks Accumulation of dust and dust mites in carpet flooring might cause health problems. Carpet flooring should be avoided if somebody living in the house has respiratory or allergy problems. Mold is prone to develop on the underside of the carpet leading to health risk issue.  High level of maintenance Carpets have to be constantly deep cleaned and vacuumed compared to other flooring materials. If carpets are poorly maintained, it will make your room look dirty and unsightly instead of warm and inviting. A professional carpet cleaning to completely
  20. 20. 20 remove accumulated dirt, dust, or stains on the carpet carries a heavy cost.  Sensitivity to moisture and stain Carpets can easily absorb stains and get damaged when soaked. Carpets are also prone to mildew when used in a moist environment. Aesthetical Value Carpets have various colors and styles, having flexible flooring options so that customers can choose the best matching design with their room. Darker carpets give a warmer feel while lighter-colored ones provide an airy but delightful ambience. The texture of carpets can add dimension to an otherwise bland-looking room.
  21. 21. 21 Ceiling Ceilings are the surface that covers the upper limit of an interior room, placed under the lower surface (eg. Concrete bed) of an upper floor or under roof trusses. It is mainly used for aesthetics such as to hide the structural & electrical components, ie. the air ventilations or piping, however some ceilings due to its various finishes can have different characteristics & properties, which may benefit the environment of the whole building. Different types of ceiling finishes are made to adapt to the architecture of numerous buildings/rooms. 2) SUSPENDED CEILING/DROPPED CEILING A secondary ceiling that is hung below the existing ceiling. The new ceiling is created using a metal grid suspended from hangers or wires which supports lay-in ceiling panels or tiles supported by a lightweight, metal, grid system suspended from a higher ceiling element made of wood, metal, or masonry. 2i) Application - Since dropped ceilings use tiles, the ceiling must first be marked to ensure that all areas including the ones attached to the walls are covered with the tiles. - The perimeter of the existing ceiling must then be calculated & determine the total number of tiles to be used. - Before installing the tiles, the runners (the metal supports) must be marked with chalk lines. Typically, the main runners would be installed before the cross tees - The tiles are then slid into the runners & into place 2ii) Advantages  Acoustic performance – Some ceiling tiles are specifically manufactured for soundproofing, and any suspended ceiling will
  22. 22. 22 naturally suppress some sound from the room above it keeping the rooms quieter.  No finishing works – ceilings such as drywall or coffered ceilings would need sanding & painting on the large surface. Dropped ceilings uses tiles that are already aesthetically finished.  Easy access to piping & wires – plumbing, cable and electrical wiring are tucked above the grids & when access is needed, the tiles can just be removed temporarily.  Easy maintenance – when issues arise, it can be maintained by just replacing the tile, while other ceilings may need to replace it’s sheeting, hence more sanding & painting. 2iii) Disadvantages  Reduced headroom – the tiles need to be lower than the piping & electrical wires, hence the room would feel smaller  Ages quickly – typical tiles damage easily when handled, and stains easily, but tin and vinyl do not have these characteristics. 2iv) Sustainability Different manufacturers may give different characteristics for the tiles but most have focused on sustainability & maintenance such as:  Energy efficiency, including daylight efficacy. This uses the ceiling plane to reflect daylight as well as electrical illumination.  Recyclable/reused/renewable materials  Reduced resources needed for construction of the tiles; 2v) Aesthetical value The obvious contribution a dropped ceiling can give to aesthetical value is that it hide exposed structural or mechanical components such as pipes, plumbing, ducts, conduits, cables, structural framing members, or just a bare, masonry surface. For many years, the tiles used for dropped ceiling has been white tiles, but nowadays, manufacturers create tiles to please the eyes of people, innovating to give different sizes, colors, shapes, pattern & texture.
  23. 23. 23 Staircase Staircase is a structure which connects the lower floors to the upper floors. The staircase in Taylor's Library has 68 steps and it consist of different material such as Cements, Concrete and Metals. The base of the staircase which is made of concrete the reason for using concrete is because it can withstand the load and pressure given from the top. Concrete steps are constructed in two ways. The most common method is to build a wood form in the shape of the proposed steps and to pour prepared concrete into the forms. Another popular way to install concrete stairs is to buy precast steps. Other prefabricated stairs include an entire set of steps and railings that are premade and installed on site. The finishes in Taylor's University's library are using carpet. There are various types of finishes available for example tiles, rocks, carpets, and many more. Traction is the main function of the finishes which is to reduce people for slipping. Traction can also be added by applying a rougher finish, adding a sealant with sand or clear grit embedded in it, or painting them with special paint. The handrail of the staircase is made of metals which make it look stable and hard so that it will be more sustainable. The Stair Handrail for steps is usually simple, plain yet elegant in nature. Little details may be found on it in order for it to achieve optimum functionality. Since the main functions of a stairway handrail are to promote safety and to prevent unnecessary injuries, it should be easily held, durable and stable.
  24. 24. 24 Part 3 Diagram: 1. GLASS BLOCK Glass blocks can be used in many aspects. Among its many uses include walls. Glass blocks may serve as wall partitions or as a means of enclosure of a given area or space. Using glass blocks as walls create a certain uniqueness or twist which cannot be provided by ordinary wooden or dry walls. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Visibility and Light Transmission  Glass block transmits 80 percent available light in both directions. Not capable of supporting other structures Energy Conservation  The thermal resistance (R- value) of glass blocks are double that of traditional single-glaze plate glass. Privacy  They block clear views inside and outside while allowing dim images of figures and movement through the glass. Easily installed Light  Provide insufficient light for reading or computer work.
  25. 25. 25 Versatility  it can easily be used for partitions, full walls and obscuring unwanted views. Consideration  The windows do not open and are difficult to break. Security  Glass blocks resist fire, sound and impact. Durability and Cost Effectiveness  Glass block is scratch- resistant, and works particularly well as a wall surface Electro chromic windows Electro chromic windows are part of a new generation of technologies called switchable glazing-or "smart" windows-which change the light transmittance, transparency, or shading of windows in response to an environmental signal. Diagram 8 : An electric current is run through it and this causes the color of the glass to darken, creating a barrier for privacy or temperature control.
  26. 26. 26 Figure 1: Before direct sun enters the Figure 2: After direct sun enters the windows, the electro chromic glazing the window, the electro chromic is fully bleached at their most glazing switch to their fully colored, transparent state. darkest transparent state and the fluorescent lighting dims accordingly electro chromic. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Energy efficiency Higher upfront costs  Still relatively new in market Environmental friendly Power Outage  It requires electricity for the transformation between dark and transparent Longer life span Long transition times Privacy  It offers the consumer privacy with limited effort. Higher maintenance costs Instillation more difficult SUGGESTED ALTERNATIVE In general, electro chromic window is recommended as an alternative to replace the existing material as it is an energy saving investment and a greener product to use. It costs very little to power the glass and is more convenient than typical methods to darken a room. Where the cost is initially high, it does save on energy costs. Privacy and convenience are two important benefits of switchable glass, although it is also limited by the technology itself. There may still be room for maintenance and repair. However, given its simple structure, it can last for a long time.
  27. 27. 27 2. CERAMIC Ceramic Porcelain Manufacturing Fired at higher temperatures, but lower than porcelain Fired at higher temperatures than ceramic Dense Less dense Denser Fixing Easier to work Harder to work Cost Cheaper More expensive Water absorption Higher water absorption than porcelain Lower water absorption than ceramic Alternative to replace ceramic with porcelain tiles in the toilet Porcelain tiles can be used to replace ceramic tiles in the toilet because it is denser than ceramic tiles. Besides, porcelain tiles also have lower water absorption if compare to ceramic tiles. Although porcelain tile is more expensive, it is high quality glazed. Furthermore, porcelain tiles are more attractive than ceramic tiles. 3. CONCRETE Concrete Brick Glass Compressive Strengths High compressive strengths Higher compressive strengths Low compressive strengths Safety Purpose Safer More safer Less safer Aesthetic Value Low aesthetic value High aesthetic value Higher aesthetic value Cost Cheap Expensive More expensive Rate of absorption High rate of absorption Low rate of absorption Lower rate of absorption
  28. 28. 28 Alternative to replace the concrete wall with a brick wall The brick wall is suggested to replace concrete wall because brick wall is safer. In addition, a brick wall has a higher compressive strength. Although brick wall is more expensive than concrete wall, it has a higher aesthetic value. Furthermore, a brick wall has a lower rate of absorption if compared with a concrete wall. 4. PAINTS Alternative to replace water-based paint with oil-based paint Oil-based paint can be used to replace water-based paint. It is because it has an attractive gloss. The paint is a durable finish. Oil-based paint is more expensive than water-based paint and latex paint, but it is long lasting and can use for a few years. Water-based Paint Latex Paint Oil-based Paint Characteristics -Dry quickly -Easier to clean up -Elastic, flexible finish resistant to cracking -Flexible -Not flammable -Easy to clean -Has attractive gloss -Has good “leveling” to create a smooth surface -Durable and hard finish Rate of Drying Faster than latex and oil-based paint Slower than water-based paint, but faster than oil-based paint Slower than latex and water-based paint Cost Cheaper Moderate Expensive
  29. 29. 29 5. CARPETS (A) White Porcelain Tiles Advantages Disadvantages Durable Grout lines can be hard to clean Water and stain resistant Difficult to repair Wide choice of colors, textures and shapes Fragile items that drop on the surface probably will break Body-scratches or damage less likely to show Glossy tiles can be slippery when wet (B) Wood Advantages Disadvantages Wear-resistant Vulnerable to moisture Long-lasting Softer woods may dent easily Provides a warm look Some uneven finishes are difficult to repair Can be refinished May shrink or expand, creating gaps or warping Suggested Alternative Porcelain tile flooring is recommended as an alternative to replace the existing material as it is used for decorative and also functional purposes. Porcelain tile is considerately resistant to stain, scratch and moisture. It also has a high breaking strength and easy to be cleaned and maintained. Porcelain tiles can last longer while on the other hand, enhancing the appearance of the library as well.
  30. 30. 30 6. CEILING Gypsum board Gypsum board ceiling also uses tiles, made from gypsum board, a high- quality machine made product with precision cutting. Unlike dropped ceilings though, the tiles are finished with decoration paint, however, since it uses tiles, the paint doesn’t have to replace fully like flat ceilings. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Cost-Affective for both the short run & long run Not as flexible as plaster Fire resistant Special machinery for installation Sound isolation Heavyweight Durability Versatility Vinyl Ceiling Vinyl Ceiling or PVC Ceiling is one of the most common types of ceiling today. Heavily plasticized PVC, which is the type used for ceilings in most cases, contains very few additives and additional ingredients that might make it dangerous. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Cheap to install Low aesthetical value Wide varieties Made of harmful chlorine Professional Installers are common Non-recyclable Durable & sturdy – Lasts for a long time Requires additives to acquire desired characteristics Very little maintenance
  31. 31. 31 Alternative ceiling In my opinion & thorough research, I sincerely think that Gypsum board ceiling is the type best suited to replace the dropped ceiling. It is similar to dropped ceiling; it has acoustic performance, fire-resistant, uses tiles & is durable. The only exception being that it needs sanding & painting, which may come to an advantage to someone who wants to design the ceilings with their own patterns rather than choose from a shop. Vinyl ceilings may have a lot of advantages, however some can be found in Gypsum board ceilings & the disadvantages are too many & harmful for people in the library. 7. STAIRCASE Base: 1) Timber. Look more nature and nice. it can also withstand pressure although it might not be the best load bearing material but it is good in Thermal Insulation because timber is a natural element that can release heat. The material can also be renewable. 2) Glass. By using special chemically treated, tempered and laminated glass it is possible to get the required strength to hold the weight of itself and the people walking on it. By using glass the stairs looks more high class and elegant which can increase the reputation of the best environment campus. Hander: Glass. Look more elegant and classy, it also can make the staircase a greater attraction and people can be more cautious when they can see through the glass.
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