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Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
Social exchange for knowledge exchange
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Social exchange for knowledge exchange

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Hazel Hall's paper presented at the International Conference on Managing Knowledge, University of Leicester, April 10-11 2001. A full text version is also available at …

Hazel Hall's paper presented at the International Conference on Managing Knowledge, University of Leicester, April 10-11 2001. A full text version is also available at http://drhazelhall.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/2001_hall_social_ex_for_kn_ex_leicester.pdf. The material presented here draws on early work for Hazel Hall's PhD, the full details of which are available from http://hazelhall.org/publications/phd-the-knowledge-trap-an-intranet-implementation-in-a-corporate-environment/

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  • 1. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Hazel Hall Senior Lecturer School of Computing Napier University, Edinburgh h.hall@napier.ac.uk http://www.esis.bim.napier.ac.uk/esis/about_us/hazel.htmlManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 1University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 2. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Format of the presentation • introduce topic of doctoral research • present theoretical framework for the study • provide short summary of literature reviewed to dateManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 2University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 3. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Motivating knowledge sharing: interest in the topic • widely discussed topic • important area for research • priority area for companies • more important than issues related to capture, storage or dissemination of informationManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 3University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 4. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Motivating knowledge sharing: suitability for doctoral research • respond to need to understand what motivates knowledge sharing • emphasis on groups of individuals as well as individualsManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 4University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 5. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Theoretical framework: exchange theory • from economics • studies relationships and “exchanges” • assumes rational decisions based on best value, lowest costManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 5University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 6. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Analytical concepts and assumptions of exchange theories • actors - participants • resources - “currencies” • structures - relationships • processes - interactions, opportunitiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 6University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 7. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory • actors = people (long-term relationships, known parties) • resources = what they value (not information/knowledge) • structures = dependent relationships • processes = interactions, opportunitiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 7University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 8. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange structures Productive Direct Generalised    Joint output  Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 8University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 9. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Interest in social exchange theory • Anthropology - social cohesion (generalised exchange, gift giving) • Behavioural psychology - learning • Sociology - power relationships, commitment, affective tiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 9University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 10. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory and knowledge sharing Implied - examples • relationship between job demands and innovative work behaviour • relationships between employers and employees • support of word-of-mouth information flows in marketingManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 10University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 11. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory and knowledge sharing Alluded - examples • Constant et al (1994) - “exchange and expressive theory of information sharing” • limited follow-up of Constant et al’s work • Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998) - knowledge markets, creating social capital and knowledge capitalManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 11University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 12. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory and information science Implied - examples • processes of scholarship • scholarly communication • citation analysis and trust • information sharing across networks • acknowledgements and gift givingManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 12University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 13. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange for knowledge exchange Incentives • resources: rewards for knowledge sharing where knowledge is a private good • conditions: create moral obligation, where knowledge is a public good NB majority of papers reviewed to date make no reference to social exchange theoryManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 13University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 14. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange resources for knowledge sharing: hard rewards • economic rewards, e.g. cash, bonuses • access to information and knowledge • career advancement/securityManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 14University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 15. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange resources for knowledge sharing: soft rewards • enhanced reputation • personal satisfactionManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 15University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 16. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange conditions for knowledge sharing • explicit responsibility to knowledge share • experimentation as a legitimate activity • status ignored • communities: shared identity/commitment/obligation to support social interaction • provision of information and communication technologiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 16University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 17. Social exchange for knowledge exchangeEasy to use System Hard to use& useful Rewards & useless Soft Hard ParticipantsVolunteers Conscripts Groupings Teams Individuals Ties Strong Weak Control Loose Tight Status Irrelevant Matters Influence of resources and conditions Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 17 University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 18. Social exchange for knowledge exchangeEasy to use System Hard to use& useful Rewards & useless Soft Hard ParticipantsVolunteers Conscripts Groupings Teams Individuals Ties Strong Weak Control Loose Tight Status Irrelevant Matters Reading of the literature Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 18 University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  • 19. Social exchange for knowledge exchangeEasy to use System Hard to use& useful Rewards & useless Soft Hard ParticipantsVolunteers Conscripts Groupings Teams Individuals Ties Strong Weak Control Loose Tight Status Irrelevant Matters Outcome of PhD research? Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 19 University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001

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