Social exchange for knowledge exchange

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Hazel Hall's paper presented at the International Conference on Managing Knowledge, University of Leicester, April 10-11 2001. A full text version is also available at http://drhazelhall.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/2001_hall_social_ex_for_kn_ex_leicester.pdf. The material presented here draws on early work for Hazel Hall's PhD, the full details of which are available from http://hazelhall.org/publications/phd-the-knowledge-trap-an-intranet-implementation-in-a-corporate-environment/

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Social exchange for knowledge exchange

  1. 1. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Hazel Hall Senior Lecturer School of Computing Napier University, Edinburgh h.hall@napier.ac.uk http://www.esis.bim.napier.ac.uk/esis/about_us/hazel.htmlManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 1University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  2. 2. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Format of the presentation • introduce topic of doctoral research • present theoretical framework for the study • provide short summary of literature reviewed to dateManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 2University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  3. 3. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Motivating knowledge sharing: interest in the topic • widely discussed topic • important area for research • priority area for companies • more important than issues related to capture, storage or dissemination of informationManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 3University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  4. 4. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Motivating knowledge sharing: suitability for doctoral research • respond to need to understand what motivates knowledge sharing • emphasis on groups of individuals as well as individualsManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 4University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  5. 5. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Theoretical framework: exchange theory • from economics • studies relationships and “exchanges” • assumes rational decisions based on best value, lowest costManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 5University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  6. 6. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Analytical concepts and assumptions of exchange theories • actors - participants • resources - “currencies” • structures - relationships • processes - interactions, opportunitiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 6University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  7. 7. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory • actors = people (long-term relationships, known parties) • resources = what they value (not information/knowledge) • structures = dependent relationships • processes = interactions, opportunitiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 7University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  8. 8. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange structures Productive Direct Generalised    Joint output  Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 8University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  9. 9. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Interest in social exchange theory • Anthropology - social cohesion (generalised exchange, gift giving) • Behavioural psychology - learning • Sociology - power relationships, commitment, affective tiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 9University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  10. 10. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory and knowledge sharing Implied - examples • relationship between job demands and innovative work behaviour • relationships between employers and employees • support of word-of-mouth information flows in marketingManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 10University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  11. 11. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory and knowledge sharing Alluded - examples • Constant et al (1994) - “exchange and expressive theory of information sharing” • limited follow-up of Constant et al’s work • Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998) - knowledge markets, creating social capital and knowledge capitalManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 11University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  12. 12. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange theory and information science Implied - examples • processes of scholarship • scholarly communication • citation analysis and trust • information sharing across networks • acknowledgements and gift givingManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 12University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  13. 13. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Social exchange for knowledge exchange Incentives • resources: rewards for knowledge sharing where knowledge is a private good • conditions: create moral obligation, where knowledge is a public good NB majority of papers reviewed to date make no reference to social exchange theoryManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 13University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  14. 14. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange resources for knowledge sharing: hard rewards • economic rewards, e.g. cash, bonuses • access to information and knowledge • career advancement/securityManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 14University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  15. 15. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange resources for knowledge sharing: soft rewards • enhanced reputation • personal satisfactionManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 15University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  16. 16. Social exchange for knowledge exchange Exchange conditions for knowledge sharing • explicit responsibility to knowledge share • experimentation as a legitimate activity • status ignored • communities: shared identity/commitment/obligation to support social interaction • provision of information and communication technologiesManaging Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 16University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  17. 17. Social exchange for knowledge exchangeEasy to use System Hard to use& useful Rewards & useless Soft Hard ParticipantsVolunteers Conscripts Groupings Teams Individuals Ties Strong Weak Control Loose Tight Status Irrelevant Matters Influence of resources and conditions Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 17 University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  18. 18. Social exchange for knowledge exchangeEasy to use System Hard to use& useful Rewards & useless Soft Hard ParticipantsVolunteers Conscripts Groupings Teams Individuals Ties Strong Weak Control Loose Tight Status Irrelevant Matters Reading of the literature Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 18 University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001
  19. 19. Social exchange for knowledge exchangeEasy to use System Hard to use& useful Rewards & useless Soft Hard ParticipantsVolunteers Conscripts Groupings Teams Individuals Ties Strong Weak Control Loose Tight Status Irrelevant Matters Outcome of PhD research? Managing Knowledge: Conversations and Critiques 19 University of Leicester, 10-11 April 2001

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