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Input friendly intranets            Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityHazel HallSenior Lecturer in Information ManagementSchoo...
Input friendly intranets             Hazel Hall - Napier UniversitySharing is important to efforts in Knowledge Management...
Input friendly intranets             Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityTools for information sharing•   browsers•   data wareh...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityIntranets as key platforms for information sharing•   ...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityIntranet dependencies•   An intranet is an infrastruct...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityResearch on motivating knowledge sharing and intranets...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivations to act happens when:•   it is easy to do ...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEasy to act: intranet interfaces•   HCI and systems d...
Input friendly intranets             Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical mass...
Input friendly intranets             Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical mass...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical ma...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical mas...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical mas...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivating knowledge sharing: broader issues•   Provi...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 1: environments that make knowledg...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 1: environments that make knowledg...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote  comm...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote  comm...
Input friendly intranets            Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote  communi...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote  comm...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 3: environments that promote  exper...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 3: environments that promote  exper...
Input friendly intranets            Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: rewardsKnowledge managementstrategies...
Input friendly intranets            Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: rewards                              ...
Input friendly intranets              Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “hard” rewardsEconomic incentives• ...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “soft” rewardsAccess to informatio...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “soft” rewardsCareer advancement/s...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “soft” rewardsPersonal satisfactio...
Input friendly intranets               Hazel Hall - Napier UniversitySome conclusions•   Input friendliness is not limited...
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Input friendly intranets

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Hazel Hall's presentation at Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks, Redwood House, Edinburgh, 27 October 2000. The content of this presentation was developed into a journal article accessible from http://www.knowledgeboard.com/lib/3259, and a conference paper available from http://www.slideshare.net/HazelHall/devising-intranet-incentives-rewards-and-conditions-for-knowledge-exchange. The material presented here draws on early work for Hazel Hall's PhD, the full details of which are available from http://hazelhall.org/publications/phd-the-knowledge-trap-an-intranet-implementation-in-a-corporate-environment/

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Transcript of "Input friendly intranets"

  1. 1. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityHazel HallSenior Lecturer in Information ManagementSchool of ComputingNapier Universityh.hall@napier.ac.uk Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 1 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  2. 2. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversitySharing is important to efforts in Knowledge ManagementEmployees with straightforward access to common resources• execute routine tasks quickly• aggregate information  innovation in working practices/product design/service delivery• are less vulnerable to information loss Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 2 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  3. 3. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityTools for information sharing• browsers• data warehouses• filters• intranets• process handbooks• software agents• yield management software Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 3 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  4. 4. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityIntranets as key platforms for information sharing• common resources for support of personal work, e.g. time sheets, travel bookings• integration of key business applications and tools• resources and “places”, e.g. shared databases, discussion space• sharing may extend beyond the organisation, e.g. extranet “shop window” Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 4 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  5. 5. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityIntranet dependencies• An intranet is an infrastructure.• An intranet’s business value is contingent on resources and applications made available.• Some resources and applications can be bought, e.g. conferencing software, access to commercial online services.• Unique internally produced resources must be sought from individuals and teams. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 5 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  6. 6. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityResearch on motivating knowledge sharing and intranets• priority area for knowledge research (Holsthouse, 1998)• addresses KM research questions about teams• “input friendliness” depends largely on organisational incentives• literature reviewed from domains of business studies, information systems, organisational science and sociology• (limited) case study material Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 6 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  7. 7. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivations to act happens when:• it is easy to do so• the usefulness of acting is obviousThis is not a new research finding! Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 7 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  8. 8. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEasy to act: intranet interfaces• HCI and systems design standards apply• channels for information flow important: dedicated mailboxes; speech input; requirement for all staff to become proficient in HTML• integration of tools into communities to match levels of formality to elicit high quality contributions (Brown and Duguid, 1998)• levels of “control” Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 8 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  9. 9. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical massDilemma There’s no point in submitting material to the intranet: no one uses it. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 9 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  10. 10. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical massDilemma There’s no point I don’t use the in submitting intranet. There’s material to the nothing of use to intranet: no one me there. uses it. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 10 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  11. 11. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical mass“Output” friendliness• PR efforts: promotion of services; cross linking; indexing for search services• sole platform for content and applications• realistic expectations of use, e.g. pointer systems Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 11 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  12. 12. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical massFinding of Cap Gemini and Cranfield University (1999)“The critical mass has to appear in three key areas - users (success can only come from people using the intranet), content (there has to be ever-more useful and relevant material available) and utilisation (the extent to which users are connected per day).” Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 12 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  13. 13. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityUsefulness of acting is obvious: intranet critical massFinding of Cap Gemini and Cranfield University (1999)“The critical mass has to appear in three key areas - users (success can only come from people using the intranet), content (there has to be ever-more useful and relevant material available) and utilisation (the extent to which users are connected per day)… a minimum of around 40% of potential users need to connect to the intranet for real value generation to begin.” Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 13 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  14. 14. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivating knowledge sharing: broader issues• Providing good interfaces and establishing critical mass are just two issues to consider.• Creation of other more general enabling conditions is also important. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 14 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  15. 15. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 1: environments that make knowledge sharing a key responsibility of staffKnowledge sharing is more likely to be encouraged in staff who:• know that it’s a job requirement: acquire expertise and disseminate it• know that it’s a legitimate activity Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 15 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  16. 16. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 1: environments that make knowledge sharing a key responsibility of staff• encouraged through pro-active training, project debriefings, mentoring, assisting etc.• case study examples, e.g. Citibank - not until specific responsibilities were assigned to particular individuals were contributions to the online knowledge base elicited Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 16 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  17. 17. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote communities for knowledge sharing• Cultures that place high value on personal technical expertise and knowledge creation are less likely to provide conditions conducive to knowledge sharing.• Community strength comes through strong ties and shared social capital: norms, obligations, trust and identity.• Identity derives from common purpose and aspirations to which group members are committed. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 17 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  18. 18. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote communities for knowledge sharing• carrot of continued vitality of the group• stick of obligation to the group• commitment invigorates the community Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 18 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  19. 19. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote communities for knowledge sharing trust - sharing (input) - sense of community Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 19 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  20. 20. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 2: environments that promote communities for knowledge sharingIntranet checks• degrees of input control, e.g. location and branding of input• willingness to accept/reject lurkers Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 20 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  21. 21. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 3: environments that promote experimentation for knowledge sharingImportance of experimentation in Knowledge Management activity• “distinctly new knowledge comes from experimenting” (Fahey and Prusak, 1998)• “non-experimentation”  simply reinforces, refines and sharpens what is already known• employees emboldened in environments that permit experimentation Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 21 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  22. 22. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityEnabling condition 3: environments that promote experimentation for knowledge sharingIntranet checks• status consciousness in the online environment• facilities for anonymity Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 22 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  23. 23. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: rewardsKnowledge managementstrategies need to belinked to people bybuilding reward andrecognition programmes. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 23 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  24. 24. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: rewards Develop an appropriateKnowledge management reward system andstrategies need to be incentive scheme to getlinked to people by the message across thatbuilding reward and knowledge and learningrecognition programmes. are crucial. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 24 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  25. 25. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “hard” rewardsEconomic incentives• increased pay• bonuses• stock optionsEmployees will seek ways to input, but some research shows “short-termism” in this activity. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 25 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  26. 26. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “soft” rewardsAccess to information and knowledge• receipt of valuable knowledge in return for giving it, e.g. Toyota network (Dyer and Nobeoka, 2000).• anticipated return may be far in the future e.g. news groups and mailing listsEase of intranet access is important to reap reward. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 26 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  27. 27. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “soft” rewardsCareer advancement/security/reputation• partnerships in professional consulting firms• tenure/promotion in academic institutions• future contracts for partner firmsResource ownership and protection of this needs to be made obvious across the intranet. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 27 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  28. 28. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversityMotivation to act: “soft” rewardsPersonal satisfaction through:• acts of altruistic and pro-social behaviour• seeing results of altruistic and pro-social behaviour Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 28 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
  29. 29. Input friendly intranets Hazel Hall - Napier UniversitySome conclusions• Input friendliness is not limited to “obvious” issues of interface design.• “Output” friendliness is important, especially to create critical mass.• Incentives and reward systems have their part to play, but further research is needed to assess which type of incentives are the most effective. Knowledge Management in an Age of Networks 29 Redwood House, Edinburgh - 27th October 2000
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