United Nations Peacekeeping


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United Nations Peacekeeping

  1. 1. United Nations: Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding Sam Mehr, Sam McNerney, Hayley Alderman, Shakib Hoque
  2. 2. Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding • “Certainly the idea of an international police force effective against a big disturber of the peace seems today unrealizable to the point of absurdity.” –Lester B. Pearson
  3. 3. Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding • UN has not lived up to the high expectations of its founders • Illustrated by this fact: 1948-1988 UNSC authorized 13 peacekeeping missions, while in that time an increasing number of interstate and intrastate wars took place. In 1982 alone, more than 40 intrastate conflicts were under way.
  4. 4. Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding • UN Charter did not refer to “peacekeeping,” concept developed later on – 51 founders rejected ideas that the organization could intervene in internal affairs of a country. Thus peacekeeping – which eventually meant placing military within the borders of a state for the specific purpose of blocking hostilities – could easily be regarded as a breach of national sovereignty. • “Traditional” or “first generation” – peacekeeping possible only with the consent of the hostile parties. Meant to avoid breach of national sovereignty. Can work in reverse.
  5. 5. Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding – UN did not have the resources at hand for extensive peacekeeping missions at the time charter was passed – Not till mid-1950s that the first truly international (first large scale) peacekeeping force was created • Mid to late 1940s world was governed by European empires that assumed they were entitled to play the role of a policing power within their “sphere” • As European empires and imperialism dissolved, problems and conflicts arouse that called for a new kind of policing power (greater international involvement)
  6. 6. Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding • SUEZ Canal – 1956 – General Assembly passed resolution authorizing Secretary-General to raise and deploy a UN Emergency Force (UNEF) • Purpose of 6,000 strong multinational peacekeeping forces was straightforward: to erect a physical barrier between Israel and Egypt. Worked for a decade till the Egyptian leader told UNEF to leave which was shortly followed by the six-day war between Israel and Egypt.
  7. 7. Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding • UNEF created to soothe emergency situations. Job was not to resolve the deeper sources of the conflict or enforce a permanent settlement. • Peace could only be maintained if those on either side of the conflict found it in their best interest – Significance of Suez canal: it served as a prototype of modern peacekeeping and its model was used in most Cold War-era UN peacekeeping missions
  8. 8. "Generations" of Peacekeepers • -1st (Around 1959): More focused on created physical barriers between two internationally recognized states. – Example: 1956 Suez Crisis • -2nd (Around 1989-1993) Referred to as "peacebuilding", focused more on creating political barriers between two groups through complex multidimensional peace agreements, usually after civil wars. Both states not required to be internationally recognized. – Example: Cambodia 1991-1993
  9. 9. "Generations" of Peacekeepers • -3rd : Referred to as "Peace Enforcement", focused more on civil military actions, enforcing cease-fires, and rebuilding failed states. Occurred oft between 1960's-1990's. – Example: Yugoslavia and Somalia 1990's • -4th : Rarely referred to as "peacekeeping", actions and operations delegated to other international operations such as NATO. – Example: NATO in Bosnia mid 1990's-on
  10. 10. "Generations" of Peacekeepers • The term "Generations" is misleading because many of these different styles were used simultaneously in different situations.
  11. 11. Peacekeeping Overreach • After the cold war UN Peacekeeping operation dramatically expanded. • In 1999-89, five new peacekeeping operations were added: To monitor the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, The Iran-Iraq ceasefire, the end fighting in Angola’s long lasting civil war, the resolution of Namibia’s independence struggle and the ceasefires between rival factions in Central America. • In coming years the roster kept growing: West Sahara, Cambodia, Bosnia- Herzegovina, Somalia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Haiti, and many more.
  12. 12. Peacekeeping Overreach • For all the new expansion of Peacekeeping new organization structures and additional resources were required which was summarized in the Un Secretary- General’s Agenda for Peace of January 1992. • In the same year Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) was created to ordinate the various peace operations. • There was an increase of blue helmeted soldiers- 1991 there were 15000 soldiers which grew more than 76000 in 1994. So did their peacekeeping operation by 600%. The human cost went up as well. In 1992 15 deaths in among UN Peacekeepers but in 1993 it was 252 deaths.
  13. 13. Peacekeeping Overreach • Post- Cold War activism of the UN in peacekeeping didn’t always produce desired results. They had to deal with civil war situations and effectively mandated to enforce a settlement. For Ex. EL Salvador and Mozambique where UN Peacekeepers helped provide the internal security necessary to achieve sustainable peace. And the Cambodia conflict resolved through UN Advance Mission (1991-92) which was going on for more than two decades.
  14. 14. Peacekeeping Overreach • The whole impression of UN Peacekeeping was fading away by the middle of the decade, largely due to three magnificent failures. One of them was the failed operations in Somalia (UNOSOM 1 and 2) where they weren’t able to produce a secure environment from the civil war by the rival militia groups. Other failures were in Rwanda and Bosnia. • These failures didn’t completely erase the important role that the UN Peacekeeping during Cold War and post-Cold War but the successful afterwards reduced in comparison.
  15. 15. Reassessments • Report of the Panel on United Nations Peacekeeping • Commonly referred to as the “Brahimi” Report • Lakhdar Brahimi • March 7, 2000 • Review of United Nations peace and security activities and recommending improvements. The report was published on August 17, 2000. "essential to make the United Nations truly credible as a force for peace."
  16. 16. Reassessments • UN army or standing • UN police force • Lack by Member States of commitment to make available standing peace operations personnel and resources, and particularly its inability to carry out its mission for lack of a proper global information collection, processing, and analysis capability. • The UN Security Council adopted several provisions relating to peacekeeping following the report, in 2000.
  17. 17. Reassessments • The Secretary-General Kofi Annan, at the time, highlighted five key areas in implementing the Brahimi report: 1. Enhancing rapid deployment of peacekeeping operations; 2. Strengthening the relationship with Member States and legislative bodies 3. Reforming the management culture of peacekeeping operations 4. Reforming the peacekeeping operations relationship with field missions 5. Strengthening relationships with other United Nations bodies.
  18. 18. Reassessments • The Challenge of Peacebuilding • Since the 1940’s, Peacekeeping has been high on the UN’s agenda • Limited success • Established Peacekeeping Committee in 2005 • Illustrates a commitment to peacekeeping
  19. 19. Reassessments The End