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Educational technologies into teacher training and professional development.

Educational technologies into teacher training and professional development.

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  • As I began to write this piece as to why there is an international and national imperative to include educational technologies into teacher training and professional development, I firstly wondered why Education was significant to one’s life. I then started to ponder on my schooling career, the grounding years of anyone's education. I remembered the great teachers I had throughout my education, the lessons they taught, the effective ones and the non-effective ones, the late night studying and the lifelong friendships that were made. I first want to commence my essay by pointing out why education is essential in one’s existence and thereafterI would highlight a few important topics and the reason for me writing this essay. Theseinclude Education goals for all, knowledge society agenda, pervasiveness of technology, Present future national strategic objectives and lastly highlight the broad aims of the various national and international initiatives concerning constant professional development of teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude.
  • Why is education important?
  • Why is education important?The first thing that Strikes me about education is the knowledge that is gained from it and that it’s a basic human right for all. Education makes a huge difference in one’s life and it ensures a bright, prosperous future ahead. Children that do benefit from receiving an education have secured futures; they are less likely to become victims of abuse and schooling also plays an increasingly vital role in helping children guard themselves against the diseases that can destroy poor communities. School builds confidence, cohesiveness and community.
  • Our age of rapid changeWe are living in an age of rapid change and uncertainty and the area of most hasty change is that of information and communications technologies which is also known as ICT. In order for teachers to keep pace with new methods and technologies, they need to adjust with change, have a good understanding on why these technologies would have a vast impact in the classroom and what skills they need to obtain to be efficient in an ICT based learning environment. (Wheeler, 2000).
  • What is ICT?
  • What is ICT? Information and communication technologies in education deal with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) within the educational technology. ICT in education means implementing of its equipment in teaching and learning procedures as a media. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are essential to the changes taking place all over the world. Digital media has revolutionised the Information society and advances in ICTs have dramatically changed the learning and teaching process. This has opened up fresh learning opportunities and provided admission to educational resources well beyond those traditionally available.
  • The provision of a telecommunication infrastructure available for learning and teaching is gradually increasing, and many schools are exploiting the benefits of ICTs to enhance the quality of teaching and learning.
  • Knowledge Society Agenda
  • What is a knowledge society? Knowledge society refers to a human society in which knowledge should bring justice, solidarity, democracy and peace. It canalsobereferred to a society in which knowledge couldbe a force for changing society. A society which should provideuniversal and equitableaccess to information (UNESCO).
  • Education is a key issue in the knowledge society and as educators we want to enable our students and all people to access knowledge and to have an advantage from being educated. It is our duty as educators to assist developing countries to take part in the growth of ICT in education. There are six chief areas that will aid in shaping a helpful use of ICT in education. There are: Digital Solidarity, Learners and Lifelong Learning, Decision-Making Strategies, Networking, Research and Teachers. (IFIP, 2005).
  • Digital SolidarityDigital solidarity needs to be developed by ICT and the main aim for this is that for the next 5 years every child in the world should have access to a digital information and communication infrastructure. (IFIP, 2005).
  • Learners and Lifelong LearningICT is a key device for developing lifelong learning. ICT should be used for the development of lifelong learning and it needs an integration of education into the real world. It is important for lifelong learning to be encouraged in all countries, worldwide.
  • Decision Making StrategiesBridging research, practice, experimentation, innovation with decision-making is all essential points when making decisions meet the real needs. Decision makers should read up on findings of researchers and experiences of practitioners in order to come up with good useful decisions. (IFIP, 2005).
  • NetworkingThe knowledge society is networked and there is a need to develop networks and involve all countries in them. Networks in education present many ways to access knowledge, suggest many possibilities for networking people and developing collaborative work and enhancing the “collective intelligence”. (IFIP, 2005).
  • ResearchThe development of ICT-based education and training processes is a growing reality. There is therefore a need to continue research work on the development of these technologies and their applications. (IFIP, 2005).
  • TeachersBeing a teacher in the knowledge society requires teachers to deal with new knowledge, new ways of accessing knowledge with a networked world and with new types of co-operation and collaboration; with a society in which knowledge plays a crucial role; with lifelong learning. Teachers are the key agents to the education system and it is our responsibility to assist all countries to coach and recruit teachers, and to involve all teachers in international networks. (IFIP, 2005).
  • Pervasiveness of technology
  • Pervasiveness of technologyIf you reflect about what you do every day that involves technology, the list is astonishing. Much of what we do in our everyday lives some way or the other involves technology that we do not much notice and likely do not understand. The use of technology has become so frequently used among youngsters aswell as adults for many purposes. Children may not only use technology for social networking purposes but also to access information for homework and assessments. There is a rapid development of technology around the world and there are benefits that can be brought to school education through the appropriate use of these technologies. Some of these benefits may include improved teaching and learning processes to better student outcomes, increasedstudent engagement, efficient management and monitoring within the school and socially active classrooms. (Copyright, 1995).
  • The Education international has set itself a global challenge with the prospective to change the lives of millions of children and adults around the world. that challenge is embodied in the six Education for All goals (By 2015). They are:
  • 1. Expand early childhood care and education- This includes a contribution to young children’s physical, mental, social and emotional Development, eliminate disadvantage and prepare children for formal schooling. (Education International. 2008).
  • 2. Provide free and compulsory primary education to all- This is considered to be a right to all children and should be provided. (Education International. 2008).
  • 3. Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults.(Education International. 2008).
  • 4. Increase adult literacy by 50 percent- Adult literacy, equality of accessto schools and quality education.(Education International. 2008).
  • 5. Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015- eliminate gender disparities in basic education(Education International. 2008).
  • 6. Improve the quality of education- Quality of infrastructure in schools aswell as the quality in the teaching force.(Education International. 2008).
  • Future national strategic objectives AND the National and international initiatives concerning constant professional development of teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude. (COMBINED)
  • ICT-enhanced teacher standards for Africa (ICTeTSA)The UNESCO-IICBA judge that there is a need for teacher education programs to work in the direction of high standards in terms of the pedagogical integration of ICTs for quality teaching to materialize in the 21st century. The development of the ICT-enhanced teacher standards for Africa (ICTeTSA) was thus conceptualized and initiated by UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa as one of the strategies of building the capacities for strengthening teacher development in Africa. ICTeTSA aims at providing a framework for a teacher’s career and clarifies what progression looks like. It defines the characteristics of teachers at each career stage. Specifically it provides ICT-enhanced standards for the emerging stage, applying stage, infusing stage, and transforming stage. The standards refer to a teacher’s competences stated in terms of his/her professional knowledge, skills and attitudes. ICTeTSA also provides clarity of the expectations at each career stage. (UNESCO-IICBA, 2012).
  • ICTeTSA is planned around six interrelated broad standards of teachers, namely:1.) Engage in Instructional Design Processes, 2.) Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning, Innovation and Creativity, 3.) Create and Manage Effective Learning Environments, 4.) Engage in Assessment and Communication of Student Learning, 5.) Engage in Professional Development and Model Ethical Responsibilities, 6.) Understand Subject Matter for Use in Teaching. (UNESCO-IICBA, 2012).
  • DFID’s (Department for international development) Education Strategy 2010–2015
  • The DFID focus on a clear and uncomplicated vision which is Quality basic Education for all and remaining committed to the education Millennium Development Goals and to the broader Education for EFA goals. To deliver this vision, they state their main focus on three considered priorities: Access to a basic education cycle of primary and lower secondary, particularly in fragile and conflict affected states; Quality of teaching and learning, particularly in basic literacy and numeracy; Skills to link young people to opportunities and jobs, and to promote growth. (DFID, 2010).
  • To support improved access to good quality basic education for all children DFID will: Allocate most of their bilateral education aid to basic education Focus on the 72 million primary aged children out of school, including expanding investments in fragile and conflict affected states They will have education programmes, support the expansion of basic education to lower secondary at affordable costs, including through innovative partnerships with non-state providersLastly they will also have education programmes, support supply and demand side strategies. These will include helping to construct 15,000 classrooms a year, increasing access to water and sanitation in schools and removing primary school fees. (DFID, 2010).
  • Department of basic education – Strategic plan 2011-2014The Government has decided on 12 outcomes to focus on from the period of 2011 to 2014. The main outcome for their strategic plan is outcome one which is improved quality of basic education. To support the achievement of these goals, five interventions have been stated namely:
  • Teacher development – Training of teachers and principalsLearner support materials – Providing every learner with textbooks for every subjectAnnual National Assessments – Annual Assessments in literacy and numeracyDistrict Development – promote quality of teaching and learningAccelerated Schools Infrastructure Delivery Initiative (ASIDI) – provide quality education with quality infrastructure
  • The Department of Education has undertaken ICT as one of the initiatives to implement on the White Paper on e-Education. Information and communications technology is essential to the carrying out of e-education and offers better opportunities to access learning, rectify inequalities and develop better quality of teaching and learning. ICT also enables teachers to give learners extraordinary opportunities for them to develop and take part in lifelong learning. ICT has brought new possibilities into the education factor, but at the same time it has placed more demands on the skills and knowledge of teachers. (Dept. Of Education, 2007)
  • Teachers need to develop skills to enhance the educational experiences of learners in the classroom while implementing the National Curriculum Statement. Teachers are central to the implementation of the NCS. The challenge for teacher development in ICT is to provide teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding to successfully integrate ICT into everyday educational practices in a meaningful way. The White Paper on e-Education views ICT development as a process that takes teachers and learners through learning about ICT, learning with ICT and learning through the use of ICT. Teachers are central to the implementation of the NCS. The challenge for teacher development In ICT is to provide teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding to successfully integrate ICT into everyday educational practices in a meaningful way. The White Paper on e-Education views ICT development as a process that takes teachers and Learners through learning about ICT, learning with ICT and learning through the use of ICT.(Dept. Of Education, 2007)
  • BibliographyCornu, B. Being a teacher in the knowledge society. France IFIP.The Stellenbosch Declaration.2005. ICT in Education: Make it work. South Africa. Education international. 2008. Education for all by 2015.  Wheeler, S. 2000. The role of the teacher in the use of ICT.[Online] Available url:file:///F:/New%20folder/ICT%20in%20Education%20%20%20United%20Nations%20Educational,%20Scientific%20and%20Cultural%20Organization.htm Pearson. 1995. The Pervasiveness of technology. [Online] Available url:file:///F:/Chapter%201%C2%A0%C2%A0The%20Pervasiveness%20of%20Technology.htm UNESCO-IICBA (2012). ICT-enhanced Teacher Standards for Africa. Ethopia. UNESCO – IICBA Department for international development. (2010). Learning for all. United Kingdom.  RSA, Department of education. 2007.Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ICT. Dept. Of Education. Department of basic education. 2011. Strategic Plan 2011-2014. South Africa.    


  • 1. Schoolbuildsconfidence, cohesivenessandcommunity.Schooling helpschildren be awareand guardthemselvesagainst harmfuldiseasesEducationensures abright andprosperousfuture aheadIt is thebasicHumanRight For allEducatedchildren areless likely tobecomevictims ofabuse
  • 2.  Needs to beDeveloped by ICT’s The main aim forthis is that for thenext 5 years everychild in the worldshould have accessto a digitalinformation andcommunicationinfrastructure.
  • 3.  ICT – Key device forlifelong learning Should beencouragedworldwide Needs anintegration ofEducation into thereal world
  • 4.  Bridgingresearch, practice,experimentation, innovation withdecision-making Read up onfindings ofresearches Experiences ofpractitioners
  • 5.  Knowledge society isnetworked Need to develop networksand involve all countries Networks in educationpresent many ways toaccessknowledge, suggest manypossibilities for networkingpeople and developingcollaborative work andenhancing the “collectiveintelligence”.
  • 6.  ICT basededucation andtraining is agrowing reality Research mustcontinue on thedevelopment ofthese technologiesand theirapplications
  • 7.  Teachers in theknowledge societyneed to deal with newknowledge New ways ofaccessing knowledge Co-operational andcollaboration Teachers must beinvolved ininternational networks
  • 8. Computers.Laptops, Ipads,TabletsSmartphonesEmailsSocialNetworking sitesIpods, Mp3PlayersInternet access
  • 9. There are 6“EducationFor All” Goalsthat are set tobe achievedby 2015
  • 10.  Physical, mental,social andemotionaldevelopment ofthe child Prepare childrenfor formalschooling
  • 11.  A right to allchildren Compulsoryprovision ofprimaryeducation to allchildren
  • 12.  Adultliteracy, equalityof access toschools andqualityeducation.
  • 13. Eliminategenderdisparities inbasiceducation
  • 14. Quality ofinfrastructurein schoolsQuality ofteachingforce
  • 15. FUTURE NATIONALSTRATEGICOBJECTIVES ANDThe Nationalandinternationalinitiativesconcerningconstantprofessionaldevelopmentof teacherswith regard to
  • 16. 1.) Engage inInstructional DesignProcesses2.) Facilitate andInspire StudentLearning, Innovationand Creativity4.) Engage inAssessment andCommunication ofStudent Learning3.)Create andManage EffectiveLearning Environments5.) Engage in ProfessionalDevelopment and ModelEthical Responsibilities6.) Understand SubjectMatter for Use in Teaching.
  • 17.  The DFID focus on a clear vision -Qualitybasic Education for all and remainingcommitted to the education MillenniumDevelopment Goals and to the broaderEducation for EFA goals. To deliver this vision, 3 main priorities:Skills to link youngpeople toopportunities andjobs, and to promotegrowth.Quality of teachingandlearning, particularlyin basic literacy andnumeracyAccess to a basiceducation cycle ofprimary and lowersecondary, particularly in fragile andconflict affectedstates
  • 18.  To support improved access to goodquality basic education for all childrenDFID will:Allocate bilateraleducation aid tobasic educationSupportsupplies, constructclassrooms, accessto water andsanitation, removingprimary school feesEducationprograms, expansion of basiceducation and ataffordable ratesFocus on kids thatare not in primaryschool andprovideeducation forthem
  • 19. TeacherdevelopmentDistrictDevelopmentAnnual National AssessmentsAcceleratedSchoolsInfrastructureDeliveryInitiative(ASIDI)Learner supportmaterials
  • 20.  The Department of Education hasundertaken ICT as one of the initiatives toimplement on the White Paper on e-Education. ICT’S offer better opportunities to accesslearning, rectify inequalities and developbetter quality of teaching and learning ICT enables teachers to give learnersopportunities for them to develop and inlifelong learning. ICT has put demand in skills andknowledge of teachers
  • 21.  Teachers need to develop skills to enhancelearning. Teachers are central to the implementationof the NCS Provide teachers with the necessaryknowledge, skills and understanding tosuccessfully integrate ICT into everydayeducational practices The White Paper on e-Education views ICTdevelopment as a process that takesteachers and Learners through learningabout ICT, learning with ICT and learningthrough the use of ICT.
  • 22.  Cornu, B. Being a teacher in the knowledge society. France IFIP.The Stellenbosch Declaration.2005. ICT in Education: Make itwork. South Africa. Education international. 2008. Education for all by 2015. Wheeler, S. 2000. The role of the teacher in the use of ICT. [Online] Available url: file:///F:/New%20folder/ICT%20in%20Education%20%20%20United%20Nations%20Educational,%20Scientific%20and%20Cultural%20Organization.htm Pearson. 1995. The Pervasiveness of technology. [Online] Available url: file:///F:/Chapter%201%C2%A0%C2%A0The%20Pervasiveness%20of%20Technology.htm UNESCO-IICBA (2012). ICT-enhanced Teacher Standards for Africa.Ethiopia. UNESCO – IICBA Department for international development. (2010). Learning for all.United Kingdom. RSA, Department of education. 2007. Guidelines for Teacher Trainingand Professional Development in ICT. Dept. Of Education. Department of basic education. 2011. Strategic Plan 2011-2014. SouthAfrica.