abundant opportunities for interaction with peers and the teacher - discussion and collaboration as children work, play, and explore.
In explaining topics to peers, children’s own understanding is expanded. new occurrences and forms of collaboration including helping or instructingdiscussing and building upon one another’s ideas.
Computer software has been found to serve as a ‘catalyst’ between children who do not share a common language for social interactions, language development, and learning. In a study where children spoke many different languages, the children collaborated in a supportive way as they solved problems at the computer. A multi-year study with preschool age special needs children found from interviews, observational data, and scores on a developmental measure that all the children made significant gains in social-emotional development associated with their work with computers. The special needs children went from making an average gain of less than half a month per month in social-emotional development when they began the computer-based program, to making an average rate of progress of almost two months per month while participating in the program (Hutinger, Johanson, & Rippey, 2000).
The development and display of positive feelings when young children use technology is well documented.
(considering and appropriately reacting to)
(such as happiness, excitement, empathy, sadness, fear, anger, and frustration)
(for example, “I have felt sad too. When my friend moved away, I was sad.”).
Technology for Social Emotional Development NHSA 2012
Using Technology to Support Young Children’s Social-Emotional Development Presentation Handout: http://www.hatchearlychildhood.com/Layout- Images/documents/NHSA-TechforSocEmotDev_2012_Hatch-handout.pdfNHSA Conference April 2012Lilla Dale McManis, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright 2012
OVERVIEW• Research history of technology supporting social-emotional development• Amenable skills• Characteristics of good technology design• Best practices for using technology• Knowing we’re on the right path*Disclaimer: Photos do not imply endorsement .
RESEARCH HISTORY• Computer center in early childhood classrooms does not disrupt ongoing play.• Rather has been found to facilitate: – extensive positive social interaction – new friendships – cooperation – peer teaching – helping behaviors – praise & encouragement of peers
Cooperation & Collaboration• With computers, preschoolers: – ask other children to join in – seek help from one other – look for approval and acknowledgement from teacher• Cooperative play at computer equal to amount in block center.• Computers add a new participation dimension: – children offer assistance to one another – cooperate to solve problems and complete tasks
Language & Cognitive• Language and cognitive skills improvement regularly seen when children use technology.• Demonstrate increasing levels of spoken communication and cooperation w/ IWBs.• Computer activity has been found to be more effective in stimulating vocalization in preschoolers than many toys.
Diverse Learners• Participation in computer activities supports social interaction between: – preschoolers who are English Language Learners and their English-speaking peers – Preschoolers with disabilities and their normally- developing peers
Positive Feelings• Children exhibit positive emotions and develop positive attitudes toward learning with computers.• Demonstrate greater positive affect and interest when they use the computer together.• Often show a preference for working with a peer rather than independently.
Driving Theory• Bronfenbrenner—Ecological Systems Theory: Children develop within a system of relationships affected by multiple levels of their environment.• Bandura—Social Learning Theory: Learning takes place in a social context through observation, imitation, and modeling.• Erikson—Psychosocial Theory : Everyone potentially affects everyone elses experiences throughout the different stages of personality development.
Driving Theory• Piaget—Cognitive Developmental Theory: Children actively construct knowledge, much through interactions with peers during sociodramatic play.• Vygotsky—Sociocultural Theory: Modeling and language play pivotal roles in children’s learning, much through sociodramatic play with peers and guided interactions with adults.
Social RelationshipsProvide activities where:• Learning takes place within a group setting• Designed to be completed as a group• Presents opportunities and situations in which children practice thinking about the viewpoints of their peers
Cooperation & CollaborationBe aware of designing and providing activities for:• Taking turns• Respecting others’ space• Being friendly, polite, respectful• Sharing• Cooperating• Compromising• Responding to suggestions and actions of others positively• Expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas through appropriate language and gestures
Self-AwarenessThink about creating activities that support:• Identifying emotions in themselves and others• Understanding and matching of emotions with a wide variety of situations
Self-Control & Self-RegulationProvide self-control activities to teach and support:• choosing appropriate over inappropriate actions – following rules and directions – learning to delay gratificationSelf-regulation activities with the focus of:• learning to recognize the role of strategic actions – planning – participating – monitoring – evaluating
Positive Approaches to Learning• Curiosity, initiative, flexible thinking, and persistence are some of the most critical skills for school and life success.• They are also some of the most ‘under-taught’.• Technology is an effective and engaging way to support these skills with children.
InitiativePromote by creating a trusting environment for:• providing opportunities to take control of situations• making choices• trying many solutions especially those involving cooperation and collaborationSituations presented to children should:• allow them to explore multiple roles• let them know they too are competent in solving problems and having responsibilities….as the adults they see do
CuriosityBuild on children’s natural curiosity by:• Letting them be enthusiastic• Asking them guided questions• Providing vehicles/activities so that they can learn why and how and what happens if…
Flexible ThinkingGuide them in applying flexible thinking by:• Teaching brainstorming• Coming up with different answers• Testing them out with the children and talking about which approaches worked for solving a problem and why some did and some not
Attention ControlProvide activities that teach children aboutcontrolling their attention by:•focusing on and attending to relevant and important stimuli and information•including switching attention when a difference in stimuli or response is presented
PersistenceWeave in strategies to promote/affirmpersistence by:•highlighting importance and good feelings that come from sticking with and finishing a task•giving children ways to know about their progress
Self-EfficacyWhen all these come together children aresupported in understanding and expressing thebelief that they are capable of attaining goalsbased on developing an accurate opinion oftheir own abilities and limitations….
GOOD DESIGN• Types of technology• Content• Child-friendliness• Interactivity
Content• Aligned with standards• Scaffolded, correct teaching paths• Relevant• Interesting• Deep
Child-Friendliness• Successful, independent use with guidance• Simple, clear choices• Awareness of reading and language limitations• Not overly stimulating• Supported instruction/use• Constructive feedback• Free from bias
Interactivity• Enough activities with variety• Responsive to child’s actions• Activities match with attention span• Appropriate & balanced use of rewards
BEST PRACTICES: EXAMPLES• Sharing self-portraits created using simple drawing software to depict and discuss how they are feeling• Using Skype to connect with others to build relationships and self-understanding• Playing educational games on a multi-touch table that involves working together to complete a task• Collaborating on creating a story ebook for the class library and to share at home
Identifying EmotionsHelping children learn about emotions…• Identifying emotions can be a challenging skill – building the needed vocabulary for accurately describing – then thinking about which emotion they are feeling• May be difficult as children may feel always expected to be ‘happy’ when reporting to adults how they feel.
The Activities• To teach children about emotions you can use the internet to find materials such as charts…
The ActivitiesChildren sharing drawings they’ve made usingsimple computer software programs• During Circle Time ask the children to think about how they are feeling.• Let them translate their current emotional state onto the computer by drawing a self-portrait that reflects the way they feel.
The Sharing• Invite children to share ideas & experiences related to emotions.• Answer questions and clarify the vocabulary surrounding emotions.• Near day’s end of the day ask if how they are feeling has changed, how, and why they think this happened.• Let the children open up their earlier self-portrait on the computer and allow them to make changes to reflect how they feel now.
Self-AcceptanceHelping a child with self-acceptance….• Brianna* was four years old. She was bi-racial witha Caucasian mother and an African American father.•All the other children in the class were Hispanic orCaucasian so she felt like she stood out due to thecolor of her skin. She sometimes tried to wash thecolor off her skin.•We had been trying to think of ways Brianna couldbe around other children who were AfricanAmerican in order to decrease her isolation.*not child’s real name Example provided by Nora Thompson
Developing a Plan• We wanted to videoconference with another preschool in a large city where most of the children were African American.• I spoke to the Director about their ability to videoconference and she said they had used Skype before.• We talked and agreed that this might be a good beginning.• We began videoconferencing between the two classes twice a week…
The Activities• We started by sending each other pictures of our two schools by email– mine in a farmhouse in the country and theirs in a city apartment building.• We collected questions for each other to answer; met online with the children and answered these questions; continuing to meet twice a week online.• A small group of children from each school travelled to the other school.• We reviewed differences between our schools in photos of each center.• We also made a podcast of our community meeting together and a video of outdoor play.
The Outcome• Brianna’s perception of herself as “different” changed and she stopped trying to wash off her skin color..Graciously provided by Nora Thompson, M.A.Early Childhood Special Education TeacherIngham Intermediate School DistrictHarley Franks Early Childhood CenterLansing, MI 48910
Cooperation & CollaborationUsing technology has been found to be one ofthe best ways to support cooperation andcollaboration among young children…• Children like working with peers on computersbecause it is playing together and fun.• These situations also thoughprovide opportunities forchildren to face and solveconflicts among themselves.
Multi-Touch Tables• Multi-touch tables are a new technology that allow several children to work and play together.• Unlike other kinds of touch technology, many children can touch the surface at the same time.
The Activities• Have children in groups of 4 play together on the multi-touch table at center time.• As with any center, introduce the activities showing the children what they need to do.• Stay present to support using the technology.• Facilitate the group interaction and discussion around cooperation, collaborating, and learning.
Ice Cream & FishingThe children:• Place their pictures in their airplane• Vote for the place they want to go• Play a game working together to complete a task• They will complete a pattern on an ice cream cone in one game; and find fish in the second
The Outcomes• Curiosity• Self-recognition• Initiative• Teamwork• Encouraging peers• Language and concepts• Attention• Persistence• Sense of accomplishment
CollaborationClass eBook project….• Any topic or subject of interest to the children• Allows going from simple to more elaborate as children develop skills in telling stories• Supports language/literacy as well• Able to be shared with family/at homeCan be simply illustrated and read, to using apps orwebsites with features like sounds, animatedillustrations, and interactive options…http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/ebooks/background.html
Steps1. Pre-writing: brainstorming/discussing idea;deciding on group theme/topic2. Drafting/Posting Writing/Illustrating: roughdrafts, revising, editing. To begin perhaps eachchild has own individual but later can assigndifferent parts of the process3. Final Draft: children complete &decide what they want to have goin the eBook.Play Wishful Thinking ppt.
Sharing• On in-house computers (desk/laptops, IWBs, tablets)• On the web (secure place)• On thumb drives/DVDs to send homeChildren can also go backto the same eBook (ordigital story) over time toadd/elaborate….
Capturing the ProcessEssential in the social-emotional domain b/c:• Fluid• Dynamic• Formative• More susceptible to inconsistency in skill achievement
MONITORING IMPROVEMENT As in other areas of development, progress monitoring for informing instruction is essential for young children to be able to attain and maintain skills within the social- emotional domain.Date Takes turns & shares Uses appropriate Stays with the Follows teacher words & gestures group activity directions
RECAPThink about:• Technology you have to use• Goals & outcomes for the children• Ways you will integrate use of technology• How you will use best teaching practices• Monitoring children’s progress Don’t forget to ask for support!
NAEYC /Rogers Center Technology Position Statement Guiding PrincipleEffective uses of technology and media are:• active• hands-on• engaging• empowering• give the child control• provide adaptive scaffolds to ease task accomplishment• one of many options to support children’s learning
Where we will bePlease turn in yourWe’d like tostay in next….. Conferencetouch….. Connections Card!• National Head Start Association Conference April 18 in Nashville – Using Technology to Support Social-Emotional Development in Young Children• McCormick Center for Early Childhood Leadership Connections Conference May 10-12 in Chicago – Evaluating Educational Technology in Early Childhood• International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Conference June 25 in San Diego – School Readiness: Outcomes and Approaches