Ability to develop and keep relationships that are of high quality and satisfying to all members of the relationship; as well as being able to avoid negative treatment or victimization. Key characteristics that influence the level of children’s social competence are their social skills and awareness. The need for children to become socially competent in early childhood is critical.Research shows that children must achieve basic social competence by around age 6 to avoid a high chance of negative outcomes in adulthood (Ladd, 2000).
Young children who behave unsociably do not participate as often in classroom activities and are less accepted by peers and teachers.In preschool these children are provided less instruction and positive feedback from their teachers, they do not like school as much, they learn less, and they come to school less often. Academic performance in first grade, over and above cognitive skills and family backgrounds, is predicted by young children’s competence in the emotional, social, and behavioral realms (such as higher levels of self-control and lower levels of acting out) (Ravner & Knitzer, 2002).
Regular opportunities to develop, strengthen, and maintain social competence skills for young children related to long term outcomes -social, emotional, academic, and cognitive in nature (Boyd et al., 2005). In the context of peer interactions, young children assume different roles, learn to take another person's perspective, and develop an understanding of the social rules and conventions.
Many kindergarten teachers report that half or more of their students have a number of problems transitioning to school that are related to a basic lack of social and emotional competencies (Rimm-Kaufman, Pianta, & Cox, 2000). These include not being able to follow directions (46% of K teachers report this as a problem), work independently (34%) or in a group (30%), nor communicate well with peers and teachers (20%). Yet again, these challenges for educators begin earlier. Preschool teachers are faced with a considerable number of young children (between 16 and 32 percent) who exhibit emotional and behavioral problems that compromise early school success (Peth-Pierce, 2000; Ravner & Knitzer, 2002). It appears that one result is simply that a child is no longer welcome in the classroom. In a study of nearly 4,000 randomly selected state-funded prekindergarten classes, 10% of teachers reported at least one expulsion during the past 12 months. A rate of almost 7 expulsions per 1,000 preschoolers was reported; which is three times greater than the national rate of expulsion for K-12 (Gilliam, 2008). This indicates clearly that teachers and providers are likely to find that while some children are doing very well, other children are struggling with a range of emotional and behavioral difficulties that make attending preschool very challenging for both themselves and their teachers (Boyd, Barnett, Bodrova, et al., 2005).
abundant opportunities for interaction with peers and the teacher - discussion and collaboration as children work, play, and explore.
In explaining topics to peers, children’s own understanding is expanded. new occurrences and forms of collaboration including helping or instructingdiscussing and building upon one another’s ideas.
Bronfenbrenner—Ecological Systems Theory: Children develop within a system of relationships affected by multiple levels of their environment.Bandura—Social Learning Theory: Learning takes place in a social context through observation, imitation, and modeling.Erikson—Psychosocial Theory : Everyone potentially affects everyone else's experiences throughout the different stages of personality development.
Piaget—Cognitive Developmental Theory: Children actively construct knowledge, much through interactions with peers during sociodramatic play.Vygotsky—Sociocultural Theory: Modeling and language play pivotal roles in children’s learning, much through sociodramatic play with peers and guided interactions with adults.
Children were given a brief introduction to the system (defined as the table and the content/games). Explaining they would be playing games with their friends and working together on the computer table,How to log in (moving their pictures into a designated spot-an airplane; children log in to be connected with the progress monitoring component of the system),how to use their finger to move/slide objects around on the surface,to listen and watch the tutorial (each game has a visual and verbal set of directions for children so that they see and hear how to play that game).
Cooperative occurrences are those that indicate a child is playing alongside others (as opposed to working on or toward a common goal) in the shared space by being respectful of other’s space and materials, following the rules, taking turns, being friendly and polite, showing personal enthusiasm/accomplishment but not in judgmental relationship to others. Collaborative occurrences can have all of the same elements of cooperative but are seen when a child is working with another or others toward a common goal (as opposed to working more individually or alongside). Competitive occurrences are those that are opposite of cooperative and collaborative and indicate a child is dominating the space and materials by blocking, pushing, reaching into another’s space when the other does not wish them to; verbally admonishing or complaining of unfairness, and highlighting their accomplishments in relation to the lack of or lessening of those of peers.
NAEYC AC 2012: Cooperative and Collaborative Preschoolers Learning with Multi-Touch Tables
Cooperation and Collaboration Among Preschoolers Using an Interactive Multi-Touch TableNAEYC Annual Conference Atlanta, GA : November 2012Lilla Dale McManis, PhD Susan B. Gunnewig, MEd Copyright 2012. All rights reserved.
Outline• Social development in preschoolers• Impact on school success• Teachers need support• Technology can promote social development• Multi-touch technology environment• Study results and discussion• Q&A
Social Development in PreschoolersSocial Competence- an overall descriptor of a childssocial effectiveness• Relationships – Develop and keep – High quality & satisfying to all/both• Social skills and awareness influence• Critical these develop in early childhood(Ladd, 2000)
Unsociability’s Impact on Schooling• Participate less often in classroom activities• Less positive feedback• Less accepted by peers and teachers• Don’t like school• Attend less = Learn Less(Ravner & Knitzer, 2002)
Getting Socially Competent• Regular opportunities for social competence skills related to long term outcomes• In peer interactions – assume different roles – learn to take another persons perspective – develop understanding of social rules and conventions (Boyd et al., 2005)
Parten’s Stages of Play Adapted from Child Development Guide.com
Teachers Need Support• Many K teachers report large numbers of children have problems transitioning to school due to lack of SED competencies• One result is child no longer welcome in the classroom• Teachers need guidance and support in increasing positive social skills and behaviors while reducing behaviors that keep children from blossoming(Rimm-Kaufman, Pianta, & Cox, 2000; Peth-Pierce, 2000; Gilliam, 2008;Boyd, Barnett, Bodrova, et al., 2005; Ravner & Knitzer, 2002)
Activities for Social RelationshipsProvide activities where:• Learning takes place within a group setting• Designed to be completed as a group• Opportunities and situations are presented in which children practice thinking about the viewpoints of their peers
Capturing the ProcessEssential in the social-emotional domain b/c:• Fluid• Dynamic• Formative• More susceptible to inconsistency in skill achievement
Cooperation & CollaborationBe aware of designing and providing activities for:• Taking turns• Respecting others’ space• Being friendly, polite, respectful• Sharing• Cooperating• Compromising• Responding to suggestions and actions of others positively• Expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas through appropriate language and gestures
NAEYC /Rogers Center Technology Position Statement Guiding PrincipleEffective uses of technology and media are:• active• hands-on• engaging• empowering• give the child control• provide adaptive scaffolds to ease task accomplishment• one of many options to support children’s learning
Technology Can Support SED• Computer center in early childhood classrooms does not disrupt ongoing play…• Rather has been found to facilitate: – extensive positive social interaction – new friendships – cooperation – peer teaching – helping behaviors – praise & encouragement of peers(McCarrick & Xiaoming, 2007; Clements & Sarama, 2003; Heft & Swaminathan, 2002)
Cooperation & Collaboration• With computers, preschoolers: – ask other children to join in – seek help from one other – look for approval and acknowledgement from teacher• Cooperative play at computer equal to amount in block center• Computers add a new participation dimension: – children offer assistance to one another – cooperate to solve problems and complete tasks
Language & Cognitive• Language and cognitive skills improvement regularly seen when children use technology• Demonstrate increasing levels of spoken communication and cooperation w/ IWBs• Computer activity more effective in stimulating vocalization in preschoolers than many toys
Good Design• Child development theory• Content• Child-friendliness• Interactivity(McManis & Gunnewig, 2012; McManis & Parks, 2011)
Driving Theories• Bronfenbrenner—Ecological Systems Theory: relationships at multiple environmental levels• Bandura—Social Learning Theory: observation, imitation, and modeling• Erikson—Psychosocial Theory: stages of personality development
Driving Theories• Piaget—Cognitive Developmental Theory: construct knowledge, interactions with peers during play• Vygotsky—Sociocultural Theory: Modeling and language, play with peers and guided interactions with adults
Content• Aligned with standards• Scaffolded, correct teaching paths• Relevant• Interesting• Deep
Child-Friendliness• Successful, independent use with guidance• Simple, clear choices• Awareness of reading and language limitations• Not overly stimulating• Supported instruction/use• Constructive feedback• Free from bias
Interactivity• Enough activities with variety• Responsive to child’s actions• Activities match with attention span• Appropriate & balanced use of rewards
Cooperation & CollaborationUsing technology has been found to be one of thebest ways to support cooperation and collaborationamong young children…• Children like working with peers on computers• See it as playing together and fun• Opportunities for children to face and solve conflicts among themselves
Multi-Touch Tables• Multi-touch tables are a new technology that allow several children to work and play together• Unlike other kinds of touch technology, many children can touch the surface at the same time• These features make them ideal for the early childhood environment
Multi-touch Table Research• Research in its infancy• Especially true for formal studies on collaborative capabilities in learning environments• Potential to positively impact learning outcomes(Higgins, et al., 2011)
Elementary Age Children• More talk about task w/ multi-touch compared to single-touch where more turn-taking talk (Harris, Rick, Bonnett, et al. 2009)• Tablet compared to paper showed faster mutual understanding and more elaboration and negotiation conversation (Higgins, Mercier, Burd, & Joyce- Gibbons, 2011)• Multi-touch tables for storytelling found children inspired by stories and process ideas of peers (Helmes et al., 2009; Russell 2010)
Some Studies Find Competition Increases• Marshall et al., 2009 found evidence of children (7-8 year old males) being somewhat more likely to show overt bodily control behaviors when on an interactive table surface than paper• Higgins et al.’s lit review (2011) notes this is the case in some instances as well and may be related to not enough “assets” – Icons – Too many children at a time
Preschool Age Children• Studies with preschool children virtually non-existent• One study found, w/ children 2½ -5 (Mansor, De Angeli & Bruijn, 2008)• Mainly about usability-researchers noted main issue children having difficulty capturing and moving objects• Major constraint use of a style of table• Children had to stand on a mat with feet in a specific position for touches to register - could not move off that small mat• Opportunity for much cooperation and collaboration therefore very limited
Current Study• To determine whether small groups of preschoolers could and would exhibit – cooperation and collaboration – when using an all-in-one multi-touch table – allowing free movement – with interactive games – designed specifically to elicit these behaviors
Background for Current Study• Collaboration higher order skill builds on cooperation• Not seen nor expected to be at the same level as cooperation for preschoolers• However, appropriate and important for children to have opportunities to learn and practice both• Additionally, because usability of multi-touch tables not well understood with this age group, data collected
Multi-Touch Table: WePlaySmart• A multi-touch table with pre-loaded interactive child- directed games designed to elicit and teach social- emotional skills• Up to four children can play at a time• Table can process over 100 touches simultaneously
Focus• Full set of games is extensive (several hundred)• Four areas are represented: social competence, behavioral, emotional, executive function• Six game types: Uncover, Sort, Find, Turns, and Connect, and Vote• Current study to better understand social competence – Cooperation – Collaboration
Sample• Study took place in the children’s child care center• Children who had parental permission eligible to participate• 10 games• 8 children – 5 Boys, 3 Girls – 3 African American, 5 Caucasian• Average age 4.6 years – Range 4.0-5.2 years
Procedures• Introduction to the system• Playing games and working together• Log in• Moving objects• Tutorial• Teacher facilitator• Videotaped children at play
Definitions…• Cooperative occurrences indicate child is playing alongside others, as opposed to working for a common goal• Collaborative occurrences can have same elements of cooperative but child is working with another or others toward a common goal, as opposed to working more individually or alongside• Competitive occurrences are those opposite of cooperative and collaborative and indicate child is dominating the space and/or highlighting their accomplishments in relation to peers
Coding Categories• VCoop=verbal cooperative: I found one; I know what to do• VColl=verbal collaborative: We found one; We have to do it like this• VComp=verbal competitive: I found that one and that and that; You’re doing it all wrong- do it this way• BCoop=body cooperative: Moving objects that are close by their space or if reaching into another’s doing so without asserting strongly; jumping up and down when an object they moved snaps in• BColl=body collaborative: Moving an object closer to a peer so they can reach; giving a high five after the whole activity has finished• BComp=body competitive: Reaching in -pushing Go button for another child; folding arms together -pouting
Usability• All children understood basic nature touchscreen• Evidenced by using fingers to move objects and touching ‘hot-spots’• Variability in initial success at capturing an object sufficiently – slightly steeper learning curve for younger children – Improvement for all seen within just a few attempts• All children could reach the majority of the objects – Younger and/or shorter children could not reach as far and needed to move around the table
Conclusions• Children excited at their first interaction- jumping, clapping, saying “Wow!”• High level of cooperation, moderate level of collaboration, some competition• Tolerant of each other reaching around and across the table: – overlapping arms – coming very close to ‘personal space’ – moving toward the same object but physically following an implicit ‘first there it’s yours’ rule
Discussion• Majority of play cooperative in line with Parten’s Stages of Play• Collaborative play, which is advanced, is present represents good support system promoting these behaviors• Competition present but not excessively – New/highly valued – Individual differences• Teacher’s role important, especially at beginning
Integration and Progress Monitoring• Represents all 4 areas of SED• Uses audio clips• Teachers listen and rate as often as they like• Snapshot 3 x year• Multiple report levels• Beyond the Table
Connections!• www.hatchearlychildhood/blog and Expert Webinars• email@example.com• LinkedIn: Lilla Dale McManis, Hatch Early Childhood, Early Childhood Technology Network• Twitter: LillaDaleMcManis@DrLDMcManis & HatchEarlyLearning@hatchearlychild #ecetechchat Weds. nights 9 EST,• Facebook & YouTube HatchEarlyChildhood• Join us for a Meet & Greet w/ Dr. Sue Bredekamp today 12:30-1:00 @ Hatch Internet Lounge• Stop by the Poster Session if you are interested in learning about our efficacy study on math & literacy w/computer-assisted instruction