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05 divisi-magnoliophyta-01

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  • 1. MAGNOLIOPHYTA(ANGIOSPERMAE)
  • 2. Terdiri atas 2 Kelas : Magnoliopsida (Dycotiledoneae) Liliopsida (Monocotyledoneae) MONOCOTS DICOTS Embryo with single cotyledon Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with single furrow or Pollen with three furrows or pore pores Flower parts in multiples of Flower parts in multiples of three four or five Major leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vacular bundles Stem vascular bundles in a scattered ring Roots are adventitious Roots develop from radicle Secondary growth often y g Secondary growth absent present
  • 3. Now lets have a test!Is the Day Flower (Commelina communis)shown a monocot or a dicot?
  • 4. This is sort of tricky, but nature is full of tricky blossoms.The leaves appear to have parallel veins, so theres a vote for "monocot."However, this flower seems to have only two petals, and that doesnt fit either monocot ordicot.If you could examine the stamens youd see that there are three with anthers and threethat are "sterile," or without anthers, so theres another vote for "monocot."Well, fact is, it is a monocot.The main proof is that actually there is a third petal, a much reduced, translucent one atthe flowers bottom, so there are also three petals. Therefore: Monocot.
  • 5. The two large blue petal limbs and their clawsattaching them to the floral axis are visible; thesmaller lower white petal is mostly obscured; thethree yellow staminodes with central maroon spotsare above, the central fertile stamen with maroonconnective is below them, and the two brown lateralfertile stamens and the curving style between themare lowest; notice the contrasting veins on the spathesurrounding the flowertwo relatively large blue petals and one very reducedwhite petal. 3 steril stamenspathe,spathe, a modified leaf.The 2 upper petals are blue to indigo in colour while colour,the much smaller lower petal is white.There are three anticous (i.e. on the lower part of theflower) fertile stamens, and three posticous (i.e. on stamens,the upper part of the flower) infertile stamens termedstaminodes.staminodes. The fertile stamens are dimorphic: the dimorphic:lateral pair have maroon to indigo anthers thatmeasure about 2 mm (0.8 in) long and are elliptic witha sagittate (i.e. arrowhead-shaped) base. Their arrowhead-filaments are about 10–12 mm (0.39–0.47 in) long. 10– (0.39–The central fertile stamen has a yellow, elliptic anther yellow 3 fertil stamen :with a maroon connective and a hastate (i.e. dimorfikspearhead-spearhead-shaped, but with lobes at right angles)base. The anther measures about 2.5 mm (0.1 in)long while its filament is about 5–6 mm (0.2–0.24 in) 5– (0.2–long.[4]long.long [4] The three staminodes are all alike with 1 pistil i tilyellow, cruciform (i.e. cross-shaped) antherodes that cross-are about 2 mm (0.08 in) long on filaments about3 mm (0.12 in) long.[3][4] Sometimes the antherodes long.[3][4]will have a central maroon spot.[3] Each antherode spot.[3]has two abortive lateral pollen sacks The ovary is sacks.ellipsoid, about 2 mm (0.08 in) long and has a stylethat is about 1.3 cm (0.51 in) long
  • 6. Kelas MK l Magnoliopsida memiliki 6 anak kelas : li id iliki k k l1.Magnoliidae1 M liid2.Hamamelidae2 Hamamelidae3.Caryophyllidae y p y4.Dilleniidae5.Rosidae6.Asteridae
  • 7. KELAS MAGNOLIOPSIDA Terdiri atas 6 anak kelas 6 5 4 2 3 1Dugaan hubungan evolusi anak-anak kelas Magnoliopsida
  • 8. Anak kelas Magnoliidae 1. Bangsa MAGNOLIALES (10 suku) g ( ) Pilihan suku didasarkan atas besarnya jumlah jenis, kepentingan ekonominya dan adanya sifat-sifat yang istimewa Suku MAGNOLIACEAE Pohon, perdu Daun tunggal, tersebar ada stipula Perbungaan : umumnya tunggal Bunga : Bisex jarang unisex aktinomorf Perigonium 6 – 18 dalam spiral atau 18, lingkaran Stamen ~, pistilum ~, tersusun spiral pada kepanjangan dasar bunga (torus). Magnolia Ovarium superus, satu ruang/karpel grandiflora
  • 9. Buah : folikulus (bumbung), baka (buni), samara kadang agregat berupa kerucut mengkayuKepentingan ekonomi suku ini : beberapa jenisnya merupakan p g p j y p1. tanaman hias dengan bunga yang harum2. ada yang merupakan penghasil kayu
  • 10. Manglieta figo – cempaka ambon M. glauca – manglit, kayuTalaumaT l m candolii – cempaka gondok d lii mp k d k
  • 11. Michelia champaca – cempaka kuningKulit kayu : tonikum, penurun demam, M. alba – cempaka putih, kantilpengharum,pengharum anti kanker Daun, Daun bunga : penurun demam demam,Daun, akar : peluruh cacing, urus-urus aromatikum, astringen, antiBunga : kosmetik kanker.Kandungan kimia : minyak atsiri atsiri, Kandungan kimia sama dengan g galkaloid, fenol, asam benzoat M. champaca
  • 12. Suku ANNONACEAE (Kenanga-kenangaan)Pohon, perdu, lianaDaun tunggal, tersebar, tanpastipulaBunga : tunggal/infloresens simosa Bisex j Bi jarang unisex aktinimorf i kti i f Periantium 3 + 3 + 3, (3 lingkaran @ 3) Satu atau 2 lingkaran l S t t li k luar sepaloid Stamen ~, pistilum bbrp - ~, Ovarium superusBuah : baka (Annona – agregat)Pohon buah, tanaman hias,penghasil kayu
  • 13. Contoh-contoh Cananga odorata (kenanga)The flower is greenish yellow (rarely pink), curly like a starfish and yields a highly pink) starfish,fragrant essential oil.The main aromatic component of ylang-ylang is methyl anthranilate The essential oil ofylang-ylang is used in aromatherapy. It is believed to relieve high blood pressure,normalize sebum secretion f skin problems, and is considered to be an aphrodisiac l for k l d d d h d
  • 14. Annona muricata (sirsak)• Daun : emetikum D tik• Daun & bunga : meredakan kejang• Daun muda : jerawat• Buah masak : sariawan penghalus kulit sariawan, • processed into ice creams, and drinks, but fiber-free varieties are often eaten raw• Biji/buah muda : astringen• Kandungan kimia : protein, kalsium, fosfor, vitamin A & C.
  • 15. Custard AppleAnnona reticulata (buah nona anon) nona, A. squamosa (sarikaya) Sugar-Almost exclusively eaten fresh Custard apples apple fruithave an advantage over other Annonas in thatthey tend to ripen slightly later in the year than Daun : scabies bisul scabies,their relatives, so during certain times of theyear, only custard apples are available Buah & biji muda : anti helmintik, insektisida, diare, disentri,Daun : bisul eksim bisul, astringenKulit kayu : diare, disentri, cacing Akar : pencaharBiji : diare, disentri Kandungan Kimia : resin, asamKandungan kimia : tannin alkaloid amino,anonain ,
  • 16. Stelechocarpus burahol (burahol) :Very rare and endangered tree from Southeast Asia. Fruit is borneon the lower trunk and is said to have a spicy, mango-like flavor.Ancient Indonesians believed that eating the fruit would cause bodysecretions nafas, keringat, urine to take on a perfume scent.
  • 17. Suku MYRISTICACEAE (Pala-palaan) (Pala- Pohon, jarang perdu, aromatis, Mengandung myristicin (komponen y fenolik yang psikotrofik) Unisex Daun tunggal, tersebar tanpa gg , p stipula Bunga : rasemus/cymosa ♀,♂. Periantium sepaloid, Unisex, Bunga ♂ : stamen 2 - ~. monadelfus Bunga ♀ : carpel 1, stigma sesil, ovul 1 Buah b i B h : buni, memecah h Biji berarilus, endosperm berminyak
  • 18. Horsfieldia glabra pengusir nyamuk obat bisul glabra, nyamuk, Myristica fatua (pala laki- laki), kayu b h b l ki) k bahan bangunan, kulit kayu aprodisiak Native to the Moluccas islands. Smaller than nutmeg, slands. and not as fragrant, the brazilian or false nutmeg is sometimes used much like its well k ll known cousin. iMyristica fragrans nutmegThe dried nuts are arils are used asspices. There are a variety ofmedicinal uses.
  • 19. 2. Bangsa LAURALES Suku LAURACEAE (Medang-medangan) Pohon perdu (kecuali Cassytha Pohon, Cassytha, herba), aromatis (minyak, kayu) Daun tunggal, tersebar tanpa p stipula (C i l Cassytha : tereduksi) h d k i) Bunga : Perbungaan panikula, rasemus, P b p ik l m spika, umbela Ada hypanthium (floral tube formed by the fusion of the y basal portions of sepals, petals and stamens and from which rest of floral parts emanate) * (aktinomorf), bisex (kadang Cinnamomum burmanni (kayu manis), unisex), perigonium sepaloid minyak atsiri dari kulit kayu, untuk dalam 2 O (3 + 3) ramuan makanan dan jamu
  • 20. Stamen 4 O, 3 O melekat pada tabung kaliks, 1 O dalam staminodia (sterile stamen does not p ( produce pollen, variable p in structures, petallike), antera membuka dengan klep (2 – 4) Ovarium superus, 1 karpel, 1 ruang, 1 ovul Buah : baka/drupa Biji tanpa endosperm Terdiri T di i > 30 marga, 2000 – 2500 j ijenis, tropis/subtropics kebanyakan di Asia TenggaraContoh-Contoh-contoh :C. culilawan (lawang) Barks has a ( g) mucilaginous, aromatic taste, and a mixed odor of cinnamon, sassafras, and cloves.Eusideroxylon zwageri (kayu besi)Actinodaphne spp.Beilschmeidia spp.Cryptocarya spp.CPhoebe spp. Cinnamomum cassia (‘chinese cinnamon)
  • 21. C. Zeylanicum flowerThis cinnamon is used the same as the commercial C. zeylanicumspice, having the smell and nearly the same flavor. It is anattractive shrubby 35 tree with shiny ovate leaves. Aside fromits use as a spice this specie is also known for various medicinaluses derived from its bark.
  • 22. Litsea cubeba (lemo, May Chang) :Litsea cubeba oil obtained from the smallpepper shaped fruits which resemble peppers.TheTh scent of May Chang has been compared to t f M Ch h b dtlemongrass and lemon verbena.Having Therapeutic properties properties,Integumentary system, Respiratory system,Circulatory system, Nervous systemhttp://www.cherylsherbs.com/Essential_oil_http://www cherylsherbs com/Essential oilprofile_litsea_cubeba.htm
  • 23. Persea americana (alpokat)Unripe avocados are said to be toxic.Two resins derived from the skin of the fruit are toxicDopamine has been found in the leaves.Consists of many varieties, not all varieties are equally toxic.Craigmill et al. at Davis, California, have confirmed deleterious effects on lactating goats whichwere allowed to graze on leaves of Anaheim avocado an hour each day for 2 days. Milk was curdled ll land not milkable, the animals ground their teeth, necks were swollen and they coughed,Avocado seed extracts injected into guinea pigs have caused only a few days of hyperexcitability andanorexia. At Davis, mice given 10 to 14 g of half-and-half normal ration and either fresh or dried f h lf d h lf l d h f h d davocado seed died in 2 or 3 days, though one mouse given 4 times the dose of the others survived for2 weeks.The seed and the roots contain an antibiotic which prevents bacterial spoilage of food. It is h d d h b h h b l l f f dthe subject of two United States patents.The bark contains 3.5% of an essential oil which has an anise odor and is made up largely of methylchavicol with a little anethole.
  • 24. Cinnamomum camphora (kamper) p ( p ) native to China and Japan where it has been commercially used for its timber and essential oils for hundreds of years Camphor tree leaves are distinctively fragrant when crushed and ripe berries that are consumed by some bird species. y pCamphor in large doses is toxic to humans.It stimulates the central nervous system and may affect respiration or cause convulsions.In Chinese medicine, camphor is forbidden for pregnant women and those with a deficiency of vitalenergy or yin.Camphor does not have serious predators or diseases outside its native range. Seedlings and rootsprouts are abundant near mature trees, but individual trees pop up far from seed sources.The Plant Conservation Alliance lists this species as an Alien Invader and it is listed as a CategoryI invasive exotic species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, which means that it is known tobe "invading and disrupting native plant communities in Florida."Become weed in USA, Australia
  • 25. Eusideroxylon zwageri (kayu besi)
  • 26. Cassytha Cassytha (called love-vine in the Bahamas) bears an uncannyresemblance to dodder (the genus Cuscuta) but is not related to it at all!Cassytha i in LC th is i Lauraceae, the same family as S th f il Sassafras, avocado, and f d dcinnamon whereas dodder is in Convolvulaceae and is related to morning-glory vines. If one looks closely at the flowers, love-vine is quite clearly amember of Lauraceae Lauraceae.
  • 27. Ipomoea purpurea morning gloryCuscuta is commonly used in long term tonic programs. It is a gentle tonicfor the Kidney Yin and Yang, and also helps nourish Chi. It helps the Kidneyto consolidate the Chi. It is widely used to improve vision, nourish thesperm and marrow, strengthen bones and sinews and to strengthen sexual d t th b d i d t t th lfunctions. Convolvulaceae
  • 28. Suku HERNANDIACEAE (Kampis-kampisan)Hernandia peltata, ‘jack in the jackbox’Kayu bahan bangunan, minyakuntuk lampu
  • 29. Uses: is sometimes planted by seed to make a windbreak. Its hard wood is used for firewood, as building material, on canoes as parts for holding the sail, to make handles for fans, and sometimes to make the frame of a food grinder grinder. The fruit ("nut") is also occasionally used to make handicrafts. The leaves are used for medicinal baths for children and adults, and parts of the p plant are sometimes used in a preparation p p to treat headaches. Have been used as a traditional medicine for boils, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pains, anticonvulsive treatment, eye problems, and a number of otherHernandia nymphaeifolia indications that appear to include anticancer, antiviral, and antiparasite.
  • 30. 3. Bangsa PIPERALESSuku PIPERACEAE (sirih-sirihan) (sirih sirihan) Herba, perdu, pohon kecil, liana, aromatis (minyak atsiri di parenkim), alkaloid amina atau aporfin atau dari kelompok piridin Ikatan pembuluh dalam > 10 atau p tersebar, tapi ada kambium intrafasikuler Piper nigrum (lada) – piperin Daun tunggal, tersebar, urat daun pinnatus/palmatus, ada stipula i t / l t d ti l Bunga : Spika / rasemus *, * bi- atau unisexual, tanpa l periantium Stamen 1 – 10, ovarium superus, sup us 2 – 4 carpel, 1 ruang, p l u n 1 biji Buah : drupa Terdiri atas + 10 marga, 1400 – 2000 jenis, tropis
  • 31. Peperomia sandersii,tanaman hias P. pellucida (seuseureuhan), tanaman hias
  • 32. P. betle (sirih) Sakit mata Eksim bau mulut, kulit gatal, mata, Eksim, mulut gatalPiper nigrum (lada) – piperin menghilangkan jerawat; pendarahan gusi, mimisan, bronkhitis, batuk, sariawan, luka; keputihan, sakit jantung, sifilis, alergi/biduren, diare, jantung sifilis alergi/biduren diare Sakit gigi; It is often chewed in combination with the betel nut (Areca catechu), as a stimulatory. Some evidence suggests that betel leaves have immune boosting properties as well as anti-cancer properties
  • 33. P. t f t P retrofractum ( b jawa, cabe panjang) : untuk bandrek (cabe j b j ) t k b d kIn P. retrofractum (long pepper), piperine, piperlonguminine, sylvatine,guineensine, piperlongumine, filfiline sitosterolguineensine piperlongumine filfiline, sitosterol, methyl piperate and aseries of piperine-analog retrofractamides are reported. (Phytochemistry,24, 279, 1985)Buah : kejang perut, perut kembung, diare, sakit kepala, sakit gigi, batuk,demam, tekanan darah rendah.
  • 34. P. Aduncum (gedebong, kiseureuh)Provides food and cover for wildlife, can be used for revegetating disturbed areas, andcontributes to the biomass of forests (Francis, 2003).In Papua New Guinea stakes are used to create terraces for agriculture and to preventerosion (Bourke, 1997).Wood can be used for basic construction, fuel, stakes and fences.Has ornamental value and the fruit is used to season food.Essential oils from this species have antibacterial properties and may alsobe used as an insecticide and a molluscicide.Tea made from the leaves and roots is used to treat diarrhea dysentery, diarrhea, dysenteryvomiting, ulcers, and can also be used for the control of bleeding (Francis,2003).
  • 35. P. methysticum (kawa), akar mengandung narkotik metistidin
  • 36. Bangsa ILLICIALESSuku ILLICIACEAEPerdu atau pohon kecil yang aromatisTerdiri dari 1 marga dengan + 40 jenis Illicium verum (star anise)
  • 37. Bangsa RANUNCULALES (8 suku) Suku MENISPERMACEAE (Sirawan sirawanan) (Sirawan-sirawanan) Umumnya liana atau herba Biasanya mengandung Bi d sesquiterpenoid dan diterpenoid yang sangat pahit dan beracun Berberin B b i Beberapa jenis dipakai seagai bahan ramuan obatCyclaea barbata (cincau rambat) daun bahan cincau Tinospora crispa
  • 38. Arcangelisia flava (sirawan) – bayang, biji untuk obatmengandung berberin menispermin berberin,
  • 39. Bangsa PAPAVERALES (2 suku)Suku PAPAVERACEAE (Deruju–derujuan) Herba, jaran perdu dengan etah Herba jarang perdu, den an getah seperti susu atau berwarna Mengandung berbagai alkaloida Banyak jenis yang merupakan tanaman hias, Yang terpenting adalah P Y i d l h Papaver somniferum, sumber opium ( if b i (yang disadap dari buah yang belum matang) – narkotik Papaver somniferum
  • 40. Argemone mexicana (deruju) Mexican Poppy, Poppy Mexican Prickly Poppy or Cardosanto Useful Parts: Roots, leaves, seeds and yellow juice.the plant is diuretic. purgative and destroys worms.It cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers.Roots are anthelmintic Juice is used to cure ophthalmia and opacity of cornea anthelmintic. cornea.Seeds are purgative and sedative.Seeds resemble mustard seeds and in India it is used to adulterate mustardseed.seed Seed yield non edible toxic oil and causes lethal dropsy when used withmustard oil for cooking.Other uses: The plant is found suitable for the reclamation of alkaline soils soils.Dried and powdered plants are recommended as green manure as it containsufficient amount of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium

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